Double bottom line
While all businesses have a conventional bottom line to measure their fiscal performance— financial profit or loss— enterprises that seek a second bottom line look to measure their performance in terms of positive social impact.
The idea that for-profit corporations have an obligation to support social causes beyond their immediate interest in short-term profits dates back at least to the Corporate Social Responsibility movement that can be traced to the 1960s. The idea that upholding social responsibilities can help a company sustain its profits in the long has been "part of mainstream management theory at least since the publication of Edward Freeman's 1984 classic, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach," according to an article by Wayne Norman and Chris MacDonald in 2004. An early reference to the term itself came in Emerson and Twersky's 1996 book New Social Entrepreneurs: The Success, Challenge, and Lessons of Non-profit Enterprise Creation."
One example of a double bottom line enterprise is the Khushhali Bank’s microfinance program in Pakistan. While the bank wants to generate profits so that it can grow, it has a second bottom line of reducing local poverty. Its 2004 annual report provides "audited financial statements and indicators of financial performance such as the bank’s credit rating, portfolio at risk and efficiency ratio" but also notes that the bank was "established to mobilize funds for providing micro-finance services to poor persons, particularly poor women for mitigating poverty and promoting social welfare and economic justice..." [Cited by Dart, Raymond.] For an example of a double bottom line in the public sector, California State Treasurer Philip Angelides in 2000 called on state programs "to create economic growth and development in California's communities" by investing in them.
Some cite for-profit corporations contributing money or labor to charities and social causes. A 2006 article on corporate branding points to Nike's support of the "NikeGO" program to encourage and enable physical activity by children, and "Zoneparcs" "to transform playtime at UK primary schools." It also refers to Ben & Jerry's "splitting the traditional financial bottom line into a 'double' bottom line, which included a measurement of the environmental impact of their products and processes."
There is controversy about how to measure the double bottom line, especially since the use of the term "bottom line" implies some form of quantification. A 2004 report by the Center for Responsible Business (University of California, Berkeley) noted that while there are " generally accepted principles of accounting" for financial returns, "A comparable standard for social impact accounting does not yet exist." Social Return on Investment has been suggested as a way to quantify the second bottom line.
- Triple bottom line, a UN standardized term
- Integrated bottom line, an attempt to combine the parameters from the triple bottom line as a single parameter (links to Triple bottom line).
- DeGeorge, Richard T. Business Ethics. 7th. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc., 2010. 200. Print.
- Norman, Wayne; Chris MacDonald (April 2004). "Getting to the Bottom of 'Triple Bottom Line'". Business Ethics Quarterly 14 (2): 243–262. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Emerson, J (1996). New Social Entrepreneurs: The Success, Challenge, and Lessons of Non-proﬁt Enterprise Creation. San Francisco: Roberts Foundation.
- Montgomery, Heather (2005). "Meeting the double bottom line: the impact of Khushhali bank's micro". Asian Development Bank Institute Policy Paper (8): 1–2.
- Dart, Raymond (Summer 2014). "The Legitimacy of Social Enterprise". nonprofit Management & Leadership 14 (4): 411–424. doi:10.1002/nml.43. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Angelides, Philip. "The Double Bottom Line: Investing in California's Emerging Markets". Presented at CNU 2000. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Keller, Kevin Lane (Sep–Nov 2006). "The importance of corporate brand personality traits to a successful 21st century business". Brand Management 14 (1/2): 74–81. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Rosenzweig, William (2004-01-01). "Double Bottom Line Project Report:Assessing Social Impact In Double Bottom Line Ventures". Center for Responsible Business. Working Paper Series: 3. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- National Association of Socially Responsible Organizations
- Catalyst Fund Management and Research