Dorothea Lange

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Dorthea Lange)
Jump to: navigation, search
Dorothea Lange
Lange car.jpg
Dorothea Lange in 1936
Born Dorothea Margaretta Nutzhorn
(1895-05-26)May 26, 1895
Hoboken, New Jersey
Died October 11, 1965(1965-10-11) (aged 70)
San Francisco, California
Nationality American
Known for Photography
Spouse(s) Maynard Dixon (1920–1935)
Paul Schuster Taylor (1935–1965)

Dorothea Lange (May 26, 1895 – October 11, 1965) was an influential American documentary photographer and photojournalist, best known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA). Lange's photographs humanized the consequences of the Great Depression and influenced the development of documentary photography.

Early life[edit]

Born of second generation German immigrants on May 26, 1895, at 1041 Bloomfield Street, Hoboken, New Jersey,[1][2] Dorothea Lange was named Dorothea Margaretta Nutzhorn at birth. She dropped her middle name and assumed her mother's maiden name after her father abandoned the family when she was 12 years old, one of two traumatic incidents early in her life. The other was her contraction of polio at age seven which left her with a weakened right leg and a permanent limp.[1][2] "It formed me, guided me, instructed me, helped me and humiliated me," Lange once said of her altered gait. "I've never gotten over it, and I am aware of the force and power of it."[3]

Career[edit]

Lange's 1936, Migrant Mother, Florence Owens Thompson
Children at the Weill public school in San Francisco pledge allegiance to the American flag in April 1942, prior to the internment of Japanese Americans.
Grandfather and grandson at Manzanar Relocation Center.

Lange was educated in photography at Columbia University in New York City, in a class taught by Clarence H. White. She was informally apprenticed to several New York photography studios, including that of the famed Arnold Genthe. In 1918, she moved to San Francisco, and by the following year she had opened a successful portrait studio.[2][4] She lived across the bay in Berkeley for the rest of her life. In 1920, she married the noted western painter Maynard Dixon, with whom she had two sons, Daniel, born in 1925, and John, born in 1930.[5]

With the onset of the Great Depression, Lange turned her camera lens from the studio to the street. Her studies of unemployed and homeless people captured the attention of local photographers and led to her employment with the federal Resettlement Administration (RA), later called the Farm Security Administration (FSA).

In December 1935, she divorced Dixon and married economist Paul Schuster Taylor, Professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley.[5] Taylor educated Lange in social and political matters, and together they documented rural poverty and the exploitation of sharecroppers and migrant laborers for the next five years – Taylor interviewing and gathering economic data, Lange taking photos.

Resettlement Administration[edit]

From 1935 to 1939, Dorothea Lange's work for the RA and FSA brought the plight of the poor and forgotten – particularly sharecroppers, displaced farm families, and migrant workers – to public attention. Distributed free to newspapers across the country, her poignant images became icons of the era.

Lange's best-known picture is titled "Migrant Mother."[6] The woman in the photo is Florence Owens Thompson. The original photo featured Florence's thumb and index finger on the tent pole, but the image was later retouched to hide Florence's thumb. Her index finger was left untouched (lower right in photo).[citation needed]

In 1960, Lange spoke about her experience taking the photograph:

I saw and approached the hungry and desperate mother, as if drawn by a magnet. I do not remember how I explained my presence or my camera to her, but I do remember she asked me no questions. I made five exposures, working closer and closer from the same direction. I did not ask her name or her history. She told me her age, that she was thirty-two. She said that they had been living on frozen vegetables from the surrounding fields, and birds that the children killed. She had just sold the tires from her car to buy food. There she sat in that lean-to tent with her children huddled around her, and seemed to know that my pictures might help her, and so she helped me. There was a sort of equality about it.[7]

After Lange returned home, she told the editor of a San Francisco newspaper about conditions at the camp and provided him with two of her photos. The editor informed federal authorities and published an article that included the photos. As a result, the government rushed aid to the camp to prevent starvation.[8]

According to Thompson's son, Lange got some details of this story wrong, but the impact of the picture was based on the image showing the strength and need of migrant workers.[9]

Japanese American internment[edit]

In 1941, Lange was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship for excellence in photography. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, she gave up the prestigious award to record the forced evacuation of Japanese Americans from the West Coast, on assignment for the War Relocation Authority (WRA).[10] She covered the internment of Japanese Americans[11] and their subsequent incarceration, traveling throughout urban and rural California to photograph families preparing to leave, visiting several temporary assembly centers as they opened, and eventually highlighting Manzanar, the first of the permanent internment camps. Much of her work focused on the waiting and uncertainty involved the removal: piles of luggage waiting to be sorted, families wearing identification tags and waiting for transport.[12] To many observers, her photograph[13] of Japanese American children pledging allegiance to the flag shortly before they were sent to camp is a haunting reminder of this policy of detaining people without charging them of any crime or affording them any appeal.[14]

Her images were so obviously critical that the Army impounded most of them, and they were not seen publicly for more than 50 years.[15] Today her photographs of the internment are available in the National Archives on the website of the Still Photographs Division, and at the Bancroft Library of the University of California, Berkeley.

