|Classification and external resources|
Dressler's syndrome is a secondary form of pericarditis that occurs in the setting of injury to the heart or the pericardium (the outer lining of the heart). It consists of a triad of features: fever, pleuritic pain and pericardial effusion.
Dressler's syndrome is also known as postmyocardial infarction syndrome and the term is sometimes used to refer to post-pericardiotomy pericarditis.
Dressler's syndrome is largely a self limiting disease that very rarely leads to pericardial tamponade. The syndrome consists of a persistent low-grade fever, chest pain (usually pleuritic in nature), a pericardial friction rub, and /or a pericardial effusion. The symptoms tend to occur 4–6 weeks after myocardial infarction, but can also be delayed for a few months. It tends to subside in a few days. An elevated ESR is an objective laboratory finding.
It is believed to result from an autoimmune inflammatory reaction to myocardial neo-antigens formed as a result of the MI. A similar pericarditis can be associated with any pericardiotomy or trauma to the pericardium or heart surgery.
In the setting of myocardial infarction, Dressler's syndrome occurs in about 7% of cases, and typically occurs 2–3 weeks post-myocardial infarction. Dressler's syndome is also known as post-myocardial infarction syndrome, post-cardiac injury syndrome and postpericardiotomy syndrome. Dressler's syndrome needs to be differentiated from pulmonary embolism, another identifiable cause of pleuritic (and non-pleuritic) chest pain in people who have been hospitalized and/or undergone surgical procedures within the preceding weeks.
Dressler's syndrome is typically treated with colchicine. In some resistant cases, corticosteroids can be used but are not preferred due to the high frequency of relapse when corticosteroid therapy is discontinued. NSAIDs though once used to treat Dressler syndrome, are less advocated and should be avoided in patients with ischemic heart disease. One NSAID in particular, indomethacin can inhibit new collagen deposition thus impairing the healing process for the infarcted region. NSAIDS should only be used in cases refractory to aspirin. Heparin in Dressler syndrome should be avoided because it can lead to hemorrhage into the pericardial sac leading to tamponade. The only time heparin could be used with pericarditis is with coexisting acute MI in order to prevent further thrombus formation.
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