In 1956, Chick Evans invented the plastic drumhead. Plastic drumheads made from polyester are cheaper, more durable, and less sensitive to weather than animal skin. In 1957, Remo Belli and Sam Muchnick together developed a plastic head (also known as Mylar) leading to the development of the Remo drumhead company.
Despite the benefits of plastic heads, drummers in historical reenactment groups such as fife and drum use animal skin heads for historical accuracy. Skin heads are used on most hand drums, including djembes, frame drums, bongos and congas, although in recent years, companies such as Remo have begun manufacturing synthetic counterparts for certain hand drums such as congas. Another common material used for drumheads is aramid fiber, such as kevlar. More durable fiber heads, such as kevlar heads, are used mostly in marching percussion.
A drum "hoop" or "rim" may be made of metal, wood, or other material and is used to hold a drumhead against a drum shell, either with bolts through metal "claws" attached directly to a hoop, or bolts through holes in a flanged rim. The bolts, called "tension rods", are screwed into threaded "lugs" attached to the drum shell, in order to tighten and tune the drumhead. A "drum key" is a four sided wrench used to screw the tension rods into the lugs.
Drummers muffle their drums using special drumheads like double-ply heads, "control ring" heads, and "hydraulic" heads, or various materials placed on the drumhead like o-rings, duct tape, cut up maxi-pads under duct tape, muffling clamps, and a product called Moongel, which is a blue, sticky, gel-like substance also used to dampen cymbals. Drummers also place foam, pillows, or blankets inside the bass drum to reduce resonance and overtones.
- Bear Percussion
- Columbia Products International
- Cozmo Graphics
- Custom Skins
- Drum Art
- DW (Drum Workshop)
- Halifax & Co
- Head First
- Vellum Head Co.
- Vintage Logos
- Yamaha Drum heads
- Vibrations of a drum head for an illustrated mathematical treatment.
- Drumhead court-martial, a court-martial held in the field to hear urgent charges of offences committed in action, or figuratively a hearing held in undue haste.
- International House of Blues Foundation. "Making a Drum" 2003
- Drum Key Patent
- Caldwell, Lyle. " Drum Treatment - Muffling " 1999
- Accessory Fetish A Complete List of Drum Head Manufacturers