Dorothy with the silver shoes (illustration by W. W. Denslow)
|First appearance||The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900)|
|Created by||L. Frank Baum|
|Occupation||Adventurer, royal princess, government liaison, farm girl|
|Relatives||Zeb of Hugson's ranch (second cousin), Uncle Bill Hugson (uncle), Mrs. Hugson (aunt, Em's sister), un-named Australians (related through Henry), Susan (indirect descendant), Em (niece of Susan), Dori (niece of Susan)|
|Nationality||American (later Ozite)|
Dorothy Gale is a fictional character and protagonist of many of the Oz novels by the American author L. Frank Baum. Her best friend is Oz's ruler Princess Ozma. Dorothy first appears in Baum's classic children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and reappears in most of its sequels. In addition, she is the main character in various adaptations, notably the classic 1939 movie adaptation of the book, The Wizard of Oz. In later books, Oz steadily becomes more familiar to her than her homeland of Kansas. Indeed, Dorothy eventually goes to live in an apartment in the Emerald City's palace but only after her Aunt Em and Uncle Henry have settled in a farmhouse on its outskirts, unable to pay the mortgage on their house in Kansas. Dorothy's best friend Princess Ozma, officially makes her a princess of Oz later in the book series.
An influence on the creation of Dorothy appears to be the Alice books of Lewis Carroll. Although Baum reportedly found these plots incoherent, he identified their source of popularity as Alice herself, a character with whom child readers could identify; this influenced his choice of a protagonist for his own books.
Dorothy Gale's character was probably named after Baum's own niece, Dorothy Louise Gage, who died in infancy. Baum's wife was very attached to her and was deeply grieved by her death, so there is speculation that Baum inserted her name into his stories as a memorial. Elements of Dorothy Gale's character are possibly derived from Matilda Joslyn Gage, Dorothy's grandmother. Dorothy Gage is buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Bloomington, Illinois.
Lee Sandlin writes that L. Frank Baum read a disaster report of a tornado in Irving, Kansas, in May 1879 which included the name of a victim, Dorothy Gale, who was "found buried face down in a mud puddle."
The fictional Dorothy's last name is never mentioned in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz or The Marvelous Land of Oz, the first two Oz books. It is disclosed in the third book Ozma of Oz (1907). The last name of Gale was originally mentioned in Baum's script for the 1902 Broadway stage version of The Wizard of Oz, in which it was originally a setup for a punning joke. (DOROTHY: "I am Dorothy, and I am one of the Kansas Gales." SCARECROW: "That accounts for your breezy manner.")
In the Oz books, Dorothy is an orphan raised by her aunt and uncle in the bleak landscape of a Kansas farm. Whether Aunt Em or Uncle Henry is Dorothy's blood relative remains unclear. Uncle Henry makes reference to Dorothy's mother in The Emerald City of Oz, possibly an indication that Henry is Dorothy's blood relative. (It is also possible that "Aunt" and "Uncle" are affectionate terms of a foster family and that Dorothy is not related to either of them, although Zeb in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz claims to be Dorothy's second cousin, related through Aunt Em. Little mention is made of what happened to Dorothy's birth parents, other than a passing reference to her mother being dead.) Dorothy has a little black dog named Toto. Dorothy and Toto are swept away by a tornado to the Land of Oz and, much like Alice of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, they enter an alternative world filled with talking creatures. In many of the Oz books, Dorothy is the main heroine of the story. She is often seen with her best friend and the ruler of Oz, Princess Ozma. Her trademark blue and white gingham dress is admired by the Munchkins because blue is their favorite color and white is worn only by good witches and sorceresses, which indicates to them that Dorothy is a good witch.
Dorothy has a forthright and take-charge character, exhibiting no fear when she slaps the Cowardly Lion, and organizing the Winkies' rescue mission of her friends who have been dismembered by the Winged Monkeys. She is not afraid of angering the Wicked Witch of the West, as shown when the Witch stole one of Dorothy's slippers, and in retaliation, Dorothy hurled a bucket of water over her, not knowing water was fatal to the witch. She brazenly rebuffs Princess Langwidere's threat to take her head for her collection — "Well, I b'lieve you won't." (Following Anna Laughlin's portrayal of the character in the popular 1903 Broadway version of The Wizard of Oz, Baum scripts Dorothy to speak in childlike contractions with Ozma of Oz, which she continues to do throughout the series). This aspect of her character was somewhat lessened by her companionship of Ozma, in whom Baum placed the greater level of wisdom and dignity. Yet even this is complicated by her associations with her cousin, Zeb of Hugson's Ranch, a rugged, manly boy who does not take well to Oz and cannot think of anything much more interesting than defeating the Munchkins' wrestling champion, which he proves unable to do.
