Driving licence in India
Driving licences in India are issued by individual states via their "Regional Transport Authorities/Offices" (RTA/RTO). The common "All India Permit" allows the licensee to drive throughout the country. For obtaining a licence to drive motorcycles with an engine capacity of 55 cc or less, the minimum age is 16. One must be 18 years or older to drive any other type of vehicle. For driving transport vehicles, one should obtain endorsement in the driving licence to that effect.
Conditions and tests
The most common licences are:
- MC 50CC (Motorcycle 50cc)—motorcycles with an engine capacity of 50 cc or less.
- MC EX50CC (Motorcycle more than 50cc)—motorcycles and (Light Motor Vehicle)CAR.
- fvg—motorcycles of any engine capacity, but without gears, including mopeds and scooters
- MCWG or M/CYCL.WG (Motorcycle Without Gear)—all motorcycles.
- LMV (Light Motor Vehicle)—"light motor vehicles", including auto rickshaws, motorcars, jeeps, taxis, three-wheeler delivery vans, etc.
- LMV-NT (Light Motor Vehicle—Non Transport)—"light motor vehicles" for personal use only
- LMV-TR (Light Motor Vehicle—Transport)—"light motor vehicles" for commercial transportation.[clarification needed]
- HMV (Heavy Motor Vehicle)—"Heavy or Low Motor Vehicle" ("open licence"; "All India Driving Permit for Cars and Trucks").
See the Class and vehicle categories section below for the complete list.
Most of the legislation regarding licensing is in the Rules of the Road Regulation and the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988. While driving, drivers must carry the original of the driving licence. They should have an additional Badge if they are driving a taxi or any other public transport vehicle.
Drivers have to appear for an oral or written test, depending on the state, to earn a learner's licence, which is valid for 6 months, and enables them to drive a car (LMV) or a motorcycle (MCWG), as long as someone with a permanent licence is present in the vehicle. Drivers then have to pass a driving test to get a permanent licence.
The presence of another person with a permanent licence is not needed in the case of MCWOG (Motor cycle without gear).[clarification needed]
A police officer or any other official authorised by the government can ask for vehicle-related documents, and the driver should produce them within 24 hours at the police station (or the concerned department).
The law permits officials to seize a licence, and issue a temporary one for a specified time. The law also allows the state government to set the fines or jail terms for minor traffic violations, and specifies who has the rights to enforce these rules.
Every driving licence has a maximum number of endorsements allowed. If the driver does not follow the traffic rules or causes any fault, then a "Chalan" (a type of penalty fine ) is issued and an endorsement put on the licence. An excessive number of endorsements may lead to cancellation.[clarification needed]
- Two wheel:
- MC or MCWOG: Motorcycle Without Gear
- MCWG or M/CYCL.WG: Motorcycle With Gear
- Three/four wheel:
- ARNT: Auto Rickshaw – Non Transport
- ART: Auto Rickshaw – Transport
- LMV-NT: Light Motor Vehicle – Non Transport
- LMV-T: Light Motor Vehicle – Transport
- MGV: Medium Goods Vehicle
- MPV: Medium Passenger Vehicle
- Heavy Motor Vehicle:
- HGV: Heavy Good Vehicle
- HPV: Heavy Passenger Vehicle
- HTV: Heavy Transport Vehicle (Valid for Goods and Passenger Vehicles)
- HZRD: Heavy Transport Vehicle with Hazardous materials
- TR: Tractor
- RDRLR: Road Roller
- section 3 and 4 of Motor Vehicles Act 1988, India
- section 3(1) Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 India
- section 8 of Motor Vehicles Act 1988 India