Dry animal dung fuel
||This article contains wording that promotes the subject in a subjective manner without imparting real information. (October 2012)|
Dry animal dung is used as a fuel in many countries around the world. It is a source of Green fuel used by more than two billion people. However, its disadvantages include air pollution. As a cheap bioenergy source, it has gained growing interest. Using animal dung (manure) as a fuel source is an example of the reuse of excreta.
Dry dung and moist dung
Both dry and moist dung can be used as fuels but dry dung is more commonly used. Dry manure is typically defined as having a moisture content less than 30 percent.
- Cheaper than most modern fuels
- Alleviates local pressure on wood resources
- Readily available - short walking time required to collect fuel
- No cash outlays necessary for purchase (can be exchanged for other products)
- Less environmental pollution
- Safer disposal of animal dung
- Sustainable and renewable energy source
- In Egypt dry animal dung (from cows & buffaloes) is mixed with straw or crop residues to make dry fuel called "Gella" or "Jilla" dung cakes in modern times and ""khoroshtof"" in medieval times. Ancient Egyptians used the dry animal dung as a source of fuel. Dung cakes and building crop residues were the source of 76.4% of gross energy consumed in Egypt's rural areas during the 1980s. Temperatures of dung-fueled fires in an experiment on Egyptian village-made dung cake fuel produced
- ""a maximum of 640 degrees C in 12 minutes, falling to 240 degrees C after 25 minutes and 100 degrees C after 46 minutes. These temperatures were obtained without refueling and without bellows etc.""
- China (see photo)
- Tibetan people also use dry Yak & sheep dung fuel.
- Palestine & Arabia used animal and human dung fuel.
- Iran since prehistoric time to modern eras
- In India dry buffalo dung is used as fuel. and it is sometimes a sacred practice to use cow dung fuel in some areas in India. Cow dung is known as ""Gomaya"" or ""Komaya"" in India. Dry animal dung cakes are called Upla in Hindi.
- In Pakistan cow/buffalo dung is used as fuel.
- Bangladesh dry cow dung fuel is called Ghunte.
- Afghanistan (see photo)
- Kyrgyz Republic Dung is used in specially designed home stoves, which vent to the outside
- In Mongolia the dry animal (cows or horses) dung fuel is called ""Argol"".
- Maltans used dry cow dung fuel
- Turks and Syrians use dry animal dung.
- Russians dry animal dung is known as ""Kiziak"" which is made by collecting dried animal dung on the steppe, wetting it in water then mixing it with straw then making it in discs which were then dried in the sun. It was used as a source of fuel for the winter and, throughout the summer.
- People of west of England used dry animal dung fuel
- France in Maison du Marais poitevin in Coulon there is a demonstration of traditional usage of dry dung fuel.
- Early European settlers on the Great Plains of the United States used dried buffalo manure as a fuel. They called it buffalo chips.
- American officials in Texas are studying using dry cow dung as a fuel
- Pueblo Indians used dry animal dung as a fuel
- In Peru a boat engine was fueled by Lama dung fuel.
- Dry dung can be used in the production of celluloid for film.
Human feces can in principal also be dried and used as a fuel source if they are collected in a type of dry toilet, for example an incinerating toilet. Since 2011, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting the development of such toilets as part of their "Reinvent the Toilet Challenge" to promote safer, more effective ways to treat human excreta. The omniprocessor is another example of using human feces contained in faecal sludge or sewage sludge as a fuel source.
- Dry Animal Dung Fuel News.
- What Makes People Cook with Improved Biomass Stoves? A Comparative International Review of Stove Programs a report by Douglas F. Barnes, Keith Openshaw,Kirk R. Smith, and Robert van der Plas, WORLD BANK TECHNICAL PAPER NUMBER 242 ENERGY SERIES, Washington, D.C.
- Photos of the making of Indian dry cow dung fuel.
- Fuel for life : household energy and health. Written and coordinated by Eva Rehfuess, World Health Organization. ISBN 92 4 156316 8 (NLM classification: WA 754)
- Preparing Cow Dung For Fuel
- (Russian) Кизяк // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). — СПб., 1890—1907.
- (French) Alain Raveneau: Le livre de la vache. Paris, Rustica, 1996, ISBN 2-84038-136-2
- Fuelwood and charcoal in developing countries: An economic survey by J.E.M. Arnold and Jules Jongma, a preview of a position paper to be given at the 8th World Forestry Congress in September 1978 in Djakarta.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dry animal dung fuel.|
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