Drawing

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For other uses, see Drawing (disambiguation).
Pen and wash lion by Rembrandt in the Louvre
A person drawing the Barberini Faun in Munich

Drawing is a form of visual art that makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. Instruments used include graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoal, chalk, pastels, various kinds of erasers, markers, styluses, various metals (such as silverpoint) and electronic drawing. An artist who practices or works in technical drawing may be called a drafter or draftsman or draughtsman.[1]

A small amount of material is released onto a surface, leaving a visible mark. The most common support for drawing is paper, although other materials, such as cardboard, plastic, leather, canvas, and board, may be used. Temporary drawings may be made on a blackboard or whiteboard or indeed almost anything. The medium has been a popular and fundamental means of public expression throughout human history. It is one of the simplest and most efficient means of communicating visual ideas.[2] The wide availability of drawing instruments makes drawing one of the most common artistic activities.

Overview[edit]

Madame Palmyre with Her Dog, 1897. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

Drawing is one of the major forms of expression within the visual arts. It is generally concerned with the marking of lines and areas of tone onto paper, where the accurate representation of the visual world is expressed upon a plane surface.[3] Traditional drawings were monochrome, or at least had little colour,[4] while modern colored-pencil drawings may approach or cross a boundary between drawing and painting. In Western terminology, drawing is distinct from painting, even though similar media often are employed in both tasks. Dry media, normally associated with drawing, such as chalk, may be used in pastel paintings. Drawing may be done with a liquid medium, applied with brushes or pens. Similar supports likewise can serve both: painting generally involves the application of liquid paint onto prepared canvas or panels, but sometimes an underdrawing is drawn first on that same support.

Drawing is often exploratory, with considerable emphasis on observation, problem-solving and composition. Drawing is also regularly used in preparation for a painting, further obfuscating their distinction. Drawings created for these purposes are called studies.

There are several categories of drawing, including figure drawing, cartooning, doodling and shading. There are also many drawing methods, such as line drawing, stippling, shading, the surrealist method of entopic graphomania (in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, and lines are then made between the dots), and tracing (drawing on a translucent paper, such as tracing paper, around the outline of preexisting shapes that show through the paper).

A quick, unrefined drawing may be called a sketch.

In fields outside art, technical drawings or plans of buildings, machinery, circuitry and other things are often called "drawings" even when they have been transferred to another medium by printing.

History[edit]

André Masson. Automatic Drawing. 1924. Ink on paper, 23.5 x 20.6 cm. Museum of Modern Art, New York
Galileo Galilei. Phases of the Moon. 1616.

Drawing as a Form of Communication Drawing is one of the oldest forms of human expression, with evidence for its existence preceding that of written communication.[5] It is believed that drawing was used as a specialised form of communication before the invent of the written language,[5][6] demonstrated by the production of cave and rock paintings created by Homo sapien sapiens around 30,000 years ago.[7] These drawings, known as pictograms, depicted objects and abstract concepts.[8] The sketches and paintings produced in prehistoric times were eventually stylised and simplified, leading to the development of the written language as we know it today.

Drawing in the Arts Drawing is used to express one's creativity, and therefore has been prominent in the world of art. Throughout much of history, drawing was regarded as the foundation for artistic practise.[9] Initially, artists used and re-used wooden tablets for the production of their drawings.[10] Following the widespread availability of paper in the 14th century, the use drawing in the arts increased. At this point, drawing was commonly used as a tool for thought and investigation, acting as a study medium whilst artists were preparing for their final pieces of work.[11][12] In a period of artistic flourish, the Renaissance brought about drawings exhibiting realistic representational qualities,[13] where there was a lot of influence from geometry and philosophy.[14]

The invention of the first widely available form of photography led to a shift in the use of drawing in the arts.[15] Photography took over from drawing as a more superior method for accurately representing the visual world. Following the invention of photography, artists began to abandon traditional drawing practises.[16] Modernism in the arts encouraged 'imaginative originality'[17] and artists became more abstract in their approach to drawing.

