Dorothy Dandridge

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Dorothy Dandridge
Born Dorothy Jean Dandridge
(1922-11-09)November 9, 1922
Cleveland, Ohio, US
Died September 8, 1965(1965-09-08) (aged 42)
West Hollywood, California, US
Cause of death
Embolism[1] or Overdose[2]
Resting place
Forest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale
Other names Dorothy Dandridge-Nicholas
Dorothy Nicholas
Dorothy Dandridge-Denison
Dorothy Denison
Occupation Actress, singer, dancer
Years active 1934–65
Spouse(s)

Harold Nicholas (m. 1942div. 1951)

Jack Denison (m. 1959div. 1962)
Children 1
Parents Ruby Dandridge


Dorothy Jean Dandridge (November 9, 1922 – September 8, 1965) was an American actress and singer. Dandridge was the first black actress to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress.[3] She performed as a vocalist in venues such as the Cotton Club and the Apollo Theater.

After many bit parts and a few minor roles, Dandridge landed her first notable film role in Tarzan's Peril (starring Lex Barker) in 1951. She won her first starring role in 1953, playing a teacher in Bright Road, a low-budget film with a nearly all-black cast, released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

In 1954 she was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress and a BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Carmen Jones. In 1959 she was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture Musical or Comedy for Porgy and Bess. In 1999 she was the subject of the HBO biopic Introducing Dorothy Dandridge, starring Halle Berry as Dandridge. She has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Dandridge was married and divorced twice: first to dancer and entertainer Harold Nicholas (the father of her daughter, Harolyn Suzanne), then to Jack Denison. She died at age 42.[4]

Early life[edit]

Dorothy Dandridge was born on November 9, 1922 in Cleveland, Ohio to aspiring entertainer Ruby Dandridge (née Butler) and Cyril Dandridge (October 25, 1895 – july 9, 1989),[5][6] a cabinetmaker and minister, who had separated just before her birth.[7] Ruby created a song-and-dance act for her two young daughters, Vivian and Dorothy, under the name "The Wonder Children". The sisters toured the Southern United States almost non-stop for five years (rarely attending school), while Ruby worked and performed in Cleveland.[8]

During the Great Depression, work virtually dried up for the Dandridges, as it did for many Chitlin' circuit performers. Ruby moved to Hollywood, California, where she found steady work on radio and film in small domestic-servant parts. In 1937, "The Wonder Children" were renamed "The Dandridge Sisters" and booked into such venues as the Cotton Club and the Apollo Theater in Harlem, New York City.[9]

Career[edit]

Early career[edit]

Dandridge's first screen appearance was a bit part in an Our Gang comedy, Teacher's Beau (1935).[10] In 1937 she appeared as one of the many singers in the Marx Brothers' feature film A Day at the Races;[11] the following year, she and Vivian appeared briefly in Going Places. In 1940, in her first credited film role, Dandridge played a murderer in the race film Four Shall Die. Though she had a supporting role in a somewhat-successful film, Dandridge struggled to find good film roles.[12]

In 1941 Dandridge was cast opposite John Wayne in Lady From Louisiana, playing the small part of Felice. That same year, she teamed with future husband Harold Nicholas for a brief role in Sun Valley Serenade; they and Harold's brother Fayard Nicholas appeared as a "specialty act" performing the eventually-immortal "Chattanooga Choo Choo". In 1942, Dandridge won another supporting role as Princess Malimi in Drums of the Congo; then after bit parts in her next few films, she landed a small but good role in Hit Parade of 1943. In 1944 she had two uncredited roles, in Since You Went Away and Atlantic City; the next year she played a small part in the musical Pillow to Post. Then after her tiny role in 1947's Ebony Parade, her knack for finding small roles disappeared and she went several years without making films, although she did appear occasionally in nightclubs.[12]

In 1951, Dandridge was cast as Melmendi, Queen of the Ashuba, in her comeback film Tarzan's Peril, starring Lex Barker as Tarzan and Virginia Huston as Jane.[12] Her role was minor, but she was noticed by many; one night at a party she was introduced to music manager Earl Mills. He wanted to further Dandridge's career as a singer, but she preferred to focus on motion pictures. Despite this disagreement, Dandridge signed Mills as her agent. She next appeared as Ann Carpenter in The Harlem Globetrotters (1951), receiving second billing for her supporting role.[12]

Unfortunately, her film career stalled after Globetrotters. Mills arranged for her first appearance at the Mocambo, and she performed in nightclubs around the country through most of 1952.

