Dreamgirls

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Dreamgirls (musical)
DreamGirls Playbill 300.JPG
Cover for the second Playbill musical Dreamgirls. The artwork for the original Playbill was also used as the cover of the Dreamgirls Original Broadway Cast album.
Music Henry Krieger
Lyrics Tom Eyen
Book Tom Eyen
Basis The Supremes and the history of Motown
Productions 1981 Broadway
1983 US Tour
1985 International Tour
1987 Broadway revival
1994 Atlanta, Georgia
1997 Chicago, Illinois
1997 US Tour
2001 Broadway concert
2002 Atlanta, Georgia
2006 Feature film
2007 Atlanta, Georgia
2009 US Tour
2012 St. Louis, MO
2013 Vancouver, BC
Awards 1982 Tony Award for Best Book

Dreamgirls is a Broadway musical, with music by Henry Krieger and lyrics and book by Tom Eyen. Based upon the show business aspirations and successes of R&B acts such as The Supremes, The Shirelles, James Brown, Jackie Wilson, and others,[1] the musical follows the story of a young female singing trio from Chicago, Illinois called "The Dreams", who become music superstars. The musical opened on December 20, 1981 at the Imperial Theatre, and was nominated for 13 Tony Awards, including the Tony Award for Best Musical, and won six. It was later adapted into a motion picture from DreamWorks and Paramount Pictures in 2006.

Plot summary[edit]

Act I: 1960s[edit]

In 1962, The Dreamettes, a hopeful girl group from Chicago, enter the famous Amateur Night talent competition at the Apollo Theater in Harlem, New York ("I'm Lookin' for Something", "Goin' Downtown", "Takin' the Long Way Home"). The group is composed of full-figured lead singer Effie White and best friends, Deena Jones and Lorrell Robinson. For the contest, the Dreamettes sing "Move (You're Steppin' on My Heart)", a song written by Effie's brother, C.C., who accompanies them to the talent show. Unfortunately, they lose the talent show, but backstage, the girls and C.C. meet Curtis Taylor, Jr., a used-car salesman who becomes the Dreamettes' manager.

Curtis convinces James "Thunder" Early, a popular R&B star, and his manager, Marty, to hire The Dreamettes as backup singers. Though Jimmy Early and the Dreamettes' first performance together is successful ("Fake Your Way to the Top"), Jimmy is desperate for new material. Curtis convinces Jimmy and Marty that they should venture beyond traditional rhythm and blues and soul audiences and aim for the pop market. C.C. composes "Cadillac Car" for Jimmy and the Dreamettes, who tour ("Cadillac Car (On the Road)") and record the single upon their return ("Cadillac Car (In the Recording Studio)"). "Cadillac Car" makes its way up the pop charts, but a cover version by pop singers, Dave and the Sweethearts ("Cadillac Car" (Reprise)), steals the original recording's thunder. Angered by "Cadillac Car's" usurpation, Curtis, C.C., and Jimmy's producer, Wayne, resort to payola, bribing disc jockeys across the nation to play Jimmy Early and the Dreamettes' next single, "Steppin' to the Bad Side". As a result, the record becomes a major pop hit. Conflict arises between Marty and Curtis when Curtis moves in on Marty's turf: Jimmy Early. Things become more complicated when Effie begins dating Curtis, and Jimmy, a married man, begins an affair with Lorrell ("Party, Party").