California School of Fine Arts[edit]

In 1945, Lange was invited by Ansel Adams to accept a position as faculty at the first fine art photography department at the California School of Fine Arts (CSFA). Imogen Cunningham and Minor White joined as well.[16]

In 1952, Lange co-founded the photographic magazine Aperture. Lange and Pirkle Jones were commissioned in the mid-1950s to shoot a photographic documentary for Life magazine of the death of Monticello, California and of the displacement of its residents by the damming of Putah Creek to form Lake Berryessa. The magazine did not run the piece, so Lange devoted one whole issue of Aperture to the work. The photo collection was shown at the Art Institute of Chicago in 1960.[17]

In the last two decades of her life, Lange's health was poor. She suffered from gastric problems, including bleeding ulcers, as well as post-polio syndrome – although this renewal of the pain and weakness of polio was not yet recognized by most physicians.

Death and legacy[edit]

Lange died of esophageal cancer on October 11, 1965 in San Francisco, California at age 70.[5][18] She was survived by her second husband, Paul Taylor, two children, three stepchildren, and numerous grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

In 1972 the Whitney Museum used 27 of Lange's photographs in an exhibit entitled Executive Order 9066. This exhibit highlighted the Japanese Internment during World War II.

In 2006, an elementary school was named in her honor in Nipomo, California, near the site where she photographed "Migrant Mother".

On May 28, 2008, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver announced Lange's induction into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts. The induction ceremony took place on December 15 and her son accepted the honor in her place.

In 2014, American Masters – Dorothea Lange: Grab a Hunk of Lightning[19] premiered August 29 on PBS.[8] Directed and narrated from a uniquely intimate perspective by Lange's granddaughter, Peabody- and five-time Emmy award-winning cinematographer Dyanna Taylor,[20] the film combines family memories and journals with never-before-seen photos and film footage as well as newly discovered interviews. A companion book, Dorothea Lange: Grab a Hunk of Lightning, by Elizabeth Partridge, was published in 2013 and is the only career-spanning monograph of Lange's work in print.[8][21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lurie, Maxine N. and Mappen, Marc. Encyclopedia of New Jersey. 2004, page 455
  2. ^ a b c Vaughn, Stephen L. Encyclopedia of American Journalism. 2008, page 254
  3. ^ "Corrina Wu, "American Eyewitness", ''CR Magazine'', Spring/Summer 2010". Crmagazine.org. Retrieved 2012-09-14. 
  4. ^ "Dorothea Lange". NARA. Retrieved 2008-06-29. Born in Hoboken, New Jersey, Dorothea Lange (1895–1965) announced her intention to become a photographer at age 18. After apprenticing with a photographer in New York City, she moved to San Francisco and in 1919 established her own studio. 
  5. ^ a b c Oliver, Susan (2003-12-07). "Dorothea Lange: Photographer of the People". 
  6. ^ Migrant Mother: The True Story
  7. ^ (Popular Photography, Feb. 1960)
  8. ^ a b c Dorothea Lange – Watch Full Film: Dorothea Lange: Grab a Hunk of Lightning | American Masters | PBS
  9. ^ Dunne, Geoffrey (2002). "Photographic license". New Times. Archived from the original on 2002-06-02. 
  10. ^ "Hayward, California, Two Children of the Mochida Family who, with Their Parents, Are Awaiting Evacuation". World Digital Library. Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  11. ^ Civil Control Station, Registration for evacuation and processing. San Francisco, April 1942. War Relocation Authority, Photo By Dorothea Lange,From the National Archive and Records Administration taken for the War Relocation Authority courtesy of the Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley, California. Published in Image and Imagination, Encounters with the Photography of Dorothea Lange, Edited by Ben Clarke, Freedom Voices, San Francisco, 1997.
  12. ^ Alinder, Jasmine. "Dorothea Lange". Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  13. ^ Pledge of allegiance at Rafael Weill Elementary School a few weeks prior to evacuation, April, 1942. N.A.R.A.; 14GA-78 From the National Archive and Records Administration taken for the War Relocation Authority courtesy of the Bancroft Library. Published in Image and Imagination, Encounters the Photography of Dorothea Lange, Edited by Ben Clarke, Freedom Voices, San Francisco, 1997
  14. ^ Davidov, Judith Fryer. Women's Camera Work. 1998, page 280
  15. ^ Dinitia Smith, NY Times, Nov. 2006, Photographs of an Episode That Lives in Infamy Retrieved March 17, 2011
  16. ^ Robert Mix. "Vernacular Language North. SF Bay Area Timeline. ''Modernism (1930–1960)''". Verlang.com. Retrieved 2012-09-14. 
  17. ^ BellaVistaRanch.net. Suisun History. Nancy Dingler, Part 3 – Fifty years since the birth of the Monticello Dam. Retrieved on August 17, 2009.
  18. ^ "Dorothea Lange Is Dead at 70. Chronicled Dust Bowl Woes. Photographer for 50 Years Took Notable Pictures of 'Oakies' Exodus.". New York Times. October 14, 1965. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  19. ^ Preview Dorothea Lange: Grab a Hunk of Lightning | American Masters | PBS http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/episodes/dorothea-lange/dorothea-lange-grab-a-hunk-of-lighting/3096/
  20. ^ Dyanna Taylor, Dorothea’s granddaughter, talks about directing - Leonard Lopate Show: WNYC
  21. ^ http://www.grabahunkoflightning.com/about-the-book/
Dorothea Lange, Ex-tenant farmer on relief grant in the Imperial Valley, California, 1937.jpg
External video
Dorothea Lange's Documentary Photographs, J. Paul Getty Museum[1]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  1. ^ "Dorothea Lange's Documentary Photographs". J. Paul Getty Museum. Retrieved January 22, 2013.