Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi

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Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi
DR MAGHFOOR AHMAD AJAZI SKETCH, Mar 2013.jpg
Born (1900-03-03)3 March 1900
Muzaffarpur
Died 26 September 1966(1966-09-26) (aged 66)
Muzaffarpur
Nationality Indian
Occupation Political & social activist
Known for Founder of All-India Jamhur Muslim League & Flag bearer for the cause of Urdu Language

Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi (1900–1966) was a political activist from Bihar.

Early life[edit]

Ajazi was born in village Dihuli, Block Sakra of District Muzaffarpur, in Bihar on 3 March 1900.[1] His father Moulvi Hafizuddin Husain and grand father Haji Imam Bakhsh were zamindars and his mother's name was Mahfoozunnisa. His maternal grandfather Reysat Husain was a reputed advocate of Sitamarhi.[2] Ajazi first of all joined Madarsa-e-Imdadia, Darbhanga for religious teachings, then North Brooke Zila School, Darbhanga, from where he was expelled for opposing the Rowlatt Act. He passed the matriculation examination from Pusa High School and was admitted in B.N. College, Patna, for higher studies. He was married to Azizul Fatima, who was daughter of his maternal uncle Moulvi Abul Qasim. His marriage was all Khadi i.e. Bride and Groom both wore hand woven Khadi clothes. After nikah marriage function was transformed into an apublic meeting for freedom struggle, which was attended by Maulana Shafi Daudi, Binda babu (later on Speaker, Bihar Assembly) and Deep babu (later on cabinet minister, Bihar). He became the disciple of Hazrat Ajaz Husain Budayuni, the Khalif of Hazrat Fazle Rahman Ganj Muradabadi and assumed title of 'Ajazi'. Ajazi learned first lesson of patriotism from his father, who was a very generous and popular zamindar on one hand and anti British on other hand. He always protected his subjects from zulum of English saheb. It is why Nilha Saheb of nearby 'Bela Kothi' once came to teach lesson to his father Hafizuddin on a misleading information, but Saheb had to face the wrath of his subjects who forced him to fled away. Seeing his popularity Saheb not only again came next day to apologise, but also beat up the conspirator badly by tying him with a cot. Hafizuddin pardoned that conspirator and appointed him as his manager. Ajazi's mother died in his childhood, while his father died in Lucknow during treatment and buried in Chaar Bagh Qabristan there when Ajazi was in school. His elder brother Maulana Manzoor Ahsan Ajazi was also a freedom fighter and latter on an M.L.A. and younger brother Maulana Mahfoozul Hasan (Died bachelor at young age at Patna during treatment and buried there ) was Farigh-e-Deoband (Classmate of Maulana Manatullah Rahmani, the late Amir-e-Shariat of Bihar). He had only one sister Noorun Nisa who died issueless.[3]

Pre-Independence activism[edit]

Ajazi left his studies at B.N. College Patna to follow Mahatma Gandhi and joined the non-co-operation movement in 1921.[4] There after he actively participated in all the events of freedom movement such as boycott & burning of English dresses and articles, breaking of salt law, individual satyagrah, opposition to Simon Commission and Bharat Chhoro stirs. He mobilised masses against Britishers by organising volunteer corps, Ramayan Mandali, Charkha samiti, Kanoon-e-Nijaat etc. and also collected fund for freedom struggle through 'Muthia' drive. 'Muthia' meant to take out a muththi or fist of grain before preparing every meal to fund freedom struggle. Dr Ajazi was in charge of North Bihar. There is an interesting story in this context. Once Ajazi unknowingly reached at house of his cousin sister in a remote village. He inquired about 'Muthia'. He got answer in negative. His sister recognised him and requested him to take meal. But Ajazi refused to take not only meal but even a glass of water. When his sister promised to take out muthia and donated the dues then he agreed to take meal. This shows how he was bound by his principles.[5] He collected fund for Bulquan war to fulfil the call of Bi Amma (Mother of Ali Brothers) He started 'boycott English clothing and articles compaign' by burning his own English dresses and articles. He organised 'Sewa Dal'established by Sarojni Naido and formed 'Ajazi Troop'to promote and train youngsters for freedom struggle. He first time attended AICC session held at Ahmedabad in 1921 and supported the motion of Maulana Hasrat Mohani on 'Complete Independence', which was opposed by Mahatma Gandhi and lost. He for the first time met Mahatma Gandhi at Sabarmati Ashram. He joined Khilafat movement and became member of Central Khilafat Committee. Thus he came in contact of Ali Brothers i.e. Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar & Maulana Shaukat Ali and became their close associate. He represented Central Khilafat Committee at the All Parties Conferences and All Muslim Parties Conferences on Nehru Report along with Maulana Shaukat Ali, Begum Md. Ali, Abdul Majid Daryabadi, Maulana Azad Subhani, Maulana Abul Mohasin Md. Sajjad and others. On the direction of Md Ali Jauhar he took the charge of Khilafat Committee Calcutta. There he was arrested in a protest march led by Neta ji Subhash and was arrested and released at a farther most place from Calcutta. He obtained degree from Calcutta Homoeopathic Medical College. During the by-election of Prof. Abdul Bari he was arrested and externed from Purnia district. He was prosecuted for 'Dihuli Conspiracy' and his office was searched. In August1942 movement his house was searched and he worked under ground, though his promising eldest son Muzaffar Husain Ajazi died at young age on 25 July 1942 (He stood first at middle board exam.) After the devastating earth quake of 1934, he along with Dr. Rajendra Pd. devoted his time in relief operation. One night both of them had to sleep beneath a tree, putting their heads on a single brick. Ajazi opposed Jinnah's Two-nation theory and the creation of Pakistan. He founded the All-India Jamhur Muslim League to counter Jinnah's All-India Muslim League, and served as its first general secretary. Ajazi had to face the wrath of workers of Jinnah's Muslim league for opposing division of Motherland and creation of separate Pakistan. Muslim League workers used to come in batches at his residence, virtually spitting and shouted slogan"Dr. Ajazi-Ghaddar-e-Qaum (Dr. Ajazi-anti Muslim)[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]