Dorothy has several other pets, including her white/pink/purple kitten, Eureka. Popular in crossword puzzles is Dorothy's cow, Imogene, from the 1902 stage version, and implicitly, though unnamed, in the 1910 film. Eric Shanower's novel, The Giant Garden of Oz, features a cow named Imogene.
In the sixth Oz book by Baum, The Emerald City of Oz (1910), when Uncle Henry and Aunt Em are unable to pay the mortgage on the new farmhouse built at the end of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, Dorothy brings them to live in Oz; the plot features a tour of Oz as a marvelous, Utopian land in which they have escaped the troubles of Kansas.
Dorothy is a standard character, having at least a cameo role in thirteen of the fourteen Oz books written by L. Frank Baum (while she did not appear at all in The Marvelous Land of Oz, she is mentioned several times in that story, as it was her actions in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz that led to the events in the former) and is at least a frequent figure in the nineteen that followed by author Ruth Plumly Thompson, getting at least a cameo in all her books except Captain Salt in Oz (in which neither Oz nor any of its inhabitants appear, though they are mentioned). Major subsequent appearances by Dorothy in the "Famous Forty" are in The Lost Princess of Oz, Glinda of Oz, The Royal Book of Oz, Grampa in Oz, The Lost King of Oz, The Wishing Horse of Oz, Ozoplaning with the Wizard of Oz, and The Magical Mimics in Oz. Most of the other books focus on different child protagonists, some Ozite, some from other Nonestican realms, and some from the United States, and as such, her appearances in the main series become more and more limited. In Jack Snow's The Magical Mimics in Oz (1946), Ozma places Dorothy on the throne of Oz while she is away visiting Queen Lurline's fairy band, demonstrating that she is Ozma's second-in-command.
The magic of Oz keeps Dorothy young. In The Lost King of Oz (1925), a Wish Way carries Dorothy to a film set in Hollywood, California. She begins to age very rapidly to her late 20s, making up for at least some of the years that have already passed. The Wish Way carries her back to Oz and restores her to her younger self, but she learns then that it would be unwise for her ever to return to the outside world. Baum never states Dorothy's age, but he does state in The Lost Princess of Oz that she is a year younger than Betsy Bobbin and a year older than Trot, whose age was specified as 10 in Ruth Plumly Thompson's The Giant Horse of Oz.
Thompson's Oz books show a certain intolerance in Dorothy. In The Cowardly Lion of Oz, circus clown Notta Bit More arrives in the Emerald City "disguised" as a traditional witch, and Dorothy immediately starts dumping buckets water on him without provocation (although she reacted this way on the assumption that the "witch" Notta was an evil witch like her old enemy, the Wicked Witch of the West). In The Wishing Horse of Oz, she makes unsavory comments about the dark coloration Gloma and her subjects take on as a disguise, making them somewhat resemble black people. This behavior is not characteristic of Dorothy in Baum's Oz books. In The Patchwork Girl of Oz, she pushes and slaps through crowds of black Tottenhots to rescue the Scarecrow, whom they are tossing around, but this is more an example of her gumption than any sort of prejudice, as she is otherwise kind and polite to the Tottenhots, and accepts that their ways are different from those who dwell in the Emerald City.
The authorized sequels of Sherwood Smith, The Emerald Wand of Oz and Trouble Under Oz, center on the child characters Dori and Em, who live with their Aunt Susan. All three are indirect descendants of Dorothy, though their specific relationship to her is unclear.