Drawing Outside of the Arts Although the use of drawing is extensive in the arts, its practice is not confined purely to this field. Before the widespread availability of paper, 12th century monks in European monasteries used intricate drawings to prepare illustrated, illuminated manuscripts on vellum and parchment. Drawing has also been used extensively in the field of science, as a method of discovery, understanding and explanation. In 1616, astronomer Galileo Galilei explained the changing phases of the moon through his observational telescopic drawings.[16] Additionally, in 1924, geophysicist Alfred Wegener used illustrations to visually demonstrate the origin of the continents.[16]

Notable draftsmen[edit]

Since the 14th century, each century has produced artists who have created great drawings.

Materials[edit]

The medium is the means by which ink, pigment or color are delivered onto the drawing surface. Most drawing media are either dry (e.g. graphite, charcoal, pastels, Conté, silverpoint), or use a fluid solvent or carrier (marker, pen and ink). Watercolor pencils can be used dry like ordinary pencils, then moistened with a wet brush to get various painterly effects. Very rarely, artists have drawn with (usually decoded) invisible ink. Metalpoint drawing usually employs either of two metals: silver or lead.[18] More rarely used are gold, platinum, copper, brass, bronze, and tinpoint.

Paper comes in a variety of different sizes and qualities, ranging from newspaper grade up to high quality and relatively expensive paper sold as individual sheets.[19] Papers can vary in texture, hue, acidity, and strength when wet. Smooth paper is good for rendering fine detail, but a more "toothy" paper will hold the drawing material better. Thus a coarser material is useful for producing deeper contrast.

Newsprint and typing paper may be useful for practice and rough sketches. Tracing paper is used to experiment over a half-finished drawing, and to transfer a design from one sheet to another. Cartridge paper is the basic type of drawing paper sold in pads. Bristol board and even heavier acid-free boards, frequently with smooth finishes, are used for drawing fine detail and do not distort when wet media (ink, washes) are applied. Vellum is extremely smooth and suitable for very fine detail. Coldpressed watercolor paper may be favored for ink drawing due to its texture.

Acid-free, archival quality paper keeps its color and texture far longer than wood pulp based paper such as newsprint, which will turn yellow and become brittle much sooner.

The basic tools are a drawing board or table, pencil sharpener and eraser, and for ink drawing, blotting paper. Other tools used are circle compass, ruler, and set square. Fixative is used to prevent pencil and crayon marks from smudging. Drafting tape is used to secure paper to drawing surface, and also to mask an area to keep it free of accidental marks sprayed or spattered materials and washes. An easel or slanted table is used to keep the drawing surface in a suitable position, which is generally more horizontal than the position used in painting.

Technique[edit]

Raphael, study for what became the Alba Madonna, with other sketches

Almost all draftsmen use their hands and fingers to apply the media, with the exception of some handicapped individuals who draw with their mouth or feet.[20]

Prior to working on an image, the artist will likely want to gain an understanding of how the various media will work. The different drawing implements can be tried on practice sheets in order to determine value and texture, and how to apply the implement in order to produce various effects.

The drawing strokes used control the appearance of the image. Pen and ink drawings often use hatching, which consists of groups of parallel lines.[21] Cross-hatching uses hatching in two or more different directions to create a darker tone. Broken hatching, or lines with intermittent breaks, can be used to form lighter tones, and by controlling the density of the breaks a gradation of tone can be achieved. Stippling, uses dots to produce tone, texture or shade. Different textures can be achieved depending on the method used to build tone.[22]

Drawings in dry media often use similar techniques, although with pencils and drawing sticks continuous variations in tone can be achieved. Typically a drawing will be filled in based on which hand the artist favors. A right-handed artist will want to draw from left to right in order to avoid smearing the image. Erasers can be used with many media to remove unwanted lines, lighten tones and clean up stray marks.

In a sketch or outline drawing, the lines drawn often follow the contour of the subject being drawn, creating depth by looking like shadows cast from a light in the artist's position.

Sometimes the artist will want to leave a section of the image untouched while filling in the remainder of the picture. The shape of the area to be preserved can be painted on with masking fluid or cut out of a frisket and applied to the drawing surface, protecting the surface from stray marks until the mask is removed.

Another method to preserve a section of the image is to apply a spray-on fixative to the surface. This will hold loose material more firmly to the sheet and prevent it from smearing. However the fixative spray typically uses chemicals that can harm the respiratory system, so it should be employed in a well-ventilated area such as outdoors.