Curtis replaces him, strongly determined to make his black singers household names. Curtis attempts to transform Jimmy Early into a Perry Como-esque pop singer ("I Want You Baby"), and concentrates on establishing the Dreamettes as their own act, renaming them The Dreams, changing their act to give them a more sophisticated and pop-friendly look and sound. The most crucial of these changes is the establishment of Deena as lead singer, instead of Effie. Effie is resentful of her change in status within the group. C.C. convinces her to go along with Curtis's plan ("Family"). After a fight between Marty and Curtis, Marty quits as Jimmy's manager and Curtis takes over. The Dreams make their club debut in the Crystal Room in Cleveland, Ohio, singing their first single ("Dreamgirls"). After a triumphant show, the press is eager to meet the newly minted stars ("Press Conference"). Curtis declares to Deena, "I'm going to make you the most famous woman who's ever lived," as the slighted Effie asks "What about me?" ("Only the Beginning"). Over the next few years, the Dreams become a mainstream success with hit singles ("Heavy"). As Deena is increasingly feted as a star, Effie becomes temperamental and unpredictable. She suspects Curtis and Deena of having an affair. Lorrell attempts to keep peace between her bandmates, but the task proves impossible.

In 1967, the group – now known as "Deena Jones and the Dreams" – is set to make their Las Vegas début. However, when Jimmy stops by to visit the girls ("Drivin' Down the Strip"), he learns from the others that Effie has been missing shows because of illness (it is later revealed that she was pregnant with Curtis's child). Curtis and Deena are convinced that she is trying to sabotage the act. Curtis replaces Effie with a new singer, Michelle Morris, a change about which Effie learns before anyone has a chance to tell her. Effie confronts Curtis, C.C., and the group ("It's All Over"), but despite her personal appeal to Curtis ("And I Am Telling You I'm Not Going"), the heartbroken Effie is left behind as Deena Jones and the Dreams forge ahead without her ("Love Love Me Baby").

Act II: 1970s[edit]

By 1972, Deena Jones and the Dreams have become the most successful girl group in the country ("Act II Opening" 1). Deena has married Curtis, and C.C. is in love with Michelle. Jimmy has gone years without a hit. Curtis shows little interest in updating or revitalizing Jimmy's act because of his preoccupation with Deena and Jimmy's habit of sneaking funk numbers into his repertoire of pop-friendly songs. Effie is back in Chicago, a single mother to her daughter, Magic, struggling to get another break. Marty, who is now her manager, compels her to rebuild her confidence and give up her “diva behaviors.” Once she does, Effie is able to make a show business comeback ("I Am Changing"). In contrast to Effie's struggling return to her musical career, Deena wants to stop singing and become an actress. Deena informs Curtis of her careers plans during a Vogue photo shoot ("One More Picture Please"), but Curtis refuses to let her go ("When I First Saw You"). Deena is not the only one chafing under Curtis's control: C.C. is enraged by Curtis's constant rearrangements of his songs, including an emotional ballad, entitled "One Night Only", which Curtis wants instead recorded to reflect the "new sound" he is inventing.

Deena Jones and the Dreams and Jimmy Early perform at a National Democratic fundraiser, on a bill featuring such groups as The Five Tuxedos ("Got to Be Good Times"). While waiting backstage to go on, Jimmy finds himself in another argument with Lorrell as to the nature of their relationship and when, or if, Jimmy will tell his wife about their affair ("Ain't No Party"). Lorrell is in tears as Jimmy takes to the stage to perform, and turns to Deena for support. As Jimmy pleads to Lorrell through his music ("I Meant You No Harm"), Deena tries to help Lorrell successfully resolve her situation, and Michelle convinces the artistically frustrated C.C. to go find his sister and reconcile with her ("Quintette"). Midway through "I Meant You No Harm", Jimmy falls apart and decides that he "can't sing any more sad songs." Desperate to keep his set going, Jimmy launches into a wild, improvised funk number ("The Rap"), dropping his pants during the performance. An embarrassed Curtis fires Jimmy as soon as his set concludes. Lorrell ends her affair with Jimmy, as well. The heartbroken Jimmy fades into obscurity, refusing to "beg" for Curtis' help.