In Baum's 1902 stage musical adaptation, Dorothy was played by Anna Laughlin. In 1908 L. Frank Baum adapted his early Oz novels as The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays, with Romola Remus as Dorothy. This was followed by The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, a motion picture short that Otis Turner, one of the directors of Fairylogue, made without Baum as part of a contract fulfillment. In this 1910 film, Dorothy was played by Bebe Daniels. It was followed by two sequels (the same year), Dorothy and the Scarecrow in Oz and The Land of Oz, both of which included Dorothy, but whether Daniels participated is unknown. Baum subsequently loosely adapted The Wonderful Wizard of Oz into a 1914 motion picture directed by J. Farrell MacDonald titled His Majesty, the Scarecrow of Oz with Violet MacMillan as Dorothy.
Dorothy does not appear in The Patchwork Girl of Oz (1914), although some film books claim that Mildred Harris, who had yet to sign her contract with The Oz Film Manufacturing Company, played the role. The character, is, in fact, eliminated from the film version, although she has a fairly large role in the novel.
Dorothy Dwan portrayed Dorothy in the 1925 film Wizard of Oz. In this film, Aunt Em (Mary Carr) informs her on her eighteenth birthday that she was left on their doorstep and is really a princess of Oz destined to marry Prince Kynd (Bryant Washburn), who has currently lost the throne to Prime Minister Kruel (Josef Swickard), in a storyline similar to that of His Majesty the Scarecrow of Oz, only with Dorothy as the love interest. In the end, the story proves to be the dream of a little girl who has fallen asleep listening to the story of Kynd and Kruel, said to be the story of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. The film also introduced the idea of the farmhands also being the Scarecrow, Tin Woodsman and Cowardly Lion, albeit as costumes they don in order to conceal themselves in Oz.
In the 1939 movie The Wizard of Oz, Dorothy was played by Judy Garland. Garland received an Academy Juvenile Award for her performance. She was sixteen years old when she performed the role, with a brace on her chest to make her look more youthful. Since fantasy films generally were unsuccessful at that time, MGM portrayed Oz as a head-trauma-induced delirium, instead of a real place. It is not actually confirmed that Oz is merely Dorothy's dream; it is only implied, since she awakens in bed at the end, with Aunt Em telling her she had a dream.
A window knocked out Dorothy when the tornado was approaching the farm. After that storm lifted the farmhouse, she and Toto saw a chicken coop, an old lady knitting calmly in a rocking chair with a cat on her lap, a cow, and two men rowing a boat who doff their hats to her as well as miscellaneous debris flying by them. Finally, Dorothy saw Miss Almira Gulch, who was going to abduct Toto to the sheriff, fly on her bicycle outside the window, becoming a witch on a broom. As one of the first movies to be filmed in Technicolor, the director had the color of the famous magic slippers changed from silver to red because the Ruby slippers were more visually appealing on film.
She is reunited with Aunt Em, Uncle Henry, their three farm workers (Scarecrow, Tin Woodsman, and Cowardly Lion's alter egos), and Professor Marvel (The Wizard's alter ego) when she awakens from being unconscious at the end of this film she is back at home and is safe
The Rankin-Bass company, creators of countless television specials and shows, released the hour-long animated musical telefilm Return to Oz in 1964. Like so many stories of Dorothy going back to Oz, the books were ignored and a new story devised. Dorothy learns that the Wicked Witch of the West has somehow become reconstituted and stolen the placebo gifts the Wizard gave her three friends, who in this version are given the names Socrates (the Scarecrow), Rusty (the Tin Woodman), and Dandy (the Cowardly Lion). Still possessing the silver shoes, she and Toto return to battle the Wicked Witch with the help of the Wizard-- who, for some reason, is still in Oz. Susan Conway supplied Dorothy's speaking voice while Susan Morse did the singing.
In Journey Back to Oz, an animated sequel to the 1939 film, Dorothy is voiced by Liza Minnelli, the daughter of Judy Garland, who played the role in the MGM film. Her physical appearance is similar to that of Disney's Snow White. Aunt Em and Uncle Henry have only one farmhand named Amos, but he does not have an alter ego in Oz. This time, a tornado causes a loose gate to knock Dorothy unconscious. Next, she and Toto are in Oz once again where they end up having to work to prevent Mombi's evil plot to take over the Land of Oz.
For the 1975 Broadway musical The Wiz, Dorothy (originated in The Wiz by Stephanie Mills) is reimagined as a young African-American girl, though most of her other characteristics, as well as the general plot of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, remain intact. The story was altered for the 1978 Motown/Universal film adaptation of The Wiz, in which Dorothy (portrayed by Diana Ross) is a shy 24-year-old schoolteacher who has never traveled far beyond the neighborhood she grew up in. This Dorothy's adventures in Oz force her to mature, as is the case for most versions of the Wizard of Oz story, although in this case, Dorothy is made to overcome a case of arrested development.
