A drumhead court-martial is a court-martial held in the field to hear urgent charges of offences committed in action. The term is said to originate from the use of a drumhead as an improvised writing table, as an altar for religious services,  or a traditional gathering point for a regiment for orders or decisions.
The earliest recorded usage is in an English memoir of the Peninsular War (1807). The term sometimes has connotations of summary justice, with an implied lack of judicial impartiality, as noted in the transcripts of the trial at Nuremberg of Josef Bühler. According to Sir Arthur Wynne Morgan Bryant, such courts-martial have ordered lashings or hangings to punish soldiers (and their officers) who were cowardly, disobedient – or, conversely, acted rashly; and especially as a discouragement to drunkenness. It is also used as a reference to a Kangaroo Court in its derogatory form.
The term "flying court martial" or "flying drumhead" is used to refer to the mobile courts martial used by the German armed forces in the last two months of the World War II. The "flying" is generally taken as a reference to their mobility, and may also refer to the earlier "flying courts martial" in Italian Libya. Italian military judges were flown in aeroplanes to the location of captured rebels, so that a court martial of the rebels could be held as soon as possible after capture.
An example of this was the summary trial of five officers found guilty of failing to prevent the Allies from capturing the Ludendorff Bridge during the Battle of Remagen on 7 March 1945. On the direct order from Chancellor Adolf Hitler, Generalleutnant Rudolf Hübner tried Major Hans Scheller, Captain Willi Bragte, Lt. Karl Heinz Peters, Maj. Herbert Strobel and Maj. August Kraft. Hübner, who had no legal experience, acted as both prosecutor and judge. He conducted extremely brief show trials during which he harangued the defendants for their alleged command failures, and then pronounced sentence. All of the officers was sentenced to death. Except for Bratge, who had been captured, the others were taken to a nearby woods within 24 hours and executed with a shot to the back of the neck and buried where they fell.
- Definition from Brewer's Dictionary
- An example of an illustration from the Thirty Years War showing a drum used as a table at military executions
- parade and drumhead service
- Drumhead Service at Culzean Castle
- Her Majesty the Queen presents the RAF with the new colour at a Drumhead service, RAF Fairford. (Photo: Cpl Scott Robertson RAF)[dead link]
- 'Court martial, n. 1.b. drumhead court-martial', Oxford English Dictionary Online (2009), citing Sir Charles Shaw, Personal memoirs and correspondence, comprising a narrative of the war ... in Portugal and Spain (1837), II, 449.
- Transcript at the Nizkor project
- Years of Victory (1802-1812), Arthur Bryant, 1944
- Kraft, Guenther (1946). "The shooting of Major Kraft in consequence of the Remagen incident; an account by his son". Fold3 (in , German). Ancestry.com. Retrieved 29 November 2014. (subscription required (. ))
- Dermot, Bradley (2002). Die Generale des Heeres, 1921-1945, Band 6 (Hochbaum-Klutmann). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio Verlag.
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