Marty arranges for C.C. to meet and reconcile with Effie at a recording studio ("I Miss You, Old Friend"). C.C. apologizes for his role in handicapping her career, and Effie records C.C.'s "One Night Only" in its original ballad format. "One Night Only" begins climbing the charts, causing an enraged Curtis not only to rush-release Deena and the Dreams' version, but to use massive amounts of payola to push Deena's version up the charts and Effie's version down ("One Night Only (Disco)"). Effie, C.C., and Marty discover Curtis's scheme and confront him backstage at a Dreams concert, threatening legal action ("I'm Somebody", "Chicago/Faith in Myself"). As Curtis makes arrangements with Effie's lawyer to reverse his wrongdoings, Effie and Deena reconcile (and Deena learns that Effie's daughter Magic is Curtis's child). Realizing what kind of a man Curtis is, Deena finally finds the courage to leave him and live her own life. Effie's "One Night Only" becomes a number-one hit, as the Dreams break up so that Deena can pursue her movie career ("Hard to Say Goodbye, My Love"). For the final number of the Dreams' farewell concert, Effie rejoins the group on stage, and all four Dreams sing their signature song one last time ("Dreamgirls (Reprise)").

Original Broadway production[edit]

Background[edit]

Dreamgirls had its beginnings as a project for Nell Carter. Playwright Tom Eyen and composer Henry Krieger first worked together on the 1975 musical version of Eyen's play The Dirtiest Show in Town. Carter appeared in the musical, and her performance inspired Eyen and Krieger to craft a musical about Black back-up singers, which was originally called One Night Only and then given the working title of Project #9.[2] Project #9 was workshopped for Joseph Papp; Nell Carter was joined at this time by Sheryl Lee Ralph and Loretta Devine, who were to play her groupmates. The project was shelved after Carter departed to appear in the soap opera Ryan's Hope in 1978.

A year later, Project #9 was brought back to the table, after catching the interest of Michael Bennett, then in the midst of his success with A Chorus Line. Ralph and Devine returned, and Bennett had Eyen, who was to direct, begin workshopping Big Dreams, as the musical was now known. Joining the cast at this time were Ben Harney, Obba Babatunde, Cleavant Derricks, and twenty-year-old gospel singer Jennifer Holliday as Carter's replacement (after Carter accepted an offer from NBC to star in Gimme a Break). However, Holliday left the project during the workshopping phase, as she disliked the material and was upset that her character, Effie White, died at the conclusion of the first act. Eyen, Bennett, and Krieger continued to iron out the story and songs. Cheryl Gaines and Phyllis Hyman were both considered as replacements for Holliday.

After two mildly successful workshops which included Jenifer Lewis as Effie, Holliday returned to the project, now known as Dreamgirls. However, she found Effie's role had been reduced significantly in favor of Sheryl Lee Ralph's Deena character, and Holliday eventually quit the project again. After acquiring funding from music industry mogul David Geffen and fellow co-financiers ABC Entertainment, Metromedia, and the Shubert family, Bennett called Holliday back and agreed to rewrite the show's second act and build up her character.[3]

Broadway[edit]

Recorded by Jennifer Holliday, from Dreamgirls Cast Album

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Dreamgirls premiered on Broadway at the Imperial Theatre on December 20, 1981 and closed on August 11, 1985, after 1,521 performances. The production was directed by Michael Bennett, produced by Bennett, Bob Avian, Geffen Records, and The Shubert Organization, and choreographed by Bennett and Michael Peters. It starred Sheryl Lee Ralph as Deena Jones, Jennifer Holliday as Effie White, Loretta Devine as Lorrell Robinson, Ben Harney as Curtis Taylor, Jr., Cleavant Derricks as James "Thunder" Early, and Obba Babatundé as C. C. White. Dreamgirls proved to be a star-making vehicle for several of its performers, particularly Holliday, whose performance as Effie received significant praise.

Holliday's recording of Effie's solo "And I Am Telling You I'm Not Going" was a #1 single on the Billboard R&B charts in 1982. For the Dreamgirls original cast recording, the producers decided to present the complex musical sequences as individual songs, cutting approximately half of the score. The cast recording won two Grammy awards, Best Musical Album and Best Vocal Performance for Jennifer Holliday's "And I Am Telling You I'm Not Going".

