Ria

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For other uses, see RIA (disambiguation).
Georges River, in the southern suburbs of Sydney (Australia) is a ria, or drowned river valley. The deeply indented shape of the ria reflects the dendritic pattern of drainage that existed before the rise in sea level that flooded the valley.

A ria is a coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley. It is a drowned river valley that remains open to the sea. Typically, rias have a dendritic, treelike outline although they can be straight and without significant branches. This pattern is inherited from the dendritic drainage pattern of the flooded river valley. The drowning of river valleys along a stretch of coast and formation of rias results in an extremely irregular and indented coastline. Often, there are islands, which are summits of partly submerged, pre-existing hill peaks. A ria coast is a coastline having several parallel rias separated by prominent ridges, extending a distance inland.[1][2][3] The sea level change that caused the submergence of a river valley may be either eustatic (where global sea levels rise), or isostatic (where the local land sinks). The result is often a very large estuary at the mouth of a relatively insignificant river (or else sediments would quickly fill the ria). The Kingsbridge Estuary in Devon, England, is an extreme example of a ria forming an estuary disproportionate to the size of its river; no significant river flows into it at all, only a number of small streams.[3]

Etymology[edit]

The word ria comes from Galician ría and is related to Galician and Spanish río (river). Rias are present all along the Galician coast. As originally defined, the term was restricted to drowned river valleys cut parallel to the structure of the country rock that was at right angles to the coastline. However, the definition of ria was later expanded to other flooded river valleys regardless of the structure of the country rock.

For a period of time, European geomorphologists[4] regarded rias to include any broad estuarine river mouth, including fjords. These are long, narrow inlets with steep sides or cliffs, created in a valley carved by glacial activity. But, in the 21st century, the current and preferred usage of ria by geologist and geomorphologists restricts this term solely to apply to drowned unglaciated river valleys. It excludes fjords by definition.[1][2][3]

Examples[edit]

Europe
Africa
  • Kenya: Kilindini Harbour, which is a deep channel between Mombasa island and South Coast mainland, is a ria.
Asia
Oceania
Tory Channel, in New Zealand's Marlborough Sounds
North America
South America

Consequences[edit]

Ria can amplify the effects of tsunami, as demonstrated in the seismicity of the Sanriku coast, most recently in the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cotton, C. (1956) Rias sensu stricto and sensu lato. Geographical Journal. 122(3):360–364.
  2. ^ a b Goudie, A. (2004) Encyclopedia of Geomorphology. Routledge. London, England.
  3. ^ a b c Bird, E.C.F. (2008) Coastal Geomorphology: An Introduction, 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. West Sussex, England.
  4. ^ Gulliver, F.P. (1899) Shoreline Topography. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 34:151-258.

See also[edit]