Substance-related disorder

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Substance-related disorder
Classification and external resources
Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse (physical harm and dependence, NA free means).svg
Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment[1]
ICD-10 F10-F19
ICD-9 291-292; 303305
MeSH D019966

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others.

The terms have a huge range of definitions related to taking a psychoactive drug or performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. All of these definitions imply a negative judgment of the drug use in question (compare with the term responsible drug use for alternative views). Some of the drugs most often associated with this term include alcohol, substituted amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines (particularly alprazolam, temazepam,diazepam and clonazepam), cocaine, methaqualone, and opioids. Use of these drugs may lead to criminal penalty in addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm, both strongly depending on local jurisdiction. There are many cases in which criminal or anti-social behavior occur when the person is under the influence of a drug. Long term personality changes in individuals may occur as well. Other definitions of drug abuse fall into four main categories: public health definitions, mass communication and vernacular usage, medical definitions, and political and criminal justice definitions. Substance abuse is prevalent with an estimated 120 million users of hard drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and other synthetic drugs. Substance abuse is a form of substance-related disorder.

Substance-related disorders can be subcategorized into "substance use disorders" (SUD) and "substance-induced disorders" (SID).[2][3]

Though DSM-IV makes a firm distinction between the two, SIDs often occur in the context of SUDs.[4]

Some people can have strong drug cravings even after they have not used the drug for a long period of time. They call this being "clean". To determine how the brain triggers these cravings, multiple tests have been done on mice.[5]

Substance-related disorders, including both substance dependence and substance abuse, can lead to large societal problems. It is found to be greatest in individuals ages 18–25, with a higher likelihood occurring in men compared to women, and urban residents compared to rural residents. On average, general medical facilities hold 20% of patients with substance-related disorders, possibly leading to psychiatric disorders later on. Over 50% of individuals with substance-related disorders will often have a "dual diagnosis," where they are diagnosed with the substance abuse, as well as a psychiatric diagnosis, the most common being major depression, personality disorder, anxiety disorders, and dysthymia.[6]

Classification and terminology[edit]

Substance-induced disorders[edit]

Substance-induced disorders include medical conditions that can be directly attributed to the use of a substance.[7]

These conditions include intoxication, withdrawal, substance-induced delirium, substance-induced psychosis, and substance-induced mood disorders.[8]

Diseases[edit]

An abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism: For instance, there are several known alcohol-induced diseases (e.g. alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, alcoholic cardiomyopathy.)

Substance use disorders[edit]

Substance use disorders include substance abuse and substance dependence.[9] In DSM-IV, the conditions are formally diagnosed as one or the other, but it has been proposed that DSM-V combine the two into a single condition called "Substance-use disorder".[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nutt, D.; King, L. A.; Saulsbury, W.; Blakemore, C. (2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse". The Lancet 369 (9566): 1047–1053. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4. PMID 17382831.  edit
  2. ^ "substance-related disorders" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  3. ^ Marc Galanter; Herbert D. Kleber (2008). The American Psychiatric Publishing textbook of substance abuse treatment. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-58562-276-4. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  4. ^ Michael B. First; Allen Frances; Harold Alan Pincus (2004). DSM-IV-TR guidebook. American Psychiatric Pub. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-1-58562-068-5. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  5. ^ Aldhous, Peter (4/9/2008). "'Drug binge' mice reveal why cravings linger". Newscientist. Retrieved 10/82011.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  6. ^ Leikin, J.B. (2007). "Substance-Related Disorders in Adults". Disease-a-month 53 (6): 313–335. doi:10.1016/j.disamonth.2007.04.001. 
  7. ^ "Substance-induced disorders" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  8. ^ Roderick Shaner (1 April 2000). Psychiatry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-683-30766-5. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  9. ^ "Substance use disorders" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  10. ^ "Proposed Revision | APA DSM-5". Retrieved 2010-04-23. 

External links[edit]