Phylicia Rashad (then known as Phylicia Ayers-Allen) was a member of the musical's company. Rashad was also Sheryl Lee Ralph's understudy; but when Ralph left the production, Rashad was not offered her role, and subsequently left the cast.

Subsequent productions[edit]

National US tours[edit]

Bennett took Dreamgirls on an abbreviated national tour in 1983, with Jennifer Holliday remaining as Effie, with Larry Riley, Linda Leilani Brown, Arnetia Walker, Lawrence Clayton, and Cleavant Derricks' twin brother Clinton Derricks-Carroll as her co-stars. Because of high costs, only three cities were played before the road production was dissolved. A second tour began in 1985, with Sharon Brown as Effie. By 1987, Lillias White, Jennifer Holliday's original understudy, had taken over the role, and the tour ended with a Broadway revival at the Ambassador Theatre. By this time, Michael Bennett had fallen ill due to AIDS-related complications, and he died on July 2, 1987.

A U.S. Tour began in 1997-1998, and was to open on Broadway in July 1998, but the ill-fated tour stalled in Upstate New York while waiting for a Broadway theatre. Direction and choreography were by Tony Stevens, based on the original direction and choreography by Michael Bennett. The "Dreamgirls", Deena Jones, Lorrell Robinson and Effie White, were played by La Tanya Hall, Tonya Dixon and Roz White. The cast featured Gary E. Vincent as C.C., Brian Everett Chandler as Curtis Taylor Jr., Kevin-Anthony as James Thunder Early), Darrin Lamont Byrd as Marty, Kimberly Jajuan (who replaced the troubled Effie in the trio). The Musical direction/supervision was by Keith Levenson. According to the Variety review: "Director Stevens does a splendid job of evoking (and satirizing) the continually changing fashions in clothes, hair, and music and dance styles of the '70s and early '80s."[4] The Hollywood Reporter review notes the "scenic design (four metal light towers that suggest 58 scenic locations) of Robin Wagner; the lush and lovely costumes by Theoni V. Aldredge and the dramatic lighting by wizard Tharon Musser."[5]

In 2004, another national tour began, starring American Idol contestant Frenchie Davis, who gained praise for her role as Effie.

Another US tour began at the Apollo Theater, New York City, on November 7, 2009 in previews, officially November 22, through December 12, 2009, before starting the tour. It is directed and choreographed by Robert Longbottom.[6] American Idol alum Syesha Mercado stars as Deena, with Adrienne Warren as Lorrell, Moya Angela as Effie White, Chester Gregory as Jimmy Early, and Chaz Lamar Shepherd as Curtis. It has an all-new set design created by the original set designer Robin Wagner, and all-new costume designs by William Ivey Long.[7] In addition to a new song sung by Deena and the Dreams at the top of Act II ("What Love Can Do"), it also adds a song from the film version, "Listen," which has been re-written as a duet between Deena and Effie.

Revivals[edit]

After its success on Broadway, Dreamgirls has been frequently produced. A 2001 Broadway concert performance starring Lillias White, Audra McDonald, Heather Headley, Billy Porter and Norm Lewis was recorded and released in its entirety on CD. This concert benefiting The Actors Fund of America was one of the first public gatherings after 9/11. Only one actor appeared in this 2001 production who had also been in the original Broadway production, Lee Summers aka Leon Summers Jr.