In the 1980 Thanksgiving special Dorothy in the Land of Oz, Dorothy is voiced by Mischa Bond.
Philip José Farmer's 1982 science-fiction novel A Barnstormer in Oz tells the story of hotshot aviator Henry "Hank" Stover — who is not at all surprised one beautiful spring day in 1923 when he flies his Curtiss Jenny biplane through a strange green cloud and finds himself in a land populated by small people where animals talk and magic works. Hank knows right away that he is in Oz because his mother, Dorothy Gale-Stover, had been there back in 1890 and later told him (and L. Frank Baum) of her experiences. Farmer's premise is that Dorothy only visited Oz once and told her story to a journalist called Frank Baum. This journalist would later create a series of books from Dorothy's only adventure in Oz. Like many Oz novels for adults, Farmer's Oz is a darker, more threatening place and in this case it is on the brink of both a civil war and an invasion by the United States Army.
In 1982, a Japanese animated version depicted a blonde ponytailed Dorothy in red shoes voiced by Aileen Quinn. The film was made by Toho with a script co-written by Yoshimitsu Banno, with music co-written by Joe Hisaishi and lyrics co-written by Sammy Cahn.
In 1985, Walter Murch directed the Walt Disney Pictures film Return to Oz starring Fairuza Balk as Dorothy. The plot was a seamless combination of elements from Ozma of Oz and The Marvelous Land of Oz. Though not a wide success on its original release, the movie has attained cult classic status.
In the 1986 Japanese animated-version of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (Oz no Mahōtsukai), Dorothy is depicted with auburn hair, much like the movie, but does not have pigtails. Her blue and white farm dress slightly differs from how it was described in the books (in fact, it looks quite Alice in Wonderland-esque), but her anime design makes her appear young. She wears white "magic shoes". Her voice was provided by Morgan Hallett.
Another animated offering was entitled Dorothy meets Ozma of Oz It was an abridged but very faithful retelling of Baum's third Oz book, featuring a blonde Dorothy in a red dress. Janice Hiromi Kawaye, later to become known as the star of the animated series My Life as a Teenage Robot, delivered an exceptionally delightful voice for Dorothy.
The Wizard of Oz in Concert: Dreams Come True (1995) starred Jewel as Dorothy, Jackson Browne as the Scarecrow, Roger Daltrey as the Tin Woodman, and Nathan Lane as the Cowardly Lion. This was a benefit performance for the Children's Defense Fund.
A little known re-telling of The Wizard of Oz from 1995 made for British channel Five set in the present day starred Denise van Outen as Dorothy and featured a cameo appearance by Zöe Salmon of Blue Peter fame. Among other variations of the story was van Outen's portrayal of Dorothy as a spoiled, wealthy socialite who was not above using profanity, and the origin of the Ruby Slippers, which are shown as being obtained by the Witch of the East after falling off the feet of a previous visitor from over the rainbow, played by Salmon, when she wished to return home.
In the 1996 animated series The Oz Kids, Dorothy Gale grows up as a woman and marries Zeb Hugson — who, in the book Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, is her cousin. She has two children, Dot and Neddie. Dorothy Gale Hugson is voiced by Erika Schickel.
In the 2005 made-for-television movie The Muppets' Wizard of Oz Dorothy was portrayed as a gifted teenage singer (played by Ashanti) who wanted nothing more than to get out of Kansas and sing with the Muppets Star Hunt tour.
Dorothy, Alice Liddell, Wendy Darling, Susan Pevensie (from The Chronicles of Narnia), and Pollyanna also feature in the comic The Oz/Wonderland Chronicles, set in 2005. Unlike the other characters, Dorothy is based on her movie counterpart, who stopped believing in Oz, as Susan, Alice, and Wendy stopped believing in their fairylands in both book and film versions.