Bright Road[edit]

In December 1952, a Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio agent saw Dandridge perform at the Mocambo and cast her as Jane Richards in Bright Road, her first major role. Also starring Philip Hepburn and Harry Belafonte, Road featured a nearly all-black cast and tells the story of a teacher who reaches out to a troubled student in his time of need. The film was a box-office flop, named "the lowest box-office gross of the South"; such poor reception hurt the plan for the film to showcase Dandridge as a serious leading actress. Fortunately she was at the top of her game as a nightclub performer[13] and after some more of those performances, she eventually won a supporting role as herself in the musical drama Remains to be Seen.[13]

Carmen Jones[edit]

In 1954, Dandridge signed a three-movie deal with 20th Century Fox and director and writer Otto Preminger soon cast her along with Harry Belafonte, Pearl Bailey, Brock Peters, Diahann Carroll, Madame Sul-Te-Wan (uncredited), Olga James, and Joe Adams in his all-black production of Carmen Jones[14]--with Dandridge's singing voice was dubbed by opera singer Marilyn Horne.[15]

Upon its 1954 release, Carmen Jones grossed $60,000 during its first week and $47,000 in its second. The film received favorable reviews, and Dandridge was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress, becoming only the third African American to receive a nomination in any Academy Award category (after Hattie McDaniel and Ethel Waters), and the first to be nominated for Best Actress. Grace Kelly won the award for her performance in The Country Girl.[16] At the awards ceremony, Dandridge presented the Academy Award for Film Editing to Gene Milford for On the Waterfront.[17]

In 1955, 20th Century Fox selected Dandridge to play the supporting role of Tuptim in the film version of the Broadway hit The King and I, starring Deborah Kerr and Yul Brynner. Since the character was a slave, Dorothy declined the offer, but after some convincing from Fox chief Darryl F. Zanuck that it was a good role, she agreed to take it. But when Otto Preminger told her the role was too small and she should wait for a leading role in a big-budget motion picture, Dandridge again declined the role of Tuptim.[12]

A few months before the offer of The King and I, Dandridge had been asked to play Sandra Roberts in The Lieutenant Wore Skirts, a romantic comedy starring Tom Ewell and Sheree North, but she had turned it down because it was also too small. The character was a parody of Marilyn Monroe's character in Fox's The Seven Year Itch (1955), and Dorothy was not a fan of parodies, so this role had two strikes against it as far as she was concerned. However, the slow but steady demise of Dandridge's film career started with her refusal to appear in these films.[12]

Hollywood Research, Inc. trial[edit]

Dandridge was one of the few Hollywood stars who testified at the 1957 criminal libel trial of Hollywood Research, Inc., the company that published all of the era's tabloid magazines.[18] She and actress Maureen O'Hara, the only other star who testified, were photographed shaking hands outside the downtown-Los Angeles courtroom where the well-publicized trial was held.[18] Testimony from O'Hara, as well as from a disgruntled former magazine editor, revealed that the magazines published false information provided by hotel maids, clerks, and movie-theater ushers who were paid for their tips. The stories with questionable veracity most often centered around alleged incidents of casual sex. When the jury and press visited Grauman's Chinese Theatre to determine whether O'Hara could have performed various sexual acts while seated in the balcony, as reported by a magazine published by Hollywood Research, Inc., this was discovered to have been impossible.[18]

Dandridge's testimony further strengthened the prosecution's case. Alleged by one tabloid to have fornicated with a white bandleader in the woods of Lake Tahoe in 1950, she testified that racial segregation had confined her to her hotel during her nightclub engagement in the Nevada resort city.[18][19] When she was not in the hotel lounge rehearsing or performing her singing, according to her testimony, she was required to stay inside her room where she slept alone.[18] This proved beyond any doubt that Hollywood Research had committed libel at least once. The judge ordered Hollywood Research to stop publishing questionable stories based on tips for which they paid, and this curtailed invasive tabloid journalism until 1971 when Generoso Pope, Jr. moved The National Enquirer, which he owned, from New York to Lantana, Florida.[20][21]

Career falter[edit]

By 1956, still under contract to Fox, Dandridge hadn't made any films since Carmen Jones. Fox still believed that Dandridge was a star, but as one of Fox's studio heads explained, "She's a star, but we don't have any films to put her in or leading men to cast her opposite." In 1957, Dandridge's luck returned when Darryl F. Zanuck cast her as Margot, a restless young West Indian woman,[22] in his controversial film version of Island in the Sun, co-starring James Mason, Harry Belafonte, Joan Fontaine, Joan Collins, Michael Rennie, John Justin, John Williams, and Stephen Boyd. This film was a major success, which brought Dandridge back into the public eye.

