Double acute accent

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˝
Double acute accent
Diacritics
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(  ̑ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
cedilla( ¸ )
circumflex( ˆ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
hook, hook above(   ̡   ̢  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
iota subscript(  ͅ  )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek, nosinė( ˛ )
perispomene(  ͂  )
ring( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( ◌̸ )
colon( : )
comma( , )
hyphen( ˗ )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
chandrakkala( )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( )
handakuten( )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Ő ő
Ű ű

The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the Latin script. It is used primarily in written Hungarian, and consequently is sometimes referred to by typographers as Hungarumlaut, a portmanteau of Hungarian umlaut.[1] The signs formed with diacritic marks are letters in their own right in the Hungarian alphabet (for instance, they are separate letters for the purpose of collation).

Uses[edit]

Vowel length[edit]

History[edit]

Length marks first appeared in Hungarian orthography in the 15th-century Hussite Bible. Initially, only á and é were marked, since they are different in quality as well as length. Later í, ó, ú were marked as well.

In the 18th century, before Hungarian orthography became fixed, u and o with umlaut + acute (ǘ, ö́) were used in some printed documents.[2] 19th century typographers introduced the double acute as a more aesthetic solution.

Hungarian[edit]

Standard Hungarian has 14 vowels in a symmetrical system: seven short vowels (a, e, i, o, ö, u, ü) and seven long ones, which are written with an acute accent in the case of á, é, í, ó, ú, and with the double acute in the case of ő, ű. Vowel length has phonemic significance in Hungarian, that is, it distinguishes different words and grammatical forms.

short a e i o ö u ü
long á é í ó ő ú ű

Slovak[edit]

At the beginning of the 20th century, the letter A̋ a̋ (A with double acute) was sometimes used in Slovak as a long variant of the short vowel Ä ä (A with diaeresis), representing the vowel /æː/ in dialect or in some loanwords.[3] Other long vowels are written with a single acute accent.

The letter is still used for this purpose in Slovak phonetic transcription systems.

Umlaut[edit]

Handwriting[edit]

In handwriting in German and Swedish, the umlaut is sometimes written similarly to a double acute.

Chuvash[edit]

The Chuvash language written in the Cyrillic script uses a double-acute Ӳ, ӳ /y/ as a front counterpart of Cyrillic letter У, у /u/ (see Chuvash vowel harmony), likely after the analogy of handwriting in Latin script languages.[4] In other minority languages of Russia (Khakas, Mari, Altai, and Khanty), the umlauted form Ӱ is used instead.

Faroese[edit]

Example of an ő on a Faroese traffic sign

Classical Danish handwriting uses "ó" for "ø", which becomes a problem when writing Faroese in the same tradition, as "ó" is a part of the Faroese alphabet. Thus ő is sometimes used for ø in Faroese.

Tone[edit]

International Phonetic Alphabet[edit]

The IPA and many other phonetic alphabets use two systems to indicate tone: a diacritic system and an adscript system. In the diacritic system, the double acute represents an extra high tone.

tone diacritic adscript
extra high
high é
mid ē
low è
extra low ȅ

One may encounter this use as a tone sign in some IPA-derived orthographies of minority languages, such as in the North American Native Tanacross (Athapascan). In line with the IPA usage it denotes the extra-high tone.

Technical notes[edit]

O and U with double acute accents are supported in the ISO 8859-2 and Unicode character sets.

ISO 8859-2[edit]

In ISO 8859-2 Ő, ő, Ű, ű take the place of some similar looking (but distinct, especially at bigger font sizes) letters of ISO 8859-1.

Codepoint 0xD5 0xF5 0xDB 0xFB
ISO 8859-1 Õ õ Û û
ISO 8859-2 Ő ő Ű ű

Unicode[edit]

All occurrences of "double acute" in the Unicode 4.1 standard:

description character Unicode HTML
Latin
LETTER O
WITH DOUBLE ACUTE
Ő
ő
U+0150
U+0151
Ő
ő
LETTER U
WITH DOUBLE ACUTE
Ű
ű
U+0170
U+0171
Ű
ű
Accents
COMBINING
DOUBLE ACUTE
ACCENT
◌̋ U+030B ̋
DOUBLE ACUTE
ACCENT
◌˝ U+02DD ˝
MODIFIER LETTER
MIDDLE
DOUBLE ACUTE ACCENT
◌˶ U+02F6 ˶
Cyrillic
LETTER U
WITH DOUBLE ACUTE
Ӳ
ӳ
U+04F2
U+04F3
Ӳ
ӳ
Canadian syllabics
FINAL
DOUBLE ACUTE
◌ᐥ U+1425 ᐥ

LaTeX Input[edit]

In LaTeX, the double acute accent is typeset with the \H{} (mnemonic for Hungarian) command. For example, the name Paul Erdős (in his native Hungarian: Erdős Pál) would be typeset as

Erd\H{o}s P\'al.

X11 Input[edit]

In modern X11 system, the double acute can be typed by pressing the Compose key followed by = (the equal sign) and desired letter (o or u).

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Ray Larabie (18 Aug 2010). "The Low Profile Acutes vs. Hungarumlaut". typophile.com. Retrieved 2014-09-17. 
  2. ^ "Short, illustrated outline about the Hungarian double acutes". www.font.hu. Retrieved 2014-09-17. 
  3. ^ Czambel, S. 1902. Rukoväť spisovnej reči slovenskej. Turčiansky Sv. Martin: Vydanie Knihkupecko-nakladateľshého spolku, p. 2.
  4. ^ A possible explanation of the diacritic being influenced by the German handwritten form is the early version of the Chuvash alphabet devised much more than 50 years before the other ones mentioned.

External links[edit]