Dorothy Dandridge as "Mahia" in the trailer from the M-G-M thriller The Decks Ran Red (1958).
|Born||Dorothy Jean Dandridge
November 9, 1922
Cleveland, Ohio, USA
|Died||September 8, 1965
West Hollywood, California, USA
|Cause of death||Embolism or Overdose|
|Other names||Dorothy Dandridge-Nicholas
|Spouse(s)||Harold Nicholas (m. 1942–1951)
Jack Denison (m. 1959–1962)
|Children||Harolyn Suzanne Nicholas|
Dorothy Jean Dandridge (November 9, 1922 – September 8, 1965) was an American actress and singer, and was the first African-American to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress. She performed as a vocalist in venues such as the Cotton Club and the Apollo Theater.
After several minor bit parts in films, Dandridge landed her first noted film role in Tarzan's Peril (starring Lex Barker), in 1951. Dandridge won her first starring role in 1953, playing a teacher in a low-budget film with a nearly all-black cast, Bright Road, released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
In 1954, she was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress and a BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Carmen Jones, and in 1959 she was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture Musical or Comedy for Porgy and Bess. In 1999, she was the subject of the HBO biopic Introducing Dorothy Dandridge, starring Halle Berry as Dandridge. She has been recognized on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
Dorothy Dandridge was born on November 9, 1922 in Cleveland, Ohio, to Cyril Dandridge (October 25, 1895 – July 9, 1989), a cabinetmaker and minister, and to Ruby Dandridge (née Butler), an aspiring entertainer. Dandridge's parents separated shortly before her birth. Ruby Dandridge soon created an act for her two young daughters, Vivian and Dorothy, under the name of "The Wonder Children." The daughters toured the Southern United States for five years while Ruby worked and performed in Cleveland. During this time, they toured almost non-stop and rarely attended school.
At the onset of the Great Depression, work virtually dried up for the Dandridges, as it did for many of the Chitlin' circuit performers. Ruby Dandridge moved to Hollywood, California, where she found steady work on radio and film in small parts as a domestic servant. "The Wonder Children" were renamed "The Dandridge Sisters" in 1937 and booked into such venues as the Cotton Club and the Apollo Theater in Harlem, New York City.
Dandridge's first screen appearance was a bit part in an Our Gang comedy, Teacher's Beau (1935). In 1937, she appeared as one of the many singers in the Marx Brothers' feature film A Day at the Races. The following year Dandridge, her sister Vivian would make a brief appearance in Going Places. In 1940, Dandridge played a murderer in the race film Four Shall Die — her first credited film role. Though the part was a supporting role and the film was somewhat of a success, Dandridge struggled to find good film roles.
The following year, Dandridge was cast opposite John Wayne in Lady From Louisiana (1941), playing the small part of Felice. That same year she teamed with her future husband Harold Nicholas to film a brief role in Sun Valley Serenade. Dandridge, Nicholas, and Nicholas's brother Fayard Nicholas, appeared in a part described as "speciality act". In 1942, Dandridge won another supporting role as Princess Malimi in Drums of the Congo. In her next few films she would play mainly in bit parts, but she managed to get a small and yet good role in Hit Parade of 1943 (1943). In 1944, Dandridge would play two uncredited roles in Since You Went Away and Atlantic City. In the following year of 1945, she would play again a small role in the musical Pillow to Post. Two years later she appeared in a tiny role in Ebony Parade (1947). By the later months 1947, Dandridge's luck for winning small roles in films had disappeared. She would only rarely appear in nightclubs and wouldn't make any films.
In 1951, Dandridge was cast as Melmendi, Queen of the Ashuba, in her comeback film, Tarzan's Peril, starring Lex Barker as Tarzan and Virginia Huston as Jane. Dandridge's role was somewhat minor, but she would be noticed by many. One night while at a party, she was introduced to music manager Earl Mills. Mills had agreed to get Dandridge a career started as a singer, but Dandridge preferred to focus on the motion picture industry. Despite this disagreement, Dandridge signed Mills as her agent. She would next appear as Ann Carpenter in The Harlem Globetrotters (1951). In this film Dandridge really only makes a co-starring appearance, but receives second billing.
After the release of The Harlem Globetrotters, Dandridge's film career stalled again. Mills then arranged for Dandridge to make her first appearance at the Mocambo. She continued to perform in nightclubs around the country through most of 1952.