Another technique is subtractive drawing in which the drawing surface is covered with graphite or charcoal and then erased to make the image.[23]

Tone[edit]

Line drawing in sanguine by Leonardo da Vinci

Shading is the technique of varying the tonal values on the paper to represent the shade of the material as well as the placement of the shadows. Careful attention to reflected light, shadows and highlights can result in a very realistic rendition of the image.

Blending uses an implement to soften or spread the original drawing strokes. Blending is most easily done with a medium that does not immediately fix itself, such as graphite, chalk, or charcoal, although freshly applied ink can be smudged, wet or dry, for some effects. For shading and blending, the artist can use a blending stump, tissue, a kneaded eraser, a fingertip, or any combination of them. A piece of chamois is useful for creating smooth textures, and for removing material to lighten the tone. Continuous tone can be achieved with graphite on a smooth surface without blending, but the technique is laborious, involving small circular or oval strokes with a somewhat blunt point.

Konie w stajni (Horses in a stable), drawing in pencil on paper by Stanisław Masłowski, ca 1875-sic![24] (Warsaw National Museum)

Shading techniques that also introduce texture to the drawing include hatching and stippling. There are a number of other methods for producing texture in the picture: in addition to choosing a suitable paper, the type of drawing material and the drawing technique will result in different textures. Texture can be made to appear more realistic when it is drawn next to a contrasting texture; a coarse texture will be more obvious when placed next to a smoothly blended area. A similar effect can be achieved by drawing different tones close together; a light edge next to a dark background will stand out to the eye, and almost appear to float above the surface.

Form and proportion[edit]

Pencil portrait by Ingres

Measuring the dimensions of a subject while blocking in the drawing is an important step in producing a realistic rendition of the subject. Tools such as a compass can be used to measure the angles of different sides. These angles can be reproduced on the drawing surface and then rechecked to make sure they are accurate. Another form of measurement is to compare the relative sizes of different parts of the subject with each other. A finger placed at a point along the drawing implement can be used to compare that dimension with other parts of the image. A ruler can be used both as a straightedge and a device to compute proportions.

When attempting to draw a complicated shape such as a human figure, it is helpful at first to represent the form with a set of primitive shapes. Almost any form can be represented by some combination of the cube, sphere, cylinder, and cone. Once these basic shapes have been assembled into a likeness, then the drawing can be refined into a more accurate and polished form. The lines of the primitive shapes are removed and replaced by the final likeness. Drawing the underlying construction is a fundamental skill for representational art and is taught in many books and schools, as its correct application will resolve most uncertainties about smaller details and make the final image look self-consistent.[25]

A more refined art of figure drawing relies upon the artist possessing a deep understanding of anatomy and the human proportions. A trained artist is familiar with the skeleton structure, joint location, muscle placement, tendon movement, and how the different parts work together during movement. This allows the artist to render more natural poses that do not appear artificially stiff. The artist is also familiar with how the proportions vary depending on the age of the subject, particularly when drawing a portrait.

Perspective[edit]

Linear perspective is a method of portraying objects on a flat surface so that the dimensions shrink with distance. Each set of parallel, straight edges of any object, whether a building or a table, will follow lines that eventually converge at a vanishing point. Typically this point of convergence will be along the horizon, as buildings are built level with the flat surface. When multiple structures are aligned with each other, such as buildings along a street, the horizontal tops and bottoms of the structures will all typically converge at a vanishing point.

When both the fronts and sides of a building are drawn, then the parallel lines forming a side converge at a second point along the horizon (which may be off the drawing paper.) This is a two-point perspective.[26] Converging the vertical lines to a third point above or below the horizon then produces a three-point perspective.

Depth can also be portrayed by several techniques in addition to the perspective approach above. Objects of similar size should appear ever smaller the further they are from the viewer. Thus the back wheel of a cart will appear slightly smaller than the front wheel. Depth can be portrayed through the use of texture. As the texture of an object gets further away it becomes more compressed and busy, taking on an entirely different character than if it was close. Depth can also be portrayed by reducing the contrast in more distant objects, and by making their colors less saturated. This will reproduce the effect of atmospheric haze, and cause the eye to focus primarily on objects drawn in the foreground.

