Douala

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Douala
Douala
Douala
Douala is located in Cameroon
Douala
Douala
Map of Cameroon showing the location of Douala.
Coordinates: 04°03′N 009°41′E / 4.050°N 9.683°E / 4.050; 9.683
Country Flag of Cameroon.svg Cameroon
Region Littoral
Department Wouri
Government
Area
 • Total 210 km2 (80 sq mi)
Elevation 13 m (43 ft)
Population (2012 (est.))
 • Total 2,446,945[1]
Time zone WAT (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) WAT (UTC+1)
Website Official website

Douala is the largest city in Cameroon, the capital of Cameroon's Littoral Region and the richest city in the whole CEMAC region of six countries. Home to Cameroon's largest port and its major international airport, Douala International Airport, it is the commercial capital of the country. Consequently, it handles most of the country's major exports, such as oil, cocoa and coffee, timber, metals and fruits. As of 2010 the city and its surrounding area had an estimated population that surpassed 3,000,000 inhabitants. The city sits on the estuary of the Wouri River and its climate is tropical. Settlements had already existed on present-day Douala prior to the arrival of the Portuguese, British, and Germans; however, it was during the German colonization that the city began to develop rapidly as a commercial and political hub of the German colonial administration. During World War I a bitter battle was fought for control of Douala. The City surrendered to British and French forces on the 27th of September, 1914. A joint Anglo-French condominium governed the city until a comprehensive agreement ceded it (and much of Cameroon) to the French. After the independence of Cameroon, Douala has grown rapidly. Local industries, trade, and other opportunities have attracted an unprecedented influx of migrants, especially from the western region of Cameroon. People from other countries in the region have also permanently settled in the city; they include Nigerians, Chadians, and Malians. In recent times city authorities have been overwhelmed by rapidly increasing population; services are stretched and there is an urgent need to enhance the city's ability to cope with the rapid growth. Douala is the 27th most expensive city in the world and the most expensive in Africa, overtaking Lagos, Nigeria at 32nd. It is ranked 27th for 2009, up from 34th in 2008.[2] In 2007 it was ranked 24th in the world and 1st in Africa.[3] Douala is the first city in tropical Africa to have a piped natural gas supply (presently serving only industrial customers).

History[edit]

The first Europeans to visit the area were the Portuguese in about 1472. At the time the estuary of the Wouri River is known as the Rio dos Camarõns. By 1650, it had become the site of a town formed by immigrants from the interior who spoke the Douala language. And during the 18th century it was center of the transatlantic slave trade. In 1826[4] Douala appears to be made of four different villages located in four specific locations: the village of Deido (Dido), of Akwa, of Njo and Hickory-town (today Bonaberi located on the other side of the Wouri river).

Between 1884 and 1895 the city was under the German protectorate. The colonial politics focus on commerce and some explorations of the territory without the occupation. In 1885 Alfred Saker organises the first mission of the British Baptist Church and in the same year the city known as Kamerun is renamed Douala and it becomes the capital of the protectorate until 1902, when the capital is moved to Buéa. In 1907 the Ministry of Colonies is established and Douala has 23'000 citizens.[5]

After World War I, in 1919, the German colonial territories become French and British colonies. France receives a mandate to administer Douala; a treaty is signed with the local chiefs.

From 1940 to 1946, it was the capital of Cameroon. In 1955 the city has over 100'000 inhabitants.[5]

In 1960 Cameroon is independent and it becomes a federal republic, with its capital in Yaoundé. Douala comes the major economic city. In 1972 the federal republic comes a unified State. Douala has a population of around 500'000 inhabitants.[5]

In the Eighties grows in Cameroon the struggle for liberalization and multi-partitism; between May and December 1991 Douala is at the centre of the civil disobedience campaign called the ghost town operation (ville morte) during which economic activities shut down to make the country ungovernable and to force the government to allow multi-partitiesm and freedom of expression.[6]

Name[edit]

With the arrival of the Portuguese in the 15th century, the area is known as Rio dos Camarõns. Before coming under German rule in 1884,[7] the town was also known as Cameroons Town; thereafter it became Kamerunstadt ("Camaroon City"), the capital of German Kamerun. It was renamed Douala in 1907 after the name of the natives known as Dua ala Ijaws ( Njos ) and became part of the French Cameroons in 1919. Many of the Ijaw ( Njo ) natives migrated to the Niger Delta in Nigeria during the Portuguese era.

Geography[edit]

The city is located on the banks of the Wouri River, the two sides linked by Bonaberi Bridge.

Cityscape[edit]

The city of Douala is divided into 7 districts (Akwa, Bassa, Bonabéri, Bonapriso, Bonanjo, Deïdo and New Bell)[8] and it has more than 120 neighborhoods. Akwa is Douala's business district and Bonanjo its administrative district. Plateau Joss is the name used historically to call the current district of Akwa. The name of the districts refer to the Douala lineage, as well as the neighborhoods. For example Akwa was historically divided between Bell and Deido into Bonadibong, Bonamilengue, Boneleke, Bonalembe, Bonejang, Bonamuti, Bonabekombo, Bonaboijan, Bonakuamuang; the prefix "bona" means "descendent of".

Architecture[edit]

According to Jacques Soulillou,[9] historical images of Douala document the areas of Akwa (Plateau Joss) and the port between 1860 and 1960, while the district of Bonaberi, Deido and New Bell have almost no images. The archives which provide documentation about the city are based in Paris,[10] Basel,[11] Hamburg,[12] Potsdam,[13] Douala[14] and Yaoundé.[15] The Native Baptist Church is built 1849. In 1896 a first urban plan of the city is developed during the German colonial period. The plan includes an hospital, the governor residency, the palace of justice, the police station, administrative buildings and buildings for the port and customs (among those the Old Woermann Linie Bachelors House). Also the Bonakouamouang Chimney dates back to this period. In 1904 starts the construction of the Villa Mandessi Bell, in 1905 the palace of the King Manga Ndumbe Bell (also called la Pagode) is built and in 1906 the general plan of Gross Douala is established. In 1914 the large population living in Bonanjo is moved to the new estate of Neue Bell (New Bell). Between 1925 and 1930, during the French colonial period, the chamber of commerce, the new palace of justice, the new railway station, the vault of the Kings Bell and the catholic cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul are built. Constructions are intensified between 1930 and 1955 and in 1955 the bridge on the Wouri River is built. In 1935 the Mausoleum of the Kings Akwa is constructed. In 1947 the Temple of the Centenary is build. In 1959 a new city plan is designed (Plan Dorian); according to Danièle Diwouta-Kotto,[5] this plan is still influencing Douala urban development. After the independence of 1960 a new development and urban plan is established and in 1998 a research prepares the diagnostic for 2015 horizon. In 2005 a new development and urban plan is designed and routes and public canalizations are reestablished and created. In the same year the Project Sawa-Beach is launched Since 1888 terracotta bricks are produced in Douala.[5] The publication Suites architecturales[5] focuses on heritage and reappropriation in the architecture of Douala and it presents some of the characteristics of the buildings and architecture of Douala after its independence. Among those buildings the Casino, the Show-room La Meublerie, the Exhibition hall Cami-Toyota, Union Bank of Cameroon, Immeuble Hollando, the Baptist Church, Immeuble Victoria, Headquarters CA-SCB, espace doual'art, Orange Flagship. The Palace Dika Akwa Mukanda is built in 1990.

Climate[edit]

Douala features a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am), with relatively constant temperatures throughout the course of the year. The city typically features warm and humid conditions with an average annual temperature of 27.0 °C (80.6 °F) and an average humidity of 85%.[16][17] Douala sees plentiful rainfall during the course of the year, experiencing on average roughly of 3,600 millimetres (140 in) precipitation of rainfall per year.[16] Its driest month is December where on average 28 millimetres (1.1 in) of precipitation falls while its wettest month is August when on average nearly 700 millimetres (28 in) of rain falls.[16]

Climate data for Douala
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33
(91)
35
(95)
37
(99)
37
(99)
37
(99)
32
(90)
35
(95)
32
(90)
32
(90)
37
(99)
36
(97)
32
(90)
37
(99)
Average high °C (°F) 32.2
(90)
32.8
(91)
32.5
(90.5)
32.1
(89.8)
31.4
(88.5)
29.9
(85.8)
28.1
(82.6)
27.7
(81.9)
29.0
(84.2)
29.8
(85.6)
30.9
(87.6)
31.7
(89.1)
30.67
(87.22)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.8
(82)
28.5
(83.3)
28.2
(82.8)
27.8
(82)
27.3
(81.1)
26.5
(79.7)
25.4
(77.7)
25.3
(77.5)
25.9
(78.6)
26.2
(79.2)
27.1
(80.8)
27.5
(81.5)
26.96
(80.52)
Average low °C (°F) 23.4
(74.1)
24.1
(75.4)
23.9
(75)
23.5
(74.3)
23.2
(73.8)
23.0
(73.4)
22.7
(72.9)
22.8
(73)
22.8
(73)
22.5
(72.5)
23.2
(73.8)
23.3
(73.9)
23.2
(73.76)
Record low °C (°F) 17
(63)
18
(64)
18
(64)
18
(64)
20
(68)
19
(66)
17
(63)
18
(64)
17
(63)
17
(63)
18
(64)
20
(68)
17
(63)
Precipitation mm (inches) 34.2
(1.346)
54.5
(2.146)
155.2
(6.11)
241.2
(9.496)
276.2
(10.874)
354.1
(13.941)
681.4
(26.827)
687.5
(27.067)
561.2
(22.094)
406.6
(16.008)
123.1
(4.846)
27.5
(1.083)
3,602.7
(141.838)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5 9 15 18 21 23 27 30 26 24 12 5 215
 % humidity 81 81 83 84 85 87 89 89 88 87 85 83 85.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 192.2 180.8 170.5 177.0 176.7 123.0 71.3 52.7 90.0 130.2 162.0 182.9 1,709.3
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization[16]Hong Kong Observatory (sun 1961-1990)[18]
Source #2: Weatherbase (record highs and lows, humidity)[17]

Culture and contemporary life[edit]

Along the city's main thoroughfare lie some of Cameroon's best restaurants, coffee houses and French-style patisseries; along the waterfront, many bars and bistros may be found, commanding views of the Gulf of Guinea and nearby mangrove swamps. Many of these are frequented by the city's large expatriate population, mainly French or Lebanese, most of whom work in the petroleum industry.

Points of interest[edit]

  • Hotel Akwa Palace
  • Place du Gouvernement
  • La Pagode
  • Doual'art
  • Joseph-Francis Sumegné, La Nouvelle Liberté, 1996
  • Casino Kheops
Casino Kheops,Akwa, Boulevard Amadou Ahidjo.

Education[edit]

As in most large cities in Cameroon there are several nursery, primary, secondary and high schools in the city. In recent years there has been a surge in the number of private schools. More parents turn to send their kids to these schools considering the fairly elevated standards of the way they are managed. The city has a vibrant academic population which is visible during morning rush hours. In is interesting to note that there is also a large informal educational sector that caters for a huge part of the population; mostly individuals with primary school certificate or those with no education at all. This form of education is common in sectors like cloth manufacture, bread making, construction, security, car repair. Individuals from this these informal sector are by far the most visible in deprive neighborhoods’ such as Bonaberi, Ndokoti, Bepanda, Village, Logbaba.

The city of Douala is home to a number of higher education institutions including the University of Douala. There are also a number of professional school the most prominent being the Douala Maritime institute. Douala has an aviation school called CAE Oxford Aviation Academy Douala. The city of Douala is however mostly a commercial city hence education is not underscored like in other cities

Transportation[edit]

Douala is linked by rail to Yaoundé, Ngaoundéré, Kumba and Nkongsamba. Douala has a fairly developed road network compared to other cities in Cameroon. However much of the city's road decayed due to years of neglect and corruption. Efforts have been made recently to renovate the cities road especially in the most deprived neighborhoods.

The Douala International Airport is located in the eastern part of the city. There are direct flights to several European cities including Paris, Brussels, Lyon. Regional and continental destinations include Abidjan, Lagos, Dakar, Kinshasa, Johannesburg, Nairobi. The Douala International is the busiest in the CEMAC area and is the hub for Cameroon's national carrier Camairco.

The seaport has 8.5m of draft.

Sister cities[edit]

City Region Country
Strasbourg  Alsace  France
Akhisar Turkey Manisa Province  Turkey
Dakar Logo council region dakar.png Dakar Region  Senegal
Newark  New Jersey  United States
Philadelphia  Pennsylvania  United States
Windhoek Namibia Khomas Region  Namibia

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Gazetteer". Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. 
  2. ^ Rogers, Simon (7 July 2009). "The Top 50 most expensive cities | News | guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  3. ^ "Mercer's 2010 Cost of Living survey highlights". Mercerhr.com. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  4. ^ Notes from Richard Mother Jackson published in R.-P. Bouchaud 1948 and 1952.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Diwouta-Kotto, Danièle (2010). Suites architecturales: Kinshasa, Douala, Dakar. Épinal: Association VAA, p. 42.
  6. ^ Edmond Kamguia Koumchou (2003) Le Journalisme du Carton Rouge. Douala: Editions l'Etincelle d'Afrique.
  7. ^ "Cameroon and the German Lake Chad Railway". World Digital Library. Retrieved 16 February 2013. 
  8. ^ Douala, Cameroon in Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century African History, eds. Dickson Eyoh, Paul Tiyambe Zeleza, Routledge, 2002, p. 151.
  9. ^ Jacques Soulillou (1989), Douala, un siècle en images. Paris: L'Harmattan, p. 9.
  10. ^ French national archives, Section Outre-mer and Départment des Estampes; Documentation Français, Photothèque Afrique; Archives des Pères du Saint-Esprit; Archives des Missions des Églises Évangeliques; Agence France Press.
  11. ^ Archives of Mission 21.
  12. ^ Welwirtschafsvelten; Deutsch Afrika Linien.
  13. ^ Staatliche Archivverwaltung.
  14. ^ Archive Photo Prunet.
  15. ^ Goethe Institut.
  16. ^ a b c d "World Weather Information Service - Douala". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved December 6, 2012. 
  17. ^ a b "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Douala, Cameroon". Weatherbase. Retrieved December 6, 2012. 
  18. ^ "Climatological Information for Douala, Cameroon". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved December 6, 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

  • (English) Brooke, James (1987). "Informal Capitalism Grows in Cameroon." New York Times. November 30.
  • (English) Derrick, Jonathan (1977). "Review of Douala: ville et histoire by René Gouellain." Africa: Journal of the International African Institute. 47:4.
  • (French) Diwouta-Kotto, Danièle (2010). Suites architecturales: Kinshasa, Douala, Dakar. Épinal: Association VAA.
  • (English) Elate, Som Simon (2004). "African Urban History in the Future." Globalization and Urbanization in Africa. Steven Salm and Toyin Falola, eds. Trenton: Africa World Press.
  • (French) Gouellain, René (1969). Douala, ville et histoire. Paris: Institut d'ethnologie Musée de l'homme.
  • (English) Hance, William (1964). The Geography of Modern Africa. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • (English) Lambi, C. M. and Hombe, L. F. (2002). "Environmental Hazards and Landuse Planning for Sustainable Development: the Douala Unstable Coastal Region." Instability: Planning and Management. R. G. Macinnes and Jenny Jakeways, eds. London: Thomas Telford.
  • (French) Lauber, Wolfgang (1988). Architectures allemandes au Cameroun 19884-1914. Stuttgart: Karl Kramer Verlag.
  • (English) Levine, Victor (1971). The Cameroon Federal Republic. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • (French) Mainet, Guy (1985). Douala, croissance et servitudes. Paris: L'Harmattan.
  • (English) Njoh, Ambe (2003). Planning in Contemporary Africa. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • (French) Séraphin, Gilles (2000). "Vivre à Douala. L'imaginaire et l'action dans une ville africaine en crise". Paris: L'Harmattan.
  • (English) Simone, A. M. (2004). For the City Yet to Come: Changing African Life in Four Cities. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • (French) Soulillou, Jacques (1989), Douala, un siècle en images. Paris: L'Harmattan.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 4°03′N 9°42′E / 4.050°N 9.700°E / 4.050; 9.700