In December 1952, a Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio agent noticed Dandridge performing in the Mocambo, and cast her in her first starring role: as Jane Richards in Bright Road, co-starring Philip Hepburn and Harry Belafonte. The film tells the story of a teacher who reaches out to a troubled student during his time of need. The film contains nearly an all-black cast: a few minor white characters are seen. Bright Road became a box-office flop, but Dandridge was at the top of her game as a nightclub performer.
Bright Road was to showcase Dandridge as a serious leading actress, but the film's terrible reception didn't help matters of her being taken seriously; it hurt them more than she knew. The feature was named "the lowest box-office gross of the South". After Bright Road, Dandridge would start performing again in nightclubs; and, eventually she won a supporting role as herself in the musical-drama film Remains to Be Seen.
In 1954, Dandridge signed a three movie deal with 20th Century Fox. Soon after director and writer Otto Preminger cast Dandridge along with Harry Belafonte, Pearl Bailey, Brock Peters, Diahann Carroll, Madame Sul-Te-Wan (uncredited), Olga James, and Joe Adams, in his all-black production of Carmen Jones. However, Dandridge's singing voice was dubbed by opera singer Marilyn Horne.
Upon release in 1954, Carmen Jones grossed $60,000 during its first week and $47,000 in its second week. The film received favorable reviews, and Dandridge was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress, becoming only the third African American to receive a nomination in any Academy Award category (after Hattie McDaniel and Ethel Waters) but the first African-American to be nominated for best actress. Grace Kelly won the award for her performance in The Country Girl. At the awards ceremony, Dandridge presented the Academy Award for Film Editing to Gene Milford for On the Waterfront.
In 1955, 20th Century Fox selected Dandridge to play the supporting role of Tuptim in the film version of the Broadway hit, The King and I, starring Deborah Kerr and Yul Brynner. The character was a slave, which made Dorothy decline the offer. After some convincing from Fox chief, Darryl F. Zanuck, that the role was a good one, Dandridge agreed to take the part. Otto Preminger, however, told her the role was too small, and that she would be better off to wait for a leading role in a big-budget motion picture: Dandridge would again decline the role of Tuptim.
A few months before the offer of The King and I, Dandridge was asked to play Sandra Roberts in The Lieutenant Wore Skirts, a romantic-comedy film starring Tom Ewell and Sheree North. She turned this role down for the same reasons that she would turn down The King and I, in future months—it was too small. Had Dandridge agreed to make The Lieutenant Wore Skirts, her character would have been a parody of Marilyn Monroe's character in Fox's The Seven Year Itch (1955). Dorothy was not a fan of parodies, which was another reason she turned the part down. Not making these two films started the slow, but steady, decline of Dandridge's film career.
Hollywood Research, Inc. trial
Dandridge was one of the few Hollywood stars who testified at the 1957 criminal libel trial of Hollywood Research, Inc., the company that published all of the tabloid magazines of the era. She and actress Maureen O'Hara, the only other star who testified, were photographed shaking hands outside the downtown Los Angeles courtroom where the well-publicized trial was held. Testimony from O'Hara, as well as from a disgruntled former magazine editor, revealed that the magazines published false information provided by hotel maids, clerks and movie theater ushers who were paid for their tips. The stories with questionable veracity most often centered around alleged incidents of casual sex. When the jury and press visited Grauman's Chinese Theatre to determine whether O'Hara could have performed various sexual acts while seated in the balcony, as reported by a magazine published by Hollywood Research, Inc., it was discovered that this would have been impossible.
Dandridge's testimony further strengthened the prosecution's case. Alleged by one tabloid to have fornicated in the woods of Lake Tahoe with a white bandleader in 1950, she testified that racial segregation had confined her to her hotel during her nightclub engagement in the Nevada resort city. When she was not in the hotel lounge rehearsing or performing her singing, according to her testimony, she was required to stay inside her room where she slept alone. This proved beyond any doubt that Hollywood Research had committed libel at least once. The judge ordered Hollywood Research to stop publishing questionable stories based on tips for which they paid, and this curtailed invasiave tabloid journalism until 1971 when Generoso Pope, Jr. moved The National Enquirer, which he owned, from New York to Lantana, Florida.