In the 2007 Sci Fi Channel miniseries Tin Man, a Dorothy Gale-type character (called "D.G.") was played by Zooey Deschanel, while Dorothy Gale herself (a separate character) makes a brief appearance, played by Grace Wheeler. D.G. travels to the land of "The Outer Zone" (or "O.Z." for short), where she finds out that she and her sister Azkadellia are descendants of Dorothy Gale through their mother, Queen Lavender Eyes. Ahamo, DG's father, tells DG that Dorothy Gale is her "greatest great grandmother." Dorothy Gale is legendary, and known as the first 'Slipper' (a title rather than an object) to slip to the Outer Zone. In the third episode of the miniseries, DG meets the original Dorothy Gale in a netherworld located within Gale's crypt, which is reminiscent of Gale's farm as depicted in the 1939 film.
In 2010, Andrew Lloyd Webber searched for a girl to play the title character for his new production of The Wizard of Oz. His talent-search show Over the Rainbow discovered 19-year-old Danielle Hope, who originated the role in the 2011 West End production. In the 2012 production in Toronto, the role was won by another Danielle, Danielle Wade.
In the 2012 TV miniseries Dorothy and the Witches of Oz, Dorothy (played by Paulie Rojas) is shown as an adult writer and starts regaining suppressed memories of her actual adventures in the Land of Oz when the Wicked Witch of the West plans to conquer the Land of Oz and all of Earth.
In Supernatural's Slumber Party, Dorothy is revealed to be L. Frank Baum's daughter who followed him into Oz and got trapped there. She battled the forces of evil with the help of three freedom fighters who were transformed into the Cowardly Lion, the Scarecrow and the Tin Man as punishment for their actions with the Tin Man eventually being killed. Eventually Dorothy returned to Earth where L. Frank Baum based his books off of her adventures and the Wicked Witch of the West eventually came to lead her army to Earth and take over. In 1935, Dorothy battled the Witch but couldn't kill her, so she trapped them together in a glass bottle. In 2013, the Witch and Dorothy are accidentally released by Dean Winchester and he, his brother Sam and Charlie Bradbury team up with Dorothy to stop the Witch. Charlie kills the Witch in the end and she Dorothy travel to Oz to finish Dorothy's rebellion there. In There's No Place Like Home, Charlie returns split into her good and dark halves. She explains that to win the war, she made a deal with the Wizard of Oz to do the split and her dark side won single-handedly. Dorothy and the Wizard now lead Oz and Charlie returned to Earth to stop her dark side. Tracking down a man named Clive Dylan who had gotten trapped in Oz long before, Sam and Charlie learn that the Wizard is in fact evil and is Clive's dark side. To stop him and save Charlie, Clive fatally shoots himself to force the Wizard to come to Earth to heal him. Once he is there, Charlie kills Clive and the Wizard and the Winchesters are able to reverse his spell. With the Wizard dead, Oz is left truly free under Dorothy's leadership.
Dorothy Gale appears in the Once Upon a Time episode "Kansas" portrayed by Matreya Scarrwener. The plot is basically a retelling of Wizard minus Dorothy's traveling companions. Caught in her Kansas farmhouse during a raging cyclone, Dorothy is swept away to Oz. Taken in by the protectors of Oz, the sisterhood of witches, she comes to view them as family. One night, she is confronted by Zelena, the Witch of the West, while getting water from a well. Zelena intends to get rid of Dorothy as she believes the girl is destined to usurp her seat in the sisterhood. In defense, Dorothy throws a bucket of water at Zelena; causing the witch to melt. Glinda, the Witch of the South, then appears to offer her to take Zelena's place as the Witch of the West, but Dorothy declines, wishing only to return home. With Glinda's help, she is taken to see the Wizard and given a pair of silver slippers to travel to any world. Dorothy thanks the Wizard and proceeds to click the slippers' heels three times to send herself home, after which it is revealed that the Wicked Witch was still alive and gave the shoes to Dorothy while impersonating the Wizard.
The animated film Legends of Oz: Dorothy's Return, based on a book by L. Frank Baum's great-grandson Roger S. Baum, stars Lea Michele as the voice of Dorothy Gale, who travels back to Oz to face more adventures and adversity with her friends.
