Double loop learning
The work of Chris Argyris (1923-2013) describes the concept of double-loop learning (DLL) in which an individual, organization or entity is able, having attempted to achieve a goal on different occasions, to modify the goal in the light of experience or possibly even reject the goal. Single-loop learning (SLL) is the repeated attempt at the same problem, with no variation of method and without ever questioning the goal.
- Argyris, C.; Schon, D. (1978). Organizational Learning: A theory of action perspective. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-00174-8.
- "Teaching Smart People How to Learn," by Chris Argyris, Harvard Business Review, May-June, 1991, pp. 99-109
- "Chris Argyris: theories of action, double-loop learning and organizational learning," by Mark K. Smith 2001, infed
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