Dov Lior (Hebrew: דב ליאור, born 1933) is an Israeli rabbi, who serves as the Chief Rabbi of Hebron and Kiryat Arba in the southern West Bank. He is also the rosh yeshiva Kiryat Arba Hesder Yeshiva, and also heads the "Council of Rabbis of Judea and Samaria".
He was born to a Belz hasidic family, son to Moshe Leinwand in Jarosław, Galizia. After failing to board the Exodus, he eventually managed to arrive in Palestine, and reach the kibbutz Negba a few weeks before the establishment of the State of Israel, where he changed his surname to the Hebrew Lior. In Israel he first studied at the Bnei Akiva Kfar HaRoeh high school yeshiva, and then at Rabbi Zvi Yehuda Kook's Mercaz haRav yeshiva, where owing to Lior's being an orphan, the Rabbi treated him like a son. Lior married Bitya in 1960. She died of cancer in 1988. He later married Esther, widow of Rabbi Ephraim Shahor. Lior has 11 children, 55 grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren. Two of his brothers arrived in Israel after him and joined the Hashomer Hatzair kibbutz HaMa'apil.
Lior is a Religious Zionist leader and student of Zvi Yehuda Kook, son of Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook. He served as Rabbi of Moshav Kfar Haroeh for 10 years. He subsequently became Chief Rabbi of Kiryat Arba. He serves along with Rav Eliezer Waldman as Head of the Hesder Yeshiva Nir Kiryat Arba. In 1978 he ran for the post of Chief Rabbi of Jerusalem but was defeated 37-25 by Rav B. Zolti. He served as Av Beit Din of the Beersheva Rabbinical Court. One of his rulings, that Jews should be prepared to sacrifice their lives to defend the settlement of Hebron, has been interpreted as support for acts of suicide if the government tries to force evauation. In the late 1980s Israel's Attorney General barred Lior’s almost certain election to the Supreme Rabbinical Council of Israel following a public outcry over his remark that captured Arab terrorists could be used as guinea pigs in medical experiments. After the Mercaz HaRav massacre, he said it was forbidden by Jewish law to employ or rent homes to Arabs.
In 2008, Lior and other right-wing rabbis declared the government's policies on Israeli settlements to be "worse than the British Mandate's White Paper." Evaluating the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, Lior said it proved Israel was the one Middle Eastern state with sufficient military force to be considered a real power, a state all nations, willy nilly, must reckon with, and that 'rooting out the iniquity (of the terrorists)' was 'but a preliminary to the eventual rooting out of all evil in the world'. According to Professor Uriel Simon, he is also reported to have said at a rally that, '(i)n order to prevent the death of one (Israeli) soldier, I am willing to destroy all of Beirut'. 
In 2009, he denounced the possible transfer of jurisdiction of Christian sites in Israel to the Holy See, saying it was "unthinkable to hand over to the Vatican any piece of our holy land". In 2011 he suggested that the Israeli government should offer incentives to the Bedouin to return to what he considered as their places of origin, Saudi Arabia and Libya.
in 2011, Lior was called in for interrogation by Israeli police about controversial statements attributed to him in a foreword written by him for the book of a colleague. He agreed to be questioned at his home but the police issued a warrant for his arrest which sparked wide condemnation in religious right wing circles.
Lior has legitimized by a halakha ruling the killing of non-Jews during wartime. He asserted that Jewish women should not use sperm donated by a non-Jewish man and a baby born through such an insemination will have the "negative genetic traits that characterize non-Jews" and that "Gentile sperm leads to barbaric offspring".
Leading rabbis have testified that Lior was the source of rulings labeling the late Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin a "rodef" and a "moser" (a traitor who endangers Jewish lives). Rabin's assassin is known to have visited Lior. Baruch Goldstein also met with Lior. After Goldstein murdered 29 Palestinian worshipers at the Cave of the Patriarchs, Lior described Goldstein as "holier than all the martyrs of the Holocaust."
In June 2011, Lior was arrested by Israeli police and questioned on suspicion of inciting violence for endorsing a religious book, the King's Torah, that gives Jews permission to kill innocent non-Jews, including babies. Lior had been summoned for questioning by authorities, but refused to appear. Spontaneous demonstrations erupted in and around Jerusalem as outraged supporters assembled in various parts of the city and on Route 1 to protest Lior's arrest. Israeli chief rabbis Yona Metzger and Shlomo Amar condemned the arrest as a "grave offense to an important rabbi's honor," and 25 members of Knesset signed a petition denouncing it as "shameful" and as having been orchestrated by Deputy State Prosecutor Shai Nitzan. Lior was released after an hour of questioning.
In September 2011, he stated that Arabs are 'evil camel riders'.
In 2012, Lior called US President Barack Obama a racial slur "kushi of the West", and likened him to the genocidal enemy of the Jews, Haman. He also compared Western European leaders to Nazi collaborators.
- Chaim Levinson,'Kiryat Arba chief rabbi arrested following his support of book which justifies killing of non-Jews,' Haaretz,27 June 2011.
- 'Hebron Chief Rabbi Pulls Support from Bennett's Party,' The Jewish Press, 4 January 2013.
- HaPardes Journal, Tevet 5738 p. 26
- Ehud Sprinzak 'Israel's Radical Right and the Countdown to the Rabin Assassination,' in Yoram Peri (ed.), [The Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin,] Stanford University Press, 2000 pp.96-127 p.106.
- Gershom Gorenberg, The End of Days: Fundamentalism and the Struggle for the Temple Mount, Free Press, New York 2000 p. 164
- Israël Shahak, Norton Mezvinsky, Jewish fundamentalism in Israel, Pluto Press, 2004 p.103
- Nadav Shragai, 'Top Yesha rabbi says Jewish law forbids renting houses to Arabs'’ Haaretz 20/03/2008
- Rabbi Lior Speaks Out Against Hiring of Arabs Yedioth Ahronoth
- Rightist rabbis brand gov't policy on settlements worse than White Paper Jerusalem Post
- Aviezer Ravitzky, Messianism, Zionism, and Jewish Religious Radicalism, University of Chicago Press,(1993) 1996 p.84.
- Myron J. Aronoff, Israeli Visions and Divisions, Transaction Publishers, 1998 p.115.
- Chief Rabbinate: Holy Land assets cannot be turned over to Vatican
- 'Rabbi Lior: Encourage Bedouins to leave Israel ,' Ynet,26 April 2011.
- Yair Altman,'Rabbi Dov Lior arrested,' Ynet, 27 June 2011:'An arrest warrant was issued against Rabbi Lior a few months ago for alleged incitement over statements published in his book "The King's Torah," in which he legitimized the killing of non-Jews in war time.'
- "'Gentile sperm leads to barbaric offspring' - Israel Jewish Scene, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- Sarah Willen, "Darfur through a Shoah lens", in A Reader in Medical Anthropology, edited by Byron J. Good, Michael M. J. Fischer, Sarah S. Willen, Mary-Jo DelVecchio Good, Wiley, pp. 506-21
- Rachlevsky, Sefi (2011-07-01). "A racist, messianic rabbi is the ruler of Israel - Israel News | Haaretz Daily Newspaper". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- Peter Beinart, The Crisis of Zionism, Macmillan 2012 p.23.
- "the extremist rabbi who reigns unobstructed". Haaretz. November 5, 2013.
- Manel, Jonah (27 June 2011). "Rabbi Lior joins marchers in J'lem protesting his arrest". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 28 June 2011. "Kiryat Arba Chief Rabbi Dov Lior was detained by police Monday afternoon over his endorsement of a book that purportedly incites violence entitled, Torat Hamelech (King’s Torah)."
- Yair Altman; Kobi Nahshoni; Omri Efraim; Oran Azulay (28 June 2011). "Rightists threaten further violence over rabbi's arrest". Ynetnews. Retrieved 28 June 2011. "Earlier, Israel's chief rabbis Yona Metzger and Shlomo Amar issued a joint statement Monday condemning the arrest of Kiryat Arba Rabbi Dov Lior."
- Ravid, Barak (2011-06-28). "Netanyahu responds to Rabbi Dov Lior's arrest: Israeli law applies to all citizens Israel News | Haaretz Daily Newspaper". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "Rabbi Lior: Arabs are 'evil camel riders' - Israel Jewish Scene, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- ''Rabbi Lior compares Obama to villain Haman,' Jerusalem Post,02/03/2012.