First Session of All India Jamhur Muslim League

Ajazi was also a poet and writer in the Urdu language as well as an orator.[18] His papers, diaries, letters and files are preserved in the Nehru Memorial Museum & Library in New Delhi, National Archives in New Delhi and the Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library in Patna.[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]

Post-independence activism[edit]

After independence Ajazi devoted his whole life for the welfare of the downtrodden and for protection of rights as well as development of Urdu language. He was also actively associated with trade union movement. He was founder president of various important labour unions of North Bihar. He was himself a good sportsman and also the lover of sports. He was organiser of various sports events which included Woodman challenge shield inter school tournament for old Tirhut division of Bihar (Present days Tirhut, Saran and Darbhanga divisions) and rural sports in which bull carts race was centre of attraction. Ajazi was the pioneer of Urdu movement in Bihar from the beginning. He was elected vice-president of Anjuman Taraqqui-e Urdu Bihar in 1936, when on 6 October 1936 Urdu conference was held at Anjuman Islamia hall, Patna under the Presidency of Moulvi Abdul Haq (then general secretary of Anjuman Taraqqi-e-Urdu Hind). He was the Chairman of historic Urdu Conference of Muzaffarpur held in 1960,in which for the first time resolution was passed demanding status of second official language for Urdu in Bihar.[30](After 15 years this demand became reality).[31][32] Ajazi lagged behind in power politics after independence. He was nominated by Congress Party as an official candidate from Patepur Assembly Constituency (then in Muzaffarpur District of Bihar) in 1957 general election and his elder brother Manzoor Ahsan Ajazi, who then recently rejoined Congress after resigning from Praja Socialist Party was made a dummy candidate from the same Constituency. Ajazi respected his elder brother like a father, so he withdrew his candidature and wholeheartedly campaigned for his elder brother who won the seat. Again Ajazi was nominated as Congress candidate for Bihar Legislative Council, but at eleventh hour Sami Nadvi was nominated, so Ajazi withdrew his candidature. Ajazi was disillusioned with Congress after its Abadi session, so he resigned from Congress on ideological differences and joined newly formed Swatantra Party by Raja Ji. He hold prominent posts in Swatantra Party at State as well as Central level. On direction of Party High Command he unsuccessfully contested 1962 Lok Sabha General elction from Muzaffarpur Patliamentry constituency. Initially wave was very favourable for him, but Congress candidate Digvijay Narayan Singh realising his position requested then Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru to visit his constituency.Pt. Nehru visited Muzaffarpur and addressed a mammoth public gathering at Chakkar Maidan of Muzaffarpur where he uttered during his speech "Swatantra Party is swearing Muslims on Quran to vote for its candidate"[33] This version of Nehru turned the wave and Ajazi lost. Ajazi established "Anjuman Khuddam-e-Millat on pattern of Sir Syed's Educational society. This society established a school, renovated the Company Bagh Mosque of Muzaffarpur, now the biggest Mosque of this city, built a Musafir khana (rest house) and managed to perform last rites of unclaimed dead bodies.[34][35][36] [37][38][39][40][41]

Death[edit]

Ajazi died on 26 September 1966 (at 9:40 a.m.) at his residence 'Ajazi House' in Muzaffarpur city and was buried in Qazi Mohammadpur Qabristan. It was a largest ever gathering in his Namaz-e janaza and funeral procession in the history of Muzaffarpur. The road which leads to his residence was named "Dr. Ajazi Marg" by Muzaffarpur Municipal board in his honour. Mourning his death Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad, the late President of India said "Dr. Ajazi was in forefront of India's struggle for independence, The story of his life is a unique and interesting story of an important era of the country". Acharya J.B. kripalani while condoling the death of his old friend said "Dr. Ajazi was a great patriot, a devoted servant of humanity and a lovable friend. Selfless patriot like him are becoming rare. His death is a loss to society". Renowned fictionist and journalist Kalam Haidry & famous novelist and journalist Moin Shahid called him "Baba-e-Urdu, Bihar" (Father of Urdu in BIhar) for his services towards Urdu language. Well-known journalist and poet Wafa Malikpuri described him an old 'Mujahid' (crusader) for Urdu language.[42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49]

