Dreyfus model of skill acquisition
In the fields of education and operations research, the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition is a model of how students acquire skills through formal instruction and practicing. Brothers Stuart and Hubert Dreyfus proposed the model in 1980 in an influential, 18-page report on their research at the University of California, Berkeley, Operations Research Center for the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research. The original model proposes that a student passes through five distinct stages: novice, competence, proficiency, expertise, and mastery.
The original five-stage model 
In the novice stage, a person follows rules as given, without context, with no sense of responsibility beyond following the rules exactly. Competence develops when the individual develops organizing principles to quickly access the particular rules that are relevant to the specific task at hand; hence, competence is characterized by active decision making in choosing a course of action. Proficiency is shown by individuals who develop intuition to guide their decisions and devise their own rules to formulate plans. The progression is thus from rigid adherence to rules to an intuitive mode of reasoning based on tacit knowledge.
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Michael Eraut wrongly summarized the five stages of increasing skill as follows:
- 1. Novice
- "rigid adherence to taught rules or plans"
- no exercise of "discretionary judgment"
- 2. Advanced beginner
- limited "situational perception"
- all aspects of work treated separately with equal importance
- 3. Competent
- "coping with crowdedness" (multiple activities, accumulation of information)
- some perception of actions in relation to goals
- deliberate planning
- formulates routines
- 4. Proficient
- holistic view of situation
- prioritizes importance of aspects
- "perceives deviations from the normal pattern"
- employs maxims for guidance, with meanings that adapt to the situation at hand
- 5. Expert
- transcends reliance on rules, guidelines, and maxims
- "intuitive grasp of situations based on deep, tacit understanding"
- has "vision of what is possible"
- uses "analytical approaches" in new situations or in case of problems
Instead the original Dreyfus model is based on four binary qualities:
- Recollection (non-situational or situational)
- Recognition (decomposed or holistic)
- Decision (analytical or intuitive)
- Awareness (monitoring or absorbed)
This leads to five roles:
- 1. Novice
- non-situational recollection, decomposed recognition, analytical decision, monitoring awareness
- 2. Competence
- situational recollection, decomposed recognition, analytical decision, monitoring awareness
- 3. Proficiency
- situational recollection, holistic recognition, analytical decision, monitoring awareness
- 4. Expertise
- situational recollection, holistic recognition, intuitive decision, monitoring awareness
- 5. Mastery
- situational recollection, holistic recognition, intuitive decision, absorbed awareness
Example uses of the model 
- Assessing progress in the development of skills.
- Helping to define a desired level of competence.
- Supporting progress in the development of skills, by understanding the learning needs and styles of learning at different levels of skill acquisition.
- Helping to determine when a learner is ready to teach others.
See also 
- Chris Argyris' concepts of Action learning
- Four stages of competence
- Shu Ha Ri
- Merleau Ponty
- Language proficiency, particularly ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines
- The Seven Stages of Expertise in Software Engineering (or The Seven Stages of Expertise in Software Engineering)
- Virginia Satir Change Process Model
- Dreyfus, Stuart E.; Dreyfus, Hubert L. (February 1980). A Five-Stage Model of the Mental Activities Involved in Directed Skill Acquisition. Washington, DC: Storming Media. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- Cheetham, Graham; Chivers, Geoff (2005). Professions, Competence and Informal Learning. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 337. ISBN 1-84376-408-3. Reprinted from Eraut, Michael (1994). Developing Professional Knowledge and Competence. London: Falmer Press. p. 124. ISBN 0-7507-0330-X.
Further reading 
- Benner, Patricia (2004). "Using the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition to Describe and Interpret Skill Acquisition and Clinical Judgment in Nursing Practice and Education". Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 24 (3): 188–19. doi:10.1177/0270467604265061.
- Eriksen, Jørgen W. (2010). "Should Soldiers Think before They Shoot?". Journal of Military Ethics 9 (3): 195–218. doi:10.1080/15027570.2010.510861.