In late 2005 and early 2006, the Prince Music Theater in Philadelphia produced a critically acclaimed revival of the show which extended for over three months. The production team included director Richard Parison, music director Jesse Vargas, and choreographer Mercedes Ellington. The production was courted by several Broadway and commercial producers. Composer Henry Krieger was said to have praised the revival as the most authentic since the original Broadway production.[8]

South African Tour[edit]

Dreamgirls premiered in South Africa at The Teatro at Montecasino on 11 March 2011. Utilising the 2009 US National Tour creative team as well as that production's sets and costumes, the South African production featured an all local (South African) cast including Tracey Lee Oliver as Deena Jones, Candida Mosoma as Lorrell Robinson, Hayley Christian as Michelle Morris, Lindiwe Bungane as Effie White (at certain performances Caroline Borole performed as Effie White), Aubrey Poo as Curtis Taylor, Jr, Bjorn Blignaut as James "Thunder" Early, Lebo Toko as C.C. White, Shane 'Duke' Wellington as Marty Madison. The South African creative team was headed by Bryan Schimmel as Musical Supervisor with Tshepo Mngoma as Production Musical Director. Trudy Fredericks was Resident Choreographer and Dance Captain with Philip Godawa rounding off the local team as Resident Director. Though receiving critical acclaim and quickly becoming a landmark milestone in the development of Musical Theatre in South Africa, the production closed early without completing the rest of the National Tour including the planned season in Cape town.[9]

Malaysian Production[edit]

The Malaysian première of Dreamgirls took place in Kuala Lumpur on 14 July 2011 at Istana Budaya (Palace of Culture). It was produced by Broadway Academy Productions under the umbrella of Broadway Academy (M) Sdn Bhd, and was a joint collaboration with The National Department for Culture and Arts (Jabatan Kebudayaan dan Kesenian Negara - JKKN) with the support of The Ministry of Information Communications and Culture Malaysia (Kementerian Penerangan Komunikasi dan Kesenian - KPKK) and Istana Budaya (Palace of Culture). The production was directed by Joanna Bessey, with music directed by Casey Koh and choreographed by Michael Xavier Voon.

Similarities to The Supremes' story[edit]

Michael Bennett, Henry Krieger, Tom Eyen, and the Dreamgirls producers deny any connections between the musical's plot and the Supremes' life stories. The similarities between the show and actual events that occurred with The Supremes lead to belief that the creators did actually base the musical's story on that of The Supremes; however the producers denied any connections to avoid lawsuits from Motown, Berry Gordy, and the Supremes. Mary Wilson loved Dreamgirls so much that she named her first autobiography, Dreamgirl: My Life As a Supreme after the musical. Diana Ross performed "Family" from Act I in her historic free concert in New York City's Central Park, in July, 1983.[citation needed] Though the Deena character mirrors Diana Ross, actress Sheryl Lee Ralph states that she was not trying to imitate Ross, but, portrayed Deena in a similar, yet distinct, style.[citation needed]

Similarities between true life events and the plot of the musical include:

  • Both the Supremes and the Dreams started off with "ettes" in their group's name. The Supremes were originally the Primettes, the Dreams are shown as starting off as the Dreamettes.
  • In the beginning, Florence Ballard originally sang lead, just as Effie White does in the musical.
  • Both the Supremes and the Dreams did background vocals for established recording artists before becoming famous.
  • Diana Ross was chosen as the lead singer of the Supremes because of her distinctive, softer, commercial voice, just as Deena Jones is chosen as the lead singer of the Dreams.
  • The storyline of the love affair between Deena Jones and Curtis Taylor Jr. was modeled on Diana Ross and Berry Gordy Jr.'s love affair which eventually led to his emphasis on her career rather than that of the group.
  • The storyline of Lorrell Robinson and James "Thunder" Early's relationship resembles Mary Wilson's relationships with fellow Motown artists as well as Welsh singer Tom Jones.
  • Deena Jones is coached to be the spokesperson for the group during press conferences, just as Diana Ross was for the Supremes.
  • The press was instructed to refer to Diana Ross as "Miss Ross," just as the press is instructed to refer to Deena Jones as "Miss Jones."
  • As Diana Ross was pushed forward as the star of the Supremes, Florence Ballard became jealous and hostile when she was forced into the background. Effie White reacts in a similar manner when Deena Jones is pushed forward as the star of the Dreams.
  • Florence Ballard missed performances, recording sessions, allegedly "faked" illnesses, and gained weight, all of which resulted in her being fired from the group in Las Vegas in 1967. The character of Effie White goes through the same experience.
  • Cindy Birdsong went on to perform with the Supremes the same night Florence Ballard was fired, just as Michelle Morris goes on to perform with the Dreams the same night Effie White is fired.
  • The Supremes became "Diana Ross & the Supremes" in 1967 while in Las Vegas. The Dreams became "Deena Jones & the Dreams" in 1967 while in Las Vegas.

