Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect. It may involve scientific site-targeting within the body, or it might involve facilitating systemic pharmacokinetics; in any case, it is typically concerned with both quantity and duration of drug presence. Drug delivery is often approached via a drug's chemical formulation, but it may also involve medical devices or drug-device combination products. Drug delivery is a concept heavily integrated with dosage form and route of administration, the latter sometimes even being considered part of the definition.
Drug delivery technologies modify drug release profile, absorption, distribution and elimination for the benefit of improving product efficacy and safety, as well as patient convenience and compliance. Drug release is from: diffusion, degradation, swelling, and affinity-based mechanisms. Most common routes of administration include the preferred non-invasive peroral (through the mouth), topical (skin), transmucosal (nasal, buccal/sublingual, vaginal, ocular and rectal) and inhalation routes. Many medications such as peptide and protein, antibody, vaccine and gene based drugs, in general may not be delivered using these routes because they might be susceptible to enzymatic degradation or can not be absorbed into the systemic circulation efficiently due to molecular size and charge issues to be therapeutically effective. For this reason many protein and peptide drugs have to be delivered by injection or a nanoneedle array. For example, many immunizations are based on the delivery of protein drugs and are often done by injection.
Current efforts in the area of drug delivery include the development of targeted delivery in which the drug is only active in the target area of the body (for example, in cancerous tissues) and sustained release formulations in which the drug is released over a period of time in a controlled manner from a formulation. In order to achieve efficient targeted delivery, the designed system must avoid the host's defense mechanisms and circulate to its intended site of action. Types of sustained release formulations include liposomes, drug loaded biodegradable microspheres and drug polymer conjugates.
On December 15 2013 a California company, Alsa Refinish LLC CEO Ike Banoun filed patent applications to deliver drugs to the human body without needles. Simply by using the vapor from Ecigeratte vapor technology. All water soluble drugs can now be vaped instead of taken by needle,inhaler, nebulizers or pills.
The vapor pellets are so small that they reach into the smallest parts of the lungs to bring relief or introduce a drug or therapy into the system.
The system is even faster than intravenous without being invasive.
- Targeted drug delivery
- Thin film drug delivery
- Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system
- Acoustic targeted drug delivery
- Neural drug delivery systems
- Drug carrier
- Bovine Submaxillary Mucin Coatings
- M. N. V. Ravi Kumar (2008), Handbook of Particulate Drug Delivery (2-Volume Set), American Scientific Publishers. ISBN 1-58883-123-X
- Wang, NX.; von Recum, HA. (2011). "Affinity-Based Drug Delivery". Macromol Biosci 11: 321–332. doi:10.1002/mabi.201000206.
- "Definition". Retrieved 2008-05-27.
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- Bertrand N, Leroux JC. (2011). "The journey of a drug carrier in the body: an anatomo-physiological perspective". Journal of Controlled Release. doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.09.098.
- Article in Chemical and Engineering News
- Drug Delivery Reports
- Nano-Tera.ch-Drug Delivery News
- Home of Langer Lab, one of the pioneers in Drug Delivery Systems
- Animation of nanoparticles drug delivery in cancer therapy
- Nanofiber Drug Delivery Systems
- California Company Creates Medical Device That Could Change the Course of Medicine as We Know It