References[edit]

  1. ^ List of People & celebrities born in 1900-Lucy List
  2. ^ Bihari Lal Fitrat (1883) AAin-e-Tirhut published from Bahar-e-Kashmir Press, Lucknow, republished with translation by Mahrajdhiraj Kameshwar Singh Kalyani Foundation, Darbhanga-2001
  3. ^ AMU, Aligarh's Organ "Tahzib-ul-Akhlaque"started by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Feb. 2004, p49
  4. ^ The Immortals By Syed Naseer Ahmed -Azad House of Publications, Guntur (AP), 2014
  5. ^ Bihar Vibhuti-Vol. iii-Bihar Abhlekhagar, Govt. of Bihar--2014
  6. ^ S. M. Azizuddin Husain; Jamia Millia Islamia (India) (1 January 2005). Madrasa education in India, eleventh to twenty first century. Kanishka Publishers, Distributors. ISBN 978-81-7391-741-7. Retrieved 7 February 2013. 
  7. ^ Vission and Mission Manohar, Delhi, pp. 181–197
  8. ^ Terrorism is Comes from US, Barath Kumar PKT, published by A. Palanivelu
  9. ^ South Asian History And Culture Routledge, London, Vol. 2, pp. 16–36. ISSN 1947-2498, Taylor and Francis Group
  10. ^ Islam and the modern age-volume 33-pp.69 & 84/books google.co.in/books?id=JNPXAAAAMAAJ & igRRAQAAIAAJ-2002
  11. ^ NMML Manuscripts:an introduction-p.120/books.google.co.in/books?id=MgduAAAAMAAJ-2000
  12. ^ Builders Of Bihar By Dr. Syed Ahmad Quadri-2008-pp 61–63
  13. ^ The Muslim Heroes Of Bihar By Fakhruddin Ahmad Nishter-2013-pp 34–36
  14. ^ Monograph on Dr. Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi by Dr. Farooque Ahmad Siddiqui Published by Bihar Urdu Academy, Govt. of Bihar, Patna, 2010
  15. ^ All india Jamhur Muslim League-Wikipedia
  16. ^ Indian Independence and role of M.K. Gandhi
  17. ^ Prepatory Course in Social Science published by Jharkhand Rai university p170
  18. ^ Bihar Urdu Youth Forum – www.urduyouthforum.org/
  19. ^ Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, New Delhi, 16th Annual Report, 1981–82, p.9
  20. ^ Nehru Memorial Museum and Library New Delhi, 27th Annual Report 1992-93,p.13
  21. ^ National Archives, New Delhi F NO.4(3) 1/92 PA
  22. ^ Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library Patna Acc. No.2209
  23. ^ Dr. MaghfoorAhmad Ajazi/Flickr-Photo Sharingl-www.fickr.com/photos/94592664@N00/83402425377,
  24. ^ Indian Freedom Fighters. List of Independence Fighters from Indi-www.ranker.com>people
  25. ^ Bibliography
  26. ^ About Islamic World in Medicine, Quran, Translation
  27. ^ List of Muslim Freedom Fighters of India Congress & INA
  28. ^ Bihar Govt. Magazine "Bihar"Republic Day Spl.2002, p67
  29. ^ Contesting Colonialism and Separatism: Muslims of Muzaffarpur Since 1857 http://www.primusbooks.com/showbookdetail.asp?bookid=71
  30. ^ Huma Urdu Digest Delhi, Urdu Number
  31. ^ Muslim Plitics in Bihar Prof. Md. Sajjad AMU Published by Routiedge 2014
  32. ^ http://wwwbihartimes.in/articles/sajjad/muzaffarpur.html
  33. ^ Urdu daily Seyasat Jadid & Paigham Kanpur, Sangam Patna dated 21–22, March, 1962
  34. ^ twocircles.net/../maghfur_aijazi_freedomfighter_and_builder
  35. ^ http://wwwbihardays.com
  36. ^ Afkar-e-Milli, New Delhi, Spl. Bihar Issue, July, 2000, p254
  37. ^ http://www.muzaffarpurtimes.com/sajjad.htm
  38. ^ http://www.biharanjuman.org
  39. ^ Sir_Syed_Movement_for_Modern_Edu
  40. ^ Bharat Mata Mandir.in/Blog/2013
  41. ^ English Daily The Times Of India. Independence Day Issue
  42. ^ Ajazi House – Wikimapia.Org>World>India>Bihar>Muzaffarpur
  43. ^ Bihar Govt. Magazine "Bihar", March, 2005, p38
  44. ^ WWW Spitualworld Dr. Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi
  45. ^ List of Muslims of Independent India
  46. ^ History of Bihar Wikipedia
  47. ^ Notable People of Muzaffarpur
  48. ^ Images of Freedom Fighters of India
  49. ^ List of People & celebrities died in 1966-Lucy List