Film adaptation[edit]

David Geffen, founder of Geffen Records and one of the play's financiers, leased the Dreamgirls film rights to Warner Bros. in the 1980s through his Geffen Pictures company. Although the film was announced several times, with singers such as Whitney Houston (as Deena), Lauryn Hill (another Deena candidate), Kelly Price (as Effie) tapped to star, the studio eventually abandoned the project.[10] Geffen eventually leased the rights to DreamWorks SKG, a company he co-founded, in 2004. Warner Bros., which controlled the film rights to Dreamgirls, was originally announced as a co-financier of the film, but before shooting began, Paramount Pictures stepped in as co-producer after Warner expressed concerns over the film's budget. Laurence Mark served as producer of the DreamWorks/Paramount adaptation of Dreamgirls, written and directed by Bill Condon, who had earned an Oscar nomination for his screenplay adaptation of Chicago.

The film adaptation of Dreamgirls stars Jamie Foxx as Curtis, Beyoncé Knowles as Deena, Eddie Murphy as Jimmy, Danny Glover as Marty, Jennifer Hudson as Effie, Anika Noni Rose as Lorrell, Keith Robinson as C.C., Sharon Leal as Michelle, and Hinton Battle as Wayne. Dreamgirls was first exhibited in special ten-day road show engagements beginning December 15, 2006. Subsequently, the film went into national release on December 25, 2006.[11] Loretta Devine, who originated the Lorrell role, has a cameo role as a jazz singer in the film. Two other alumni of the Broadway production - Hinton Battle (a James "Thunder" Early replacement) and Yvette Cason (Charlene; Effie White understudy) - also appear. While much of the material remains the same as that of the stage musical, some of the stage musical's songs (most notably "Ain't No Party") were removed, and four new songs were added. A number of changes were made to the story as well, including the additions of more overt references to The Supremes and Motown, the death of Jimmy (who is found dead on the road after a heroin overdose), and the relocation of the story's main setting from Chicago to Detroit. The film won two Academy Awards: Best Supporting Actress (Jennifer Hudson) and Best Sound Mixing.

To give the story more exposure for the upcoming film release, DreamWorks Pictures and the licensee of the original play, The Tams-Witmark Music Library, announced they would pay the licensing fees for all non-professional stage performances of Dreamgirls for the calendar year of 2006. DreamWorks hoped to encourage amateur productions of Dreamgirls, and familiarize a wider audience with the play. As a result, more than fifty high schools, colleges, community theaters, and other non-commercial theater entities staged productions of Dreamgirls in 2006, and DreamWorks spent up to $250,000 subsidizing the licensing.[12]

Original Broadway cast[edit]

Roz Ryan took over as Effie White in June 1984.[13]

Musical numbers[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • 1 The original Act II opening was a medley reprising the songs "Dreamgirls", "Move (You're Steppin' on My Heart)", "Love Love Me Baby", "Family", "Heavy", and "Cadillac Car", performed by Deena Jones and the Dreams, followed by most of the company participating in a reprise of "Press Conference". When the musical's national tour began in 1983, the Act II opening was changed to consist of a reprise of "Dreamgirls", and the performance of a new song, "Step on Over". With the new national tour in 2009, a new song entirely was written, entitled "What Love Can Do." Willie Reale, who had written the song “Patience” with Krieger for the film, wrote the song’s lyrics.