By 1956, still under contract to Fox, Dandridge hadn't made any films since Carmen Jones. Fox still believed that Dandridge was a star, but just didn't know how to promote her. One of the head chiefs at Fox once said "She's a star, but we don't have any films to put her in or leading men to cast her opposite." In 1957, Dandridge's luck came back when Darryl F. Zanuck cast Dandridge as Margot, a restless young West Indian woman, in his controversial film version of Island in the Sun, co-starring James Mason, Harry Belafonte, Joan Fontaine, Joan Collins, Michael Rennie, John Justin, John Williams, and Stephen Boyd. This film was a success, which brought Dandridge back to the public eye.
Though Island in the Sun was a major success, Dandridge didn't get another film until she was cast in the low-budget foreign Italian production Tamango, which teamed her with Curd Jürgens. The film received fair reviews, but failed to succeed at the box-office. Dandridge believed that the film failed because she played a slave, a part she had vowed she'd never play. Tamango was filmed in Europe in the late months of 1957 and was legally released on January 24, 1958 in France. Tamango wouldn't be released in the United States until September 16, 1959.
In 1958, soon after the French release of Tamango, Dandridge lined up a co-starring role in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's off-beat thriller The Decks Ran Red. The film starred James Mason, Dandridge's co-star in Island in the Sun (1957). The Decks Ran Red was released with high hopes, but drew minor box-office success; today the film is considered a "cult classic" Dorothy Dandridge film.
Porgy and Bess
Determined to reinvent her career, Dorothy decided to wait on a good film role. In 1959, Columbia Pictures cast Dandridge in the lead role of Bess in Porgy and Bess; Dandridge was again nominated for an award, this time for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, for her performance in Porgy and Bess. Dandridge lost, this time to Marilyn Monroe in Some Like It Hot.
Despite positive reviews, Porgy and Bess was a box office failure. The film's characters were described by several[who?] African-Americans as "stereotypical": Bess was a drug addict, Porgy a crippled drunk, Sportin' Life another drug addict, and Crown a rapist. Many[who?] believed these characters pandered to stereotypes about African-Americans, adding to its controversy.
The actor who got the most blame for the failure of Porgy and Bess was Dandridge. Before the film, many other African-American actresses and actors looked up to Dandridge as someone who had proved that an African-American woman could achieve what a white woman or man could. But many thought Dandridge was "selling out" when she accepted the role of Bess.
A few weeks after the box-office disappointment of Porgy and Bess, Dandridge was released from her 20th Century Fox contract. Though she had been with Fox for about five-and-a-half years, she had only made two films that were released by them: Carmen Jones (1954) and Island in the Sun (1957). Her contract committed her to making three pictures, but Fox failed to find enough viable opportunities for Dandridge.
In 1959, after the disappointment of Porgy and Bess, Dandridge managed to get the lead role as a European girl with an Italian name Gianna in "Malaga" (1960 film) "Malaga", another low-budget, forgettable movie that was filmed in Europe and came and vanished quickly. Malaga proved to be Dandridge's final theatrical film. The feature was filmed in late 1959, under the original title Moment of Danger, but not legally released in U.S. theaters until 1962.
She made her last acting appearance the next year as the lead in the television movie The Murder Men. A reporter called Dorothy's performance "Her most interesting 'later' film role." The film was later shown in an episode of Cain's Hundred, entitled Blues for a Junkman; all the actors receiving "archive footage" crediting.
By the end of 1961, job offers (of any kind) had disappeared, a disappointment from which Dandrige would never recover. She returned to performing in summer stock theater and on the nightclub circuit.
Dandridge first gained fame as a solo artist from her performances in nightclubs, usually accompanied by Phil Moore on piano. As well known as she became from renditions of songs such as "Blow Out the Candle", "You Do Something To Me", and "Talk Sweet Talk To Me", she recorded very little on vinyl. Whether it was because of personal choice or lack of opportunity is unknown.