Artistry[edit]

The composition of the image is an important element in producing an interesting work of artistic merit. The artist plans the placement of elements in the art in order to communicate ideas and feelings with the viewer. The composition can determine the focus of the art, and result in a harmonious whole that is aesthetically appealing and stimulating.

The illumination of the subject is also a key element in creating an artistic piece, and the interplay of light and shadow is a valuable method in the artist's toolbox. The placement of the light sources can make a considerable difference in the type of message that is being presented. Multiple light sources can wash out any wrinkles in a person's face, for instance, and give a more youthful appearance. In contrast, a single light source, such as harsh daylight, can serve to highlight any texture or interesting features.

When drawing an object or figure, the skilled artist pays attention to both the area within the silhouette and what lies outside. The exterior is termed the negative space, and can be as important in the representation as the figure. Objects placed in the background of the figure should appear properly placed wherever they can be viewed.

A study is a draft drawing that is made in preparation for a planned final image. Studies can be used to determine the appearances of specific parts of the completed image, or for experimenting with the best approach for accomplishing the end goal. However a well-crafted study can be a piece of art in its own right, and many hours of careful work can go into completing a study.

The Drawing Process[edit]

Individuals display differences in their ability to produce visually accurate drawings.[27] A visually accurate drawing is described as being "recognized as a particular object at a particular time and in a particular space, rendered with little addition of visual detail that can not be seen in the object represented or with little deletion of visual detail”.[28]

Investigative studies have aimed to explain the reasons why some individuals are better at drawing than others. A study explained that the perception of objects being drawn, the ability to make good representational decisions, the motor skills required for mark making and the perception of one’s drawing were the four stages involved in the process of drawing.[28] Following this explanation, several studies have been conducted to conclude which of these processes are the most significant in affecting the accuracy of drawings.

Motor Function Motor function has been recognised as an important physical component in the 'Production Phase' of the drawing process.[29] It has been suggested that motor function plays a role in drawing ability, although its effects are not significant.[28]

Perception It has been suggested that an individual's ability to perceive an object they are drawing is the most important stage in the drawing process.[28] This suggestion is supported by the discovery of a robust relationship between perception and drawing ability.[30]

This evidence acted at the basis of Betty Edwards' how-to drawing book, Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain.[31] Edwards aimed to teach her readers how to draw, based on the development of the reader's perceptual abilities.

Furthermore, the influential artist and art critic John Ruskin emphasised the importance perception in the drawing process in his book The Elements of Drawing.[32] He stated that "For I am nearly convinced, that once we see keenly enough, there is very little difficult in drawing what we see".