Awards and nominations[edit]

Original Broadway production[edit]

Year Award Ceremony Category Nominee Result
1982 Drama Desk Award Outstanding Musical Nominated
Outstanding Book of a Musical Tom Eyen Won
Outstanding Actress in a Musical Jennifer Holliday Won
Sheryl Lee Ralph Nominated
Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical Cleavant Derricks Won
Ben Harney Nominated
Outstanding Director of a Musical Michael Bennett Nominated
Outstanding Lyrics Tom Eyen Nominated
Outstanding Set Design Robin Wagner Won
Outstanding Costume Design Theoni V. Aldredge Nominated
Outstanding Lighting Design Tharon Musser Won
Tony Award Best Musical Nominated
Best Book of a Musical Tom Eyen Won
Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical Ben Harney Won
Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical Jennifer Holliday Won
Sheryl Lee Ralph Nominated
Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Musical Cleavant Derricks Won
Obba Babatundé Nominated
Best Original Score Henry Krieger and Tom Eyen Nominated
Best Direction of a Musical Michael Bennett Nominated
Best Choreography Michael Bennett and Michael Peters Won
Best Scenic Design Robin Wagner Nominated
Best Costume Design Theoni V. Aldredge Nominated
Best Lighting Design Tharon Musser Won
1983 Grammy Award Best Cast Show Album Henry Krieger (composer), Tom Eyen (lyricist), David Foster (producer) Won
Best Female R&B Vocal Performance Jennifer Holliday
("And I Am Telling You I'm Not Going")
Won

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Tom Eyen denied that he had the Supremes in mind when he wrote the book. "I didn’t grow up with the Supremes, I grew up with the Shirelles. Dreamgirls isn’t about any one group. It’s a cavalcade of black Motown singers, ...all larger than life." retrieved February 27, 2007
  2. ^ One Singular Sensation: The Michael Bennett Story, by Kevin Kelly, Doubleday, 1990
  3. ^ Hill, Jeremy. "Pre-Broadway. Dreamgirls: Your Virtual Coffee Table Book of the Musical.
  4. ^ Taylor, Markland.Dreamgirls reviewVariety, Oct. 19, 1997
  5. ^ Kaufman, Ed.[1]The Hollywood Reporter"" (reprint in allbusiness.com), December 4, 1997
  6. ^ Jones, Kenneth."Not Going" So Fast: Dreamgirls Extends by a Week at NYC's Apollo playbill.com, November 17, 2009
  7. ^ Dodds, Richard. 2010. "Master of the Silhouettes: "Dreamgirls" Costume Designer William Ivey Long," Bay Area Reporter ("Arts & Entertainment" section) Vol. 40. No. 33 (19 August 2010), pp. 21, 32.
  8. ^ Jones, Kenneth."Dreamgirls Is a Philly Hit — and Might Have Legs; Resident Run Extends to Feb. 26", playbill.com, January 24, 2006
  9. ^ Dreamgirls South Africa dreamgirls.co.za
  10. ^ Hill, Jeremy. "Film Version (2006): History". Dreamgirls: Your Virtual Coffee Table Book of the Musical.
  11. ^ McClintock, Pamela (Nov. 6, 2006). "D'Works takes 'Girls' on road." Daily Variety. Retrieved from http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117953449.html?categoryid=13&cs=1&s=h&p=0 on November 11, 2006.
  12. ^ Olsen, Mark (Dec. 12, 2006). "One stage of film's marketing is on stage". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.calendarlive.com/printedition/calendar/cl-et-dreamgirls12dec12,0,693678.story on December 15, 2006
  13. ^ Nemy, Enid. "Broadway". The New York Times. September 21, 1984, Section C, p.2

References[edit]

External links[edit]