- "You Ain't Nowhere" (Columbia #28007)
- "That's Your Red Wagon" (Columbia #28006)
- "Ain't Going To Go To Study War No More" (Columbia #26938)
- "Minnie The Moocher is Dead" (Columbia #26937A)
In 1944, she recorded a duet with Louis Armstrong from the film Pillow to Post:
- "Watcha Say" (Decca L-3502)
In 1951, she recorded a single for Columbia Records:
- "Blow Out the Candle/Talk Sweet Talk To Me" (catalogue # unknown)
In 1953, she recorded a song for the film Remains to Be Seen:
- "Taking a Chance On Love" (MGM Records, catalogue # unknown)
In 1958, she recorded a full length album for Verve Records featuring Oscar Peterson with Herb Ellis, Ray Brown, and Alvin Stoller (Catalogue #314 547-514 2) that remained unreleased in the vaults until a CCD release in 1999. This CD also included four tracks from 1961 (with an unknown orchestra) that included one 45 rpm record single and another aborted single:
- "It's Easy To Remember" (21942-3)
- "What Is There To Say" (21943-6)
- "That Old Feeling" (21944-4)
- "The Touch of Your Lips" (21945-12)
- "When Your Lover Has Gone" (21946-1)
- "The Nearness Of You" (21947-7)
- "(In This World) I'm Glad There Is You" (21948-10)
- "I've Grown Accustomed To Your Face" (21949-4)
- "Body and Soul" (21950-2)
- "How Long Has This Been Going On?" (21951-6)
- "I've Got a Crush on You" (21952-3)
- "I Didn't Know What Time It Was" (21953-3)
- "Somebody" (recorded in 1961) (23459-2)
- "Stay with It" (recorded in 1961) (23460-4)
(above two tracks released on Verve Records single #Verve V 10231)
- "It's a Beautiful Evening" (recorded in 1961) (23461-5)
- "Smooth Operator" (recorded in 1961) (23462-2)
(above two tracks were aborted for release as a single and remained unreleased until the Smooth Operator CD release in 1999). These are the only known songs Dandridge recorded on vinyl. Several songs she sang were recorded on Soundies. These songs, which include her version of "Cow-Cow Boogie", are not included on this list.
Dandridge married dancer and entertainer Harold Nicholas on September 6, 1942, and gave birth to her only child, Harolyn Suzanne Nicholas, on September 2, 1943. Harolyn was born brain-damaged, and the couple divorced in October 1951.
While filming Carmen Jones (1954), the director Otto Preminger began an affair with his film's star, Dorothy, which lasted four years. During that period, Preminger advised her on career matters, including an offer made to Dandridge for the featured role of Tuptim in the 1956 film of The King and I. Preminger advised her to turn down the supporting role, as he believed it to be unworthy of her. Dandridge later regretted accepting Preminger's advice. She ended the affair with Preminger upon realization that he had no plans to leave his first wife to marry her. Their affair was depicted in the HBO Pictures biopic, Introducing Dorothy Dandridge, in which Preminger was portrayed by Austrian actor Klaus Maria Brandauer.
Dandridge married Jack Denison on June 22, 1959, although the pair divorced amid allegations of domestic violence and financial setbacks. At this time, Dandridge discovered that the people who were handling her finances had swindled her out of $150,000, and that she was $139,000 in debt for back taxes. Forced to sell her Hollywood home and to place her daughter in a state mental institution in Camarillo, California, Dandridge moved into a small apartment at 8495 Fountain Avenue in West Hollywood, California. Alone and without any acting roles or singing engagements on the horizon, Dandridge suffered a nervous breakdown. Shortly thereafter, Earl Mills started arranging her comeback. The comeback never came to fruition because she died in the early planning stages.
On September 8, 1965, Dandridge spoke by telephone with friend and former sister-in-law Geraldine "Geri" Branton. Dandridge was scheduled to fly to New York the next day to prepare for her nightclub engagement at Basin Street East. Several hours after her conversation with Branton ended, Dandridge was found dead by her manager, Earl Mills. Two months later, a Los Angeles pathology institute determined the cause to be an accidental overdose of Imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant. It was also reported that the Los Angeles County Coroner's Office came to a different conclusion: “Miss Dandridge died of a rare embolism—blockage of the blood passages at the lungs and brain by tiny pieces of fat flaking off from bone marrow in a fractured right foot she sustained in a Hollywood film five days before she died.” She was 42 years old.
On September 12, 1965, a private funeral service was held for Dandridge at the Little Chapel of the Flowers; she was then cremated and her ashes interred in the Freedom Mausoleum at Forest Lawn Cemetery.
Many years passed before the entertainment industry acknowledged Dandridge's legacy. Starting in the 1980s, stars such as Cicely Tyson, Jada Pinkett Smith, Halle Berry, Janet Jackson, Whitney Houston, Kimberly Elise, Loretta Devine, Tasha Smith and Angela Bassett acknowledged Dandridge's contributions to the role of African-Americans in film.
In 1999, Halle Berry took the lead role of Dandridge in the HBO Movie Introducing Dorothy Dandridge, which she also produced and for which she won an Emmy Award, a Golden Globe Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award. When Berry won the Academy Award for Best Actress for her role in Monster's Ball, she dedicated the "moment [to] Dorothy Dandridge, Lena Horne, Diahann Carroll." Both Dandridge and Berry were from Cleveland, Ohio.
For her contributions to the motion picture industry, she was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, at 671 Hollywood Boulevard. She was also inducted as an honorary member of Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc. a traditional African American sorority and one of the "Divine 9" organizations.
Dorothy Dandridge has a statue at Hollywood-La Brea Boulevard in Los Angeles, designed by Catherine Hardwicke built to honor of multi-ethnic leading ladies of the cinema together with Mae West, Dolores del Rio and Anna May Wong.
As an actress
|1936||The Big Broadcast of 1936||Member of the Dandridge Sisters|
|1937||Easy to Take||Member of the Dandridge Sisters||Uncredited|
|1937||It Can't Last Forever||Dandridge Sisters Act||Uncredited|
|1937||A Day at the Races||Black Singer||Uncredited|
|1938||Going Places||Member of the Dandridge Sisters||Uncredited|
|1938||Snow Gets in Your Eyes||One of the Dandridge Sisters|
|1940||Irene||The Dandridge Sisters||Uncredited|
|1940||Four Shall Die||Helen Fielding||Alternative title: Condemned Men|
|1941||Sun Valley Serenade||Specialty Act|
|1941||Lady from Louisiana||Felice||Alternative title: Lady from New Orleans|
|1942||Lucky Jordan||Hollyhock School Maid||Uncredited|
|1942||Night in New Orleans||Sal, Shadrach's Girl||Uncredited|
|1942||The Night Before the Divorce||Maid||Uncredited|
|1942||Ride 'Em Cowboy||Dancer||Uncredited|
|1942||Drums of the Congo||Princess Malimi|
|1942||Orchestra Wives||Singer/Dancer||Scenes Deleted|
|1943||Hit Parade of 1943||Count Basie Band Singer||Alternative title: Change of Heart|
|1943||Happy Go Lucky||Showgirl||Uncredited|
|1944||Since You Went Away||Black Officer's Wife in Train Station||Uncredited|
|1944||Atlantic City||Singer||Alternative title: Atlantic City Honeymoon
|1945||Pillow to Post||Herself-Vocalist||Uncredited|
|1951||Tarzan's Peril||Melmendi, Queen of the Ashuba|
|1951||The Harlem Globetrotters||Ann Carpenter|
|1953||Bright Road||Jane Richards|
|1953||Remains to Be Seen||Herself-Vocalist|
|1954||Carmen Jones||Carmen Jones||Nominated - Academy Award for Best Actress
Nominated - BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role Nominated-Golden Globe for Best Actress
|1957||Island in the Sun||Margot Seaton|
|1958||Tamango||Aiché, Reiker's mistress|
|1958||The Decks Ran Red||Mahia||Alternative titles: Infamy
La Rivolta dell'esperanza (foreign releases)
|1959||Porgy and Bess||Bess||Nominated - Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy|
|1960||Malaga||Gianna||Alternative tiles: Moment of Dandger|
|1961||The Murder Men||Norma Sherman||Television movie|
|1962||Cain's Hundred||Norma Sherman||Episode: "Blues for a Junkman"|
- Cavalcade of Stars (1952; 1 episode)
- Songs for Sale (1952; 1 episode)
- The Colgate Comedy Hour (1951–1953; 2 episodes)
- The George Jessel Show (1954; 1 episode)
- Light's Diamond Jubilee (1954; TV documenatary)
- The 27th Annual Academy Awards (1955; TV special; Nominee & Presenter)
- Val Parnell's Sunday Night at the London Palladium (1956; 1 episode)
- Ford Star Jubilee (1956; 1 episode)
- The 29th Annual Academy Awards (1957; TV special; Performer & Presenter)
- The Ed Sullivan Show (1952–1961; 7 episodes)
- Juxe Box Jury (1964; 1 episode)
- Swingin' the Dream (1939)
- Meet the People (1941)
- Jump for Joy (1941)
- Sweet 'n' Hot (1944)
- Crazy Girls (1952)
- West Side Story (1962)
- Show Boat (1964)
- Robinson, Louie (March 1966). "Dorothy Dandridge Hollywood's Tragic Enigma". Ebony. p. 71. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
- Gorney, Cynthia (February 9, 1988). "The Fragile Flame of Dorothy Dandridge; Remembering the Shattered Life Of a Beautiful 1950s Movie Star". Washington Post. pp. E2.
- Potter, Joan (2002). African American Firsts: Famous Little-Known and Unsung Triumphs of Blacks in America. Kensington Books. p. 81. ISBN 0-7582-0243-1.
- Bob McCann (2010). Encyclopedia of African-American actresses in film and television. McFarland & company. pp. 87–90. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
- "Ohio Deaths 1908-1932, 1938-1944, and 1958-2002 [database on-line]". United States: The Generations Network. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
- "Social Security Death Index [database on-line]". United States: The Generations Network. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
- Lyman, Darryl (2005). Great African-American Women. Jonathan David Company, Inc. p. 50. ISBN 0-8246-0459-8.
- Taylor, Quintard; Wilson Moore, Shirley Ann (2003). African American Women Confront the West. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-8061-3524-7.
- Mills, Earl (1999). Dorothy Dandridge: An Intimate Biography. Holloway House Publishing. p. 50. ISBN 0-87067-899-X.
- Maltin, Leonard; Bann, Richard W. (1993). The Little Rascals: The Life and Times of Our Gang. Crown. p. 279. ISBN 0-517-58325-9.
- Carney Smith, Jessie; Palmisano, Joseph M. (2000). Reference Library of Black America. African American Publications, Proteus Enterprises. p. 858.
- Green, Stanley; Schmidt, Elaine (2000). Hollywood Musicals: Year by Year. Hal Leonard. p. 189. ISBN 0-634-00765-3.
- McClary, Susan (1992). Georges Bizet: Carmen. Cambridge University Press. p. 133. ISBN 0-521-39897-5.
- Wilson, Theo (1998). Headline Justice: Inside the Courtroom — the Country’s Most Controversial Trials. Thunder's Mouth Press. pp. 53–68. ISBN 9781560251934.
- The Confidential Magazine Trial: An Account by Douglas O. Linder, 2010
- Taming the Tabloids, by Darcie Lunsford, American Journalism Review edition of September 2000
- Bernstein, Samuel (2006). Mr. Confidential: The Man, the Magazine & the Movieland Massacre. Walford Press. pp. 306–8. ISBN 0978767128.
- Rippy, Marguerite H. (2001). "Commodity, Tragedy, Desire - Female Sexuality and Blackness in the Iconography of Dorothy Dandridge". Classic Hollywood, Classic Whiteness. Daniel Bernardi (Editor). University of Minnesota Press. p. 194. ISBN 0-8166-3238-3. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- Earl Mills (1999). Dorothy Dandridge: An Intimate Biography. p. 174. Retrieved 2011-01-28.
- "Dorothy Dandridge Profile". tcm.com.
- Lorraine LoBianco. "Dorothy Dandridge Profile". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
- Mills, page 195
- Earl Mills (1999). Dorothy Dandridge: An Intimate Biography. p. 196. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
- Patricia Brooks; Jonathan Brooks (2006). Laid to Rest in California. p. 86. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
- "Halle Berry, Charles Dutton Capture Coveted Primetime Emmy Awards". Jet. 2000-09-25. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
- "Halle Berry Explains Why 2000 Has Been The Worst And Best Year Of Her Life". Jet. 2000-09-11. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
- "Halle Berry's Acceptance Speech." blackfilm.com. March 26, 2002.
- Dandridge, Dorothy & Conrad, Earl. Everything and Nothing: The Dorothy Dandridge Tragedy. Abelard-Schuman; 1st edition (1970). ISBN 0-200-71690-5. HarperCollins, New Ed edition (2000). - ISBN 0-06-095675-5.
- Mills, Earl. Dorothy Dandridge: An Intimate Portrait of Hollywood's First Major Black Film Star. Holloway House Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-87067-899-X.
- Rippy, Marguerite H. (2001). "Commodity, Tragedy, Desire - Female Sexuality and Blackness in the Iconography of Dorothy Dandridge". Classic Hollywood, Classic Whiteness (Chapter 9). Daniel Bernardi, Editor. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-3238-3.
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- Dorothy Dandridge at the Internet Movie Database
- Dorothy Dandridge at the Internet Broadway Database
- Dorothy Dandridge - A Life Unfulfilled
- Dorothy Dandridge at Find a Grave
- Photographs and literature
- LifeStory: Honor Dorothy Dandridge's Life