Visual Memory Visual memory has also been shown to influence one's ability to create visually accurate drawings. Short-term memory plays an important part in drawing as one’s gaze shifts between the object they are drawing and the drawing itself.[33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/draftsman
  2. ^ www.sbctc.edu (adapted). "Module 6: Media for 2-D Art". Saylor.org. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  3. ^ http://www.ucl.ac.uk/medical-education/publications/Reprints2010/2010-PACA-ArtStudentsWhoCannotDraw.pdf
  4. ^ See grisaille and chiaroscuro
  5. ^ a b Tversky, B (2011). "Visualizing thought". Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (3): 499–535. doi:10.1111/j.1756-8765.2010.01113.x. 
  6. ^ Farthing, S (2011). "The Bigger Picture of Drawing". 
  7. ^ http://ttd2011.pressible.org/files/2012/05/Thinking-through-Drawing_Practice-into-Knowledge.pdf
  8. ^ Robinson, A (2009). Writing and script: a very short introduction. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  9. ^ Walker, J. F; Duff, L; Davies, J (2005). "Old Manuals and New Pencils". Drawing- The Process. Bristol: Intellect Books. 
  10. ^ See the discussion on erasable drawing boards and 'tafeletten' in van de Wetering, Ernst. Rembrandt: The Painter at Work. 
  11. ^ Burton, J. "Preface". 
  12. ^ Chamberlain, R (2013). Drawing Conclusions: An exploration of the cognitive and neuroscientific foundations of representational drawing.. 
  13. ^ Davis, P; Duff, L; Davies, J (2005). "Drawing a Blank". Drawing- The Process. Bristol: Intellect Books. pp. 15–25. 
  14. ^ Simmons, S (2011). "Philosophical Dimension of Drawing Instruction". 
  15. ^ Poe, E. A. (1840). The Daguerreotype. Classic Essays on Photography. New Haven, CN: Leete's Island Books. pp. 37–38. 
  16. ^ a b c Kovats, T (2005). The Drawing Book. London: Black Dog Publishing. 
  17. ^ Duff, L; Davies, J (2005). Drawing- The Process. Bristol: Intellect Books. 
  18. ^ Cennino Cennini, The Craftsman's Handbook (Il Libra dell'Arte), trans. David V. Thompson, Jr. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1933
  19. ^ Mayer, Ralph. The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques. Viking. ISBN 0-670-83701-6. 
  20. ^ http://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2010/03/the-amazing-art-of-disabled-artists/
  21. ^ This use of hatching is to be distinguished from the use of a hatching system in heraldry to indicate tincture (i.e. what "color", in layman's language, the arms are) in a monochromatic context.)
  22. ^ Guptill, Arthur L. (1930). Drawing with Pen and Ink. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation. 
  23. ^ South, Helen, The Everything Drawing Book, Adams Media, Avon, MA, 2004, pp. 152-3, ISBN 1593372132
  24. ^ The date of signature and the date of production are different - see: Maciej Masłowski: Stanisław Masłowski, Warszawa 1957, ed. Ossolineum)
  25. ^ Hale, Robert Beverly (1964). Drawing Lessons from the Great Masters (45th Anniversary Edition ed.). Watson-Guptill Publications (published 2009). ISBN 978-0-8230-1401-9. 
  26. ^ Watson, Ernest W. (1978). Course in Pencil Sketching: Four Books in One. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. pp. 167–175. ISBN 0-442-29229-5. 
  27. ^ Ostrofsky, J (2011). [Retrieved from http://ttd2011.pressible.org/files/2012/05/Thinking-through-Drawing_Practice-into-Knowledge.pdf "A Multi-Stage Attention Hypothesis of Drawing Ability"]. 
  28. ^ a b c d Cohen, D. J; Bennett, S. (1997). "Why can't most people draw what they see?". Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (6): 609–621. 
  29. ^ van Somers, P (1989). "A system for drawing and drawing-related neuropsychology.". Cognitive Neuropsychology 6: 117–164. doi:10.1080/02643298908253416. 
  30. ^ Cohen, D. J.; Jones, H. E. (2008). "How shape constanct related to drawing accuracy". The Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts 2 (1): 8–19. doi:10.1037/1931-3896.2.1.8. 
  31. ^ Edwards, B (1989). New York, NY: Putnam. ISBN 978-1585429202.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  32. ^ Ruskin, John (1857). The Elements of Drawing. Mineola, NY: Dover Publishcations Inc. 
  33. ^ McManus, I. C.; Chamberlain, R. S., Loo, P.-K., Rankin, Q., Riley, H., & Brunswick, N. (2010). "Art students who cannot draw: exploring the relations between drawing ability, visual memory, accuracy of copying, and dyslexia.". Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts 4: 18–30. doi:10.1037/a0017335. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Betty Edwards, The New Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain, HarperCollins Publishers Ltd; 3Rev Ed edition, 2001, ISBN 978-0-00-711645-4
  • Brommer, Gerald F. Exploring Drawing. Worcester, Massachusetts: Davis Publications. 1988.
  • Bodley Gallery, New York, N.Y., Modern master drawings, 1971, OCLC 37498294.
  • Frank Lohan, Pen & Ink Techniques, Contemporary Books, 1978, ISBN 0-8092-7438-8.
  • J. D. Hillberry, Drawing Realistic Textures in Pencil, North Light Books, 1999, ISBN 0-89134-868-9.
  • Landa, Robin. Take a line for a walk: A Creativity Journal. Boston: Wadsworth, 2011. ISBN 978-1-111-83922-2
  • Ruskin, J. (1857). The Elements of Drawing. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 978-1-453-84264-5
  • Spears, Heather. The Creative Eye. London: Arcturus. 2007. ISBN 978-0-572-03315-6.
  • World Book, Inc. The World Book Encyclopedia Volume 5, 1988, ISBN 0-7166-0089-7.
  • Drawing/Thinking: Confronting an Electronic Age, edited by Marc Treib, 2008, ISBN, 0-415-77560-4.

External links[edit]