However, Dandridge didn't get another film role until she was cast in the low-budget foreign Italian production Tamango, which teamed her with Curd Jürgens.[23] Tamango, filmed in Europe in late 1957, was released in France on January 24, 1958, not to be released in the United States until September 16, 1959. The film received fair reviews but failed at the box office; Dandridge believed that it was because she had played a slave--a part she had vowed she would never play.

Soon after the French release of Tamango in 1958, Dandridge lined up a co-starring role in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's off-beat thriller The Decks Ran Red, starring James Mason, her Island in the Sun costar.[23] The Decks Ran Red was released with high hopes, but drew minor box-office success; today the film is considered a "cult classic" Dorothy Dandridge film.[24]

Porgy and Bess[edit]

Determined to reinvent her career, Dorothy decided to wait for a good film role. In 1959, Columbia Pictures cast her in the female lead in Porgy and Bess. She was nominated again, this time for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, but lost to Marilyn Monroe for Some Like It Hot.

Despite positive reviews, Porgy and Bess was a box-office failure.[12] African-Americans described the film's characters as "stereotypical": Bess was a drug addict, Porgy a crippled drunk, Sportin' Life another drug addict, and Crown a rapist. The belief that these characters pandered to stereotypes about African-Americans added to its controversy.[12]

The actor who was most blamed for the failure of Porgy and Bess was Dandridge. Before the film, many other African-American actresses and actors looked up to her as someone who had proved that an African-American woman could achieve what a white woman could. But many thought Dandridge "sold out" when she accepted the role of Bess.

A few weeks later, Dandridge was released from her 20th Century Fox contract. Though she had been with Fox for about 5 1/2 years, she had only made 2 films for them: Carmen Jones (1954) and Island in the Sun (1957). Her contract committed her to making 3 pictures, but Fox failed to find another viable opportunity for her.

Final performances[edit]

In 1959, after the disappointment of Porgy and Bess, Dandridge played the lead role (an Italian girl named Gianna) in Malaga, a low-budget, forgettable movie that was filmed in Europe. It proved to be her final theatrical film. Filmed in late 1959 with the original title Moment of Danger, it was not released in U.S. theaters until 1962.

She made her last acting appearance in 1960 as the lead in the television movie The Murder Men.[24] A reporter called Dorothy's performance, "Her most interesting 'later' film role." The film was later shown in an episode of Cain's Hundred entitled Blues for a Junkman; all the actors received "archive footage" crediting.

By the end of 1961, all movie offers had disappeared, a disappointment from which Dandridge would never recover. She returned to performing in summer stock theater and on the nightclub circuit.

Recordings[edit]

Dandridge first gained fame as a solo artist from her performances in nightclubs, usually accompanied by Phil Moore on piano. As well known as she became from renditions of songs such as "Blow Out the Candle", "You Do Something To Me", and "Talk Sweet Talk To Me", she recorded very little on vinyl. Whether it was because of personal choice or lack of opportunity is unknown.

In 1940, as part of the Dandridge Sisters singing group, Dandridge recorded four songs with the Jimmy Lunceford band:

  • "You Ain't Nowhere" (Columbia #28007)
  • "That's Your Red Wagon" (Columbia #28006)
  • "Ain't Going To Go To Study War No More" (Columbia #26938)
  • "Minnie The Moocher is Dead" (Columbia #26937A)

In 1944, she recorded a duet with Louis Armstrong from the film Pillow to Post:

  • "Watcha Say" (Decca L-3502)

In 1951, she recorded a single for Columbia Records:

  • "Blow Out the Candle/Talk Sweet Talk To Me" (catalogue # unknown)

In 1953, she recorded a song for the film Remains to Be Seen:

