Du Wenxiu

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Du Wenxiu's headquarters in Dali, Yunnan; now the Dali City Museum
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Du.
Du Wenxiu
Chinese 杜文秀
Alternative Chinese name

Du Wenxiu (Chinese: 杜文秀; pinyin: Dù Wénxiù; Wade–Giles: Tu Wen-hsiu) (1823–1872) was the Chinese Muslim leader of the Panthay Rebellion, an anti-Qing revolt in China during the Qing dynasty. Du had Han Chinese ancestry.[1][2] Born in Yongchang (now Baoshan, Yunnan), Du Wenxiu was the son of a Han Chinese who converted to Islam. His original name was Yang Xiu.[citation needed] He styled himself "Sultan of Dali" and reigned for 16 years before Qing troops under Cen Yuying beheaded him after he swallowed a ball of opium.[3][4][5][6][7] His body is entombed in Xiadui.[8]

The rebellion started after massacres of Hui perpetrated by the Manchu authorities.[9] Du used anti-Manchu rhetoric in his rebellion against the Qing, calling for Han to join the Hui to overthrow the Manchu Qing after 200 years of their rule.[10][11] Du invited the fellow Hui Muslim leader Ma Rulong to join him in driving the Manchu Qing out and "recover China".[12]For his war against Manchu "oppresion", Du "became a Muslim hero", while Ma Rulong dfected to the Qing.[13] On multiple occasions Kunming was attacked and sacked by Du Wenxiu's forces.[14][15] His capital was Dali.[16] The revolt ended in 1873.[17] Du Wenxiu is regarded as a hero by the present day government of China.[18]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Elleman, Bruce A. (2001). Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989 (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 64. ISBN 0415214734. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  2. ^ Fairbank, John King; Twitchett, Denis Crispin, eds. (1980). The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge University Press. p. 213. ISBN 0521220297. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  3. ^ Thant Myint-U. (2006). The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma. Macmillan. ISBN 0-374-16342-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  4. ^ Myint-U, Thant (2007). The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma. Macmillan. p. 145. ISBN 0374707901. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  5. ^ Myint-U, Thant (2012). Where China Meets India: Burma and the New Crossroads of Asia (illustrated, reprint ed.). Macmillan. ISBN 0374533520. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  6. ^ White, Matthew (2011). Atrocities: The 100 Deadliest Episodes in Human History (illustrated ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. p. 298. ISBN 0393081923. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  7. ^ Cooke, Tim, ed. (2010). The New Cultural Atlas of China. Contributor Marshall Cavendish Corporation. Marshall Cavendish. p. 38. ISBN 0761478752. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  8. ^ Asian Research Trends, Volumes 3-4. Contributor Yunesuko Higashi Ajia Bunka Kenkyū Sentā (Tokyo, Japan). Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies. 1993. