Downloadable content (DLC) is additional content for a video game distributed through the Internet by the game's official publisher or other third party content producers. Downloadable content can be of several types, ranging from aesthetic outfit changes to a new, extensive storyline, similar to an expansion pack. As such, DLC may add new game modes, objects, levels, challenges or other features to a complete an already released game.
DLC and a content creating and sharing user base are essential long-term needs in more complex simulator products such as V-scale model railroading applications (such as Trainz, RailWorks, and MSTS) where in the long term, much of the allure comes from the ability to build new layouts or expand others, including writing customized the "game play" like operating modules. Since 3D asset generation is typically a technically demanding and time consuming activity—a steam locomotive can take 2–4 full months of time to implement, and a long large route can consume years of development—such emulations only grow through the power of numbers of the many producing and sharing assets in the hobby community.
In the case of episodic video games, a new episode may come in the form of downloadable content, whereas music video games utilize this media to offer new songs for the players. Downloadable content became prevalent in the 21st century, and especially with the proliferation of Internet-enabled, sixth-generation video game consoles. Special edition or Game of the Year re-releases of games often incorporate previously released DLC along with the main title in a physical package.
Precursors to DLC
The earliest form of downloadable content were offerings of full games, such as on the Atari 2600's GameLine service, which allowed users to download games using a telephone line. A similar service, Sega Channel, allowed for the downloading of games to the Sega Genesis over a cable line. While the GameLine and Sega Channel services allowed for the distribution of entire titles, they did not provide downloadable content for existing titles.
On personal computers
As the popularity and speed of internet connections rose, so did the popularity of using the internet for digital distribution of media. User-created game mods and maps were distributed exclusively online, as they were mainly created by people without the infrastructure capable of distributing the content through physical media.
The Dreamcast was the first console to feature online support as a standard; DLC was available, though limited in size due to the narrowband connection and the size limitations of a memory card. These online features were still considered a breakthrough in video games, but the competing PlayStation 2 did not ship with a built-in network adapter.
With the advent of the Xbox, Microsoft was the second company to implement downloadable content. Many original Xbox Live titles, including Splinter Cell, Halo 2, and Ninja Gaiden, offered varying amounts of extra content, available for download through the Xbox Live service. Most of this content, with the notable exception of content for Microsoft-published titles, was available for free.
With the Xbox 360, Microsoft integrated downloadable content more fully into their console, devoting an entire section of the console's user interface to the Xbox Live Marketplace. They also partially removed the need for credit cards by implementing their own Microsoft Points currency, which could be bought either with a credit card online or as redeemable codes in game stores. This is a strategy that would be adopted by Nintendo with Nintendo Points and Sony with the PlayStation Network Card. One of the most infamous examples of DLC on consoles was the Horse Armor DLC pack released on the Xbox Live Marketplace for the Bethesda Softworks game The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion.
Sony adopted much of the Xbox Live Marketplace's features into their downloadable hub, the PlayStation Store. With Gran Turismo HD, Sony planned an entirely barebones title, with the idea of requiring the bulk of the content to be purchased separately via many separate online microtransactions. The project was later canceled. Nintendo has featured a sparser amount of downloadable content on their Wii Shop Channel, the bulk of which is accounted for by digital distribution of emulated Nintendo titles from previous generations.
Music video games such as Guitar Hero and Rock Band have taken significant advantage of downloadable content. Harmonix claimed that Guitar Hero II would feature "more online content than anyone has ever seen in a game to this date." Rock Band features the largest number of downloadable items of any console video game, with a steady number of new songs being added weekly. Acquiring all the downloadable content for Rock Band would, as of July 12, 2012, cost $9,150.10.
Nokia phones of the late 1990s and early 2000s shipped with side-scrolling shooter Space Impact, available on various models. With the introduction of WAP in 2000, additional downloadable content for the game, with extra levels, became available.
Through use of the Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection users can download DLC to the Nintendo DS handheld for certain games. A good example is Picross DS, in which users can download puzzle "packs" of classic puzzles from previous Picross games (such as Mario's Picross) as well as downloadable user generated content. Professor Layton and the Curious Village was thought to have "bonus puzzles" that can be "downloaded" using the Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection, however connecting to Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection simply unlocked the puzzles which were already stored in the game. Similarly, Moero! Nekketsu Rhythm Damashii Osu! Tatakae! Ouendan 2 had hidden costumes that were unlocked using DS Download Stations for a limited time.
Due to the Nintendo DS's use of cartridges and lack of a hard drive there is limited space for DLC and developers would have to plan for storage space on the cartridge. Picross DS itself only has room for 10 puzzle packs, and Professor Layton's and Ouendan 2's DLC is already on the cartridge and is simply unlocked with a weekly code.
The Nintendo DS's downloadable content is distinct as it is currently being offered at no cost. However, the Nintendo DSi contains a Shop similar to that of the Wii that contains games and applications, most of which must be bought using Nintendo Points. It is also worth noting that, using the Wii's Nintendo Channel, various DS files, such as Game Demo's and videos can be downloaded onto the Wii console and transferred via wireless to a DSi handheld.
The Nintendo 3DS supports downloadable content as of update (22.214.171.124U), the first title to support it being Theatrhythm Final Fantasy in the form of extra songs. Other games to support DLC quickly followed, such Fire Emblem: Awakening, and Shin Megami Tensei IV.
Starting with Apple's iPhone OS version 3.0 release, & Apple's iPhone 4, downloadable content became available for the platform via applications bought from the App Store. While this ability was initially only available to developers for paid applications, Apple eventually allowed for developers to offer this in free applications as well in October 2009.
Pricing for Downloadable Content generally varies from free to $20, though significantly more expensive DLC has existed, as high as £50,000. In addition to individual content downloads, video game publishers sometimes offer a DLC season pass, which allows users to purchase packs of downloadable content for a video game at a lower price than it would cost to buy each one separately. Season passes may be available before each contained content pack is available. In this case, the player will get access to the content as it is released. Downloadable content can also be included in a game purchase, such as with pre-order bonuses or bundled into re-releases of the full game such as "Game of the Year" and "Ultimate" editions.
Microsoft uses points systems to purchase downloadable content and has been criticized for selling only specific amounts of their currency. For example, if someone wants to purchase a $15 item, they are forced to spend $20 just to buy enough currency to buy the $15 item. 80 Xbox Live Marketplace Points are equivalent to one dollar, and 100 Wii point is equal to one dollar. Both companies have been criticized for taking advantage of currency parity, and keeping consumers from realizing the actual cost of items. Like Disney Dollars, the idea is that gamers will be more ready to spend a certain amount of "points" than a specific dollar amount. Downloadable content on the PlayStation Store is sold at prices reflecting real world currency.
Since Facebook games popularized the business model of microtransactions, some have criticized downloadable content as being overpriced, and an incentive for developers to leave items out of the initial release.
Certain items are provided for free. Providing free DLC can also provide revenue for game companies at the expense of users' convenience. For example, Naruto: Ultimate Ninja Storm for the PlayStation 3 was shipped with certain features disabled. However, users can freely download packs to re enable the missing content from the PlayStation Store. Consequently, users are exposed to advertisements and potential purchases. There is also the additional marketing benefit that users may believe that there is continuing support for the product if there is an apparent flow of such patches.
Where a normal software disc may allow its license sold or traded, DLC is generally locked to a specific user's account and does not come with the ability to transfer that license to another user. For instance, non-transferable DLCs were used in EA's "Project Ten Dollars" as mechanism to fight the used games market.
Microsoft has been known to require developers to charge for their content, when the developers would rather release their content for free. Some content has even been withheld from release because the developer refused to charge the amount Microsoft required. Epic Games, known for continual support of their older titles with downloadable updates, believed that releasing downloadable content over the course of a game's lifetime helped increase sales throughout, and had succeeded well with that business-model in the past, but was required to implement fees for downloads when releasing content for their Microsoft-published game, Gears of War.
Some content is delivered exclusively through online services, but the extra content may be on the game disc. Some criticism stems from the fact that many of the items sold on sites like Xbox Live Marketplace are not downloadable content at all, but are instead content keys used to unlock content already on the game disk. Because of this, many people feel as if they are paying to unlock content they already purchased when they bought the game itself. For instance, criticism arose over the downloadable characters for Street Fighter X Tekken, which were found to already be on the game discs.
Publishers may also choose to re-release certain titles with previously available downloadable content bundled. There is also criticism concerning the exclusivity of downloadable contents, as some of these contents are frequently added to new disc version of the game. Buyers of the Resident Evil 5 : Gold Edition would have access to contents previously exclusives as downloadable content without having to pay any extra fee. The Star Wars: The Force Unleashed re-release "Ultimate Sith Edition" featured an additional level that was later released as DLC, despite LucasArts stating it was exclusive to the re-released version.
In other media
While games are the birthplace of downloadable content, with movies, books and music also becoming more popular in the digital sphere, experimental dlc has also been attempted. Amazon's Kindle service for example allows updating ebooks, which allows authors to not only update and correct work, but also add content. For example Val Panesar's book I Despair, of the Servant of the Fates series, added short stories as downloadable content nearly a year after release. In this current form it is not monetised and is similar in form to updates for PC games.
- Giskard (2012-10-12). "Total Annihilation: An RTSG Classic". The Engineering Guild. Retrieved 2013-06-18. "Total Annihilation was one of the early adopters of the DLC releases and every month Cavedog would release a new unit for free to try with the game."
- TA downloadable units on cavedog.com (archived in the Internet Archive on March 30, 2001)
- Goldstein, Hilary (2004-07-16). "Ninja Gaiden Hurricane Pack Vol. 1 Q&A - New details on the enemies, AI changes, and camera fixes. Exclusive screens show off even more enemies and a second costume!". Retrieved 2013-12-17.
- Sterling, Jim (March 13, 2011). "Oblivion's Horse Armor DLC still selling!". Destructoid. Retrieved 2013-06-18. "The "Horse Armor" downloadable content for The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion has become notorious as the premier example of bad DLC. It's a pointless waste of money that gives something totally useful to a non-character you'll barely use."
- "http://www.videogamer.com/news/21-09-2006-3663.html". Retrieved 2008-06-24.
- "Guitar Hero II for Xbox 360 to have most DLC ever". VideoGamer.com. 2007-02-15. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- "Rock Band is an EXPENSIVE Hobby, but HOW Expensive?". Rockbandaide.com. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
- "IGN: Picross DS". Retrieved 2008-06-24.
- "1UP: Picross DS Review". Retrieved 2008-06-24.
- "Professor Layton and the not so downloadable content". 2008-03-20. Retrieved 2008-09-24.
- "First 3DS game with paid DLC is Theatrhythm Final Fantasy".
- Chen, Brian X. (2009-10-15). "Apple Allows In-App Purchases in Free iPhone Apps". Wired. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
- Martin Robinson (2012-07-06). "Molyneux: $50,000 Curiosity DLC "nothing to be ashamed of"". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
- "Open Mic Night". Penny Arcade. 2006-06-26. Retrieved 2008-06-24.
- Chris Morrison (2008-10-29). "A popular Facebook game enrages players by adding micro-transactions". VentureBeat. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
- Ransom-Wiley, James (2006-04-03). "Download Oblivion's horse armor, for a price". Joystiq. Retrieved 2013-12-17.
- Raumer, Daniel (2010-02-18). "Electronic Arts - …kämpft gegen gebrauchte Spiele". GameStar. IDG. Retrieved 2011-07-11.
- Adam Satariano and Cliff Edwards (2010-02-10). "Electronic Arts: Lost in an Alien Landscape". businessweek.com. Retrieved 2013-12-17. ""Project Ten Dollar," a coupon program to reward people who purchase a new game with downloadable content and upgrades. People who buy used games pay an extra $10 or more for the same goodies."
- Game Informer, April 2007
- Earnest Cavalli (2007-03-26). "Microsoft hearts capitalism, shiny rocks; does not heart free content, sunshine". Retrieved 2013-12-17.
- "Paying for content already on the disc, the EVIL side of the Xbox Live Marketplace". 2006-12-20. Retrieved 2013-12-17.
- Dransfield, Ian. "Capcom Includes Paid DLC On The Disc, Hilariously". Play. Retrieved March 16, 2012.
- Sinclair, Brendan (March 16, 2012). "On-Disc DLC Outrage Is Off the Mark". GameSpot. Retrieved March 16, 2012.
- "Announcing Resident Evil 5: Gold Edition". Capcom. November 18, 2009. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
- Thorsen, Tor (2009-07-24). "Force Unleashed unleashing more DLC, Sith Edition". Gamespot. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- Kindle, Amazon. "Wanderlust DLC". Despair.