- The Wizard of Oz (1902 stage musical): Anna Laughlin
- The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays (1908): Romola Remus
- The Wonderful Wizard Of Oz (1910): Bebe Daniels
- His Majesty, the Scarecrow of Oz (1914): Violet MacMillan
- The Wizard of Oz (1925): Dorothy Dwan
- The Land of Oz, a Sequel to the "Wizard of Oz" (1932): Maryeruth Boone
- The Wizard Of Oz (1939): Judy Garland
- Rainbow Road To Oz (1957): Darlene Gillespie
- Fantasía... 3 (1960): Maribel Martín (Sylvia)
- Tales of the Wizard of Oz (1961): Corinne Conley
- Return to Oz (1964): Susan Conway (speaking voice) Susan Morse (singing voice)
- Ayşecik ve Sihirli Cüceler Rüyalar Ülkesinde (1971): Zeynep Değirmencioğlu (Ayşecik)
- Journey Back to Oz (1971): Liza Minnelli
- Oz (1976): Joy Dunstan
- The Wiz (1975): Stephanie Mills
- The Wiz (1978): Diana Ross
- The Wizard of Oz (1982): Aileen Quinn
- Return to Oz (1985): Fairuza Balk
- The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: Sumi Shimamoto (1986 Japanese track), Morgan Hallet (1987 Canadian English track)
- Dorothy Meets Ozma of Oz (1987): Janice Hiromi Kawaye
- The Wonderful Galaxy of Oz (1990): Mariko Kouda
- The Dreamer of Oz: The L. Frank Baum Story (1990): Courtney Barilla (as Dorothy Gage and Dorothy Gale)
- The Wizard of Oz (1991): Liz Georges
- The Wizard of Oz (1995): Denise van Outen adaptation made for British cable channel Five
- The Wizard of Oz in Concert: Dreams Come True (1995) Jewel
- The Oz Kids animated series (1996-1997) Erika Schickel
- The Wizard of Oz (stage show) (2001): Nikki Webster
- The Muppets' Wizard of Oz (2005): Ashanti
- The Wonderful Wizard of Ha's (2007): Lisa Vischer as Junior Asparagus as Darby (replacing Dorothy)
- Tin Man (TV miniseries) (2007): Zooey Deschanel as DG; Rachel Pattee & Alexis Llewellyn as Young DG; Grace Wheeler as the Grey Gale
- The Wizard of Oz (2011 musical): Danielle Hope and later Sophie Evans 2012 Toronto production Danielle Wade
- Dorothy and the Witches of Oz: Paulie Rojas
- Tom and Jerry and the Wizard of Oz: Grey DeLisle
- After the Wizard: Jordan Van Vranken as "Elizabeth Haskins"
- The Fresh Beat Band: The Wizard of Song: Tara Perry as "Marina"
- Supernatural (US TV series):Tiio Horn as "Dorothy" (Episode: Slumber Party)
- Once Upon a Time (2014): Matreya Scarrwener
- Legends of Oz: Dorothy's Return: Lea Michele (voice)
- Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p 159 ISBN 0-415-92151-1
- Baum, L. Frank; Hearn, Michael Patrick. The Annotated Wizard of Oz. p. 38. ISBN 0-517-50086-8. Archived from the original on 2006-05-24.
The secret of Alice's success lay in the fact that she was a real child, and any normal child could sympathize with her throughout her adventures. The story may often bewilder -- having neither plot nor motive in its narrative --but Alice is engaged in strange and marvelous activity at every moment, so the child reader follows her with rapturous delight.
- Internet Movie Database, "The Wizard of Oz" (1939): Trivia.
- Pollak, Michael (27 May 2013). "Where Twisters Dug In, So Did They". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
Two decades later, he writes, a struggling entrepreneur named Lyman Baum, who was working on a children's book, came upon a grim detail in a newspaper account of the Irving disaster: "The name of one of the victims, who had been found buried face down in a mud puddle, was Dorothy Gale" — a name the author, writing as L. Frank Baum, would soon immortalize in "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz."
- Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p 178-9 ISBN 0-415-92151-1
- Reifer, Jodi Lee (2010-11-30). "Staten Island indie filmmaker's 'Dream' project gets screened a decade later". SILive.com. Staten Island: Advance Digital Media. Retrieved 2014-08-13.
- Covert, Colin (10 March 2013). "‘Oz the Great and Powerful’ is big and beautiful". Salisbury Post. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
He makes a young, svelte, rather hot conjurer who has broken many a heart, including that of Dorothy Gale’s mom-to-be (liquid-eyed Michelle Williams, resplendent in a blond wig).