In 1958, she recorded a full length album for Verve Records featuring Oscar Peterson with Herb Ellis, Ray Brown, and Alvin Stoller (Catalogue #314 547-514 2) that remained unreleased in the vaults until a CCD release in 1999. This CD also included four tracks from 1961 (with an unknown orchestra) that included one 45 rpm record single and another aborted single:

(above two tracks released on Verve Records single #Verve V 10231)

  • "It's a Beautiful Evening" (recorded in 1961) (23461-5)
  • "Smooth Operator" (recorded in 1961) (23462-2)

(above two tracks were aborted for release as a single and remained unreleased until the Smooth Operator CD release in 1999). These are the only known songs Dandridge recorded on vinyl. Several songs she sang, including her version of "Cow-Cow Boogie" were recorded on Soundies and are not included on this list.

Personal life[edit]

Dandridge married dancer and entertainer Harold Nicholas on September 6, 1942, and gave birth to her only child, Harolyn Suzanne Nicholas, on September 2, 1943. Harolyn was born brain-damaged, and the couple divorced in October 1951. He left her because she wouldn't come with him to Paris for the sake of their child. She refused to leave Harolyn, so Harold left Dorothy.[7]

While filming Carmen Jones (1954), the director Otto Preminger began an affair with his film's star, Dorothy. It lasted 4 years, during which period he advised her on career matters, such as turning down the Tuptim role in The King and I--advice Dandridge later regretted accepting. [25] She ended the affair when she realized that Preminger had no plans to leave his first wife to marry her.[26] Their affair was depicted in the HBO Pictures biopic, Introducing Dorothy Dandridge, in which Preminger was portrayed by Austrian actor Klaus Maria Brandauer.

Dandridge married Jack Denison on June 22, 1959; they divorced in 1962 amid financial setbacks and allegations of domestic violence. At this time, Dandridge discovered that the people who were handling her finances had swindled her out of $150,000 and that she was $139,000 in debt for back taxes. Forced to sell her Hollywood home and place her daughter in a state mental institution in Camarillo, California, Dandridge moved into a small apartment at 8495 Fountain Avenue in West Hollywood, California. Alone and without any acting roles or singing engagements on the horizon, Dandridge suffered a nervous breakdown. Soon thereafter, Earl Mills started planning her comeback, but it was cut short by her untimely death.[24]

Death[edit]

The "Four Ladies of Hollywood" gazebo at the western border of the Walk of Fame: Dorothy Dandridge, Dolores del Río, Anna May Wong, and Mae West.

On September 8, 1965, Dandridge spoke by telephone with friend and former sister-in-law[27] Geraldine "Geri" Branton. Dandridge was scheduled to fly to New York the next day to prepare for her nightclub engagement at Basin Street East. Several hours after her conversation with Branton ended, Dandridge was found dead by her manager, Earl Mills.[28] Two months later, a Los Angeles pathology institute determined the cause to be an accidental overdose of Imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant.[2] The Los Angeles County Coroner's Office came to a different conclusion: “Miss Dandridge died of a rare embolism—blockage of the blood passages at the lungs and brain by tiny pieces of fat flaking off from bone marrow in a fractured right foot she sustained in a Hollywood film five days before she died.”[1] She was 42 years old.

On September 12, 1965, a private funeral service was held for Dandridge at the Little Chapel of the Flowers;[29] she was then cremated[29] and her ashes interred in the Freedom Mausoleum at Forest Lawn Cemetery.[30]

Legacy[edit]

Many years passed before the entertainment industry acknowledged Dandridge's legacy. Starting in the 1980s, stars such as Cicely Tyson, Jada Pinkett Smith, Halle Berry, Janet Jackson, Whitney Houston, Kimberly Elise, Loretta Devine, Tasha Smith, and Angela Bassett acknowledged Dandridge's contributions to the role of black Americans in film.[24]

In 1999, Halle Berry took the lead role of Dandridge in the HBO Movie Introducing Dorothy Dandridge, which she also produced and for which she won the Primetime Emmy Award, Golden Globe Award, and Screen Actors Guild Award. When Berry won the Academy Award for Best Actress for her role in Monster's Ball, she dedicated the "moment [to] Dorothy Dandridge, Lena Horne, Diahann Carroll."[31] Both Dandridge and Berry were from Cleveland, Ohio.

For her contributions to the motion picture industry, she was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, at 671 Hollywood Boulevard. Dorothy Dandridge is also the most prominent figure of a huge mural of celebrities painted on an exterior wall of Hollywood High School.[32]

Dorothy Dandridge has a statue at Hollywood-La Brea Boulevard in Los Angeles, designed by Catherine Hardwicke, built to honor multi-ethnic leading ladies of the cinema, including Mae West, Dolores del Rio and Anna May Wong.[33]

Recording artist Janelle Monáe performs a song entitled "Dorothy Dandridge Eyes"on her album The Electric Lady, with Esperanza Spalding.

Filmography[edit]

As an actress[edit]

Year Film title Role Notes
1935 Teacher's Beau Dorothy
1936 The Big Broadcast of 1936 Member of the Dandridge Sisters
1937 Easy to Take Member of the Dandridge Sisters Uncredited
1937 It Can't Last Forever Dandridge Sisters Act Uncredited
1937 A Day at the Races Black Singer Uncredited
1938 Going Places Member of the Dandridge Sisters Uncredited
1938 Snow Gets in Your Eyes One of the Dandridge Sisters
1940 Irene The Dandridge Sisters Uncredited
1940 Four Shall Die Helen Fielding Alternative title: Condemned Men
1941 Bahama Passage Thalia
1941 Sundown Kipsang's Bride
1941 Sun Valley Serenade Specialty Act
1941 Lady from Louisiana Felice Alternative title: Lady from New Orleans
1942 Lucky Jordan Hollyhock School Maid Uncredited
1942 Night in New Orleans Sal, Shadrach's Girl Uncredited
1942 The Night Before the Divorce Maid Uncredited
1942 Ride 'Em Cowboy Dancer Uncredited
1942 Drums of the Congo Princess Malimi
1942 Orchestra Wives Singer/Dancer
1943 Hit Parade of 1943 Count Basie Band Singer Alternative title: Change of Heart
1943 Happy Go Lucky Showgirl Uncredited
1944 Since You Went Away Black Officer's Wife in Train Station Uncredited
1944 Atlantic City Singer Alternative title: Atlantic City Honeymoon
Uncredited
1945 Pillow to Post Herself-Vocalist Uncredited
1947 Ebony Parade Herself-Vocalist Uncredited
1951 Tarzan's Peril Melmendi, Queen of the Ashuba
1951 The Harlem Globetrotters Ann Carpenter
1953 Bright Road Jane Richards
1953 Remains to Be Seen Herself-Vocalist
1954 Carmen Jones Carmen Jones Nominated - Academy Award for Best Actress
Nominated - BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role
Nominated - Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
1957 Island in the Sun Margot Seaton
1958 Tamango Aiché, Reiker's mistress
1958 The Decks Ran Red Mahia Alternative titles: Infamy
La Rivolta dell'esperanza (foreign releases)
1959 Porgy and Bess Bess Nominated - Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
1960 Malaga Gianna Alternative tiles: Moment of Danger
1961 The Murder Men Norma Sherman Television movie
1962 Cain's Hundred Norma Sherman Episode: "Blues for a Junkman"

As herself[edit]

Stage work[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Robinson, Louie (March 1966). "Dorothy Dandridge Hollywood's Tragic Enigma". Ebony. p. 71. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  2. ^ a b Gorney, Cynthia (February 9, 1988). "The Fragile Flame of Dorothy Dandridge; Remembering the Shattered Life Of a Beautiful 1950s Movie Star". Washington Post. pp. E2. 
  3. ^ Potter, Joan (2002). African American Firsts: Famous Little-Known and Unsung Triumphs of Blacks in America. Kensington Books. p. 81. ISBN 0-7582-0243-1. 
  4. ^ Bob McCann (2010). Encyclopedia of African-American actresses in film and television. McFarland & company. pp. 87–90. Retrieved 2011-01-29. 
  5. ^ "Ohio Deaths 1908-1932, 1938-1944, and 1958-2002 [database on-line]". United States: The Generations Network. Retrieved 2009-05-02. 
  6. ^ "Social Security Death Index [database on-line]". United States: The Generations Network. Retrieved 2009-05-02. 
  7. ^ a b Lyman, Darryl (2005). Great African-American Women. Jonathan David Company, Inc. p. 50. ISBN 0-8246-0459-8. 
  8. ^ Taylor, Quintard; Wilson Moore; Shirley Ann (2003). African American Women Confront the West. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-8061-3524-7. 
  9. ^ Mills, Earl (1999). Dorothy Dandridge: An Intimate Biography. Holloway House Publishing. p. 50. ISBN 0-87067-899-X. 
  10. ^ Maltin, Leonard; Bann, Richard W. (1993). The Little Rascals: The Life and Times of Our Gang. Crown. p. 279. ISBN 0-517-58325-9. 
  11. ^ Carney Smith, Jessie; Palmisano, Joseph M. (2000). Reference Library of Black America. African American Publications, Proteus Enterprises. p. 858. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h "Dorothy Dandridge: A Bio of the 1950s Screen Siren". Yahoo! Voices. May 9, 2007. Retrieved September 26, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b "Bright Road". tcm.com. Retrieved September 23, 2013. 
  14. ^ Green, Stanley; Schmidt, Elaine (2000). Hollywood Musicals: Year by Year. Hal Leonard. p. 189. ISBN 0-634-00765-3. 
  15. ^ McClary, Susan (1992). Georges Bizet: Carmen. Cambridge University Press. p. 133. ISBN 0-521-39897-5. 
  16. ^ Herringshaw, DeAnn. Dorothy Dandridge: Singer and Actress. p. 10. 
  17. ^ Herringshaw, DeAnn. Dorothy Dandridge: Singer and Actress. p. 7. 
  18. ^ a b c d e Wilson, Theo (1998). Headline Justice:Inside the Courtroom — the Country’s Most Controversial Trials. Thunder's MouthPress. pp. 53–68. ISBN 9781560251934. 
  19. ^ The Confidential Magazine Trial: An Account by Douglas O. Linder, 2010
  20. ^ Taming the Tabloids, by Darcie Lunsford, American Journalism Review edition of September 2000
  21. ^ Bernstein, Samuel (2006). Mr. Confidential: The Man, the Magazine & the Movieland Massacre. Walford Press. pp. 306–8. ISBN 0978767128. 
  22. ^ Rippy, Marguerite H. (2001). "Commodity, Tragedy, Desire - Female Sexuality and Blackness in the Iconography of Dorothy Dandridge". Classic Hollywood, Classic Whiteness. Daniel Bernardi (Editor). University of Minnesota Press. p. 194. ISBN 0-8166-3238-3. Retrieved 2011-02-04. 
  23. ^ a b Earl Mills (1999). Dorothy Dandridge: An Intimate Biography. p. 174. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Dorothy Dandridge". The Biography Channel. Retrieved September 23, 2013. 
  25. ^ "Dorothy Dandridge Profile". tcm.com. 
  26. ^ "Dorothy Dandridge's Surrender". Entertainment Weekly. September 3, 1999. Retrieved September 23, 2013. 
  27. ^ Lorraine LoBianco. "Dorothy Dandridge Profile". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 2011-07-17. 
  28. ^ Mills, page 195
  29. ^ a b Earl Mills (1999). Dorothy Dandridge: An Intimate Biography. p. 196. Retrieved 2011-07-17. 
  30. ^ Patricia Brooks; Jonathan Brooks (2006). Laid to Rest in California. p. 86. Retrieved 2011-07-17. 
  31. ^ "Halle Berry's Acceptance Speech." blackfilm.com. March 26, 2002.
  32. ^ "Creative Feature: #BlackMusicMonth – Dorothy Dandridge". June 22, 2012. Retrieved September 23, 2013. 
  33. ^ "Dorothy Dandridge statue in hollwood". Retrieved September 23, 2013. 

References[edit]

  • Dandridge, Dorothy & Conrad, Earl. Everything and Nothing: The Dorothy Dandridge Tragedy. Abelard-Schuman; 1st edition (1970). ISBN 0-200-71690-5. HarperCollins, New Ed edition (2000). - ISBN 0-06-095675-5.
  • Mills, Earl. Dorothy Dandridge: An Intimate Portrait of Hollywood's First Major Black Film Star. Holloway House Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-87067-899-X.
  • Rippy, Marguerite H. (2001). "Commodity, Tragedy, Desire - Female Sexuality and Blackness in the Iconography of Dorothy Dandridge". Classic Hollywood, Classic Whiteness (Chapter 9). Daniel Bernardi, Editor. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-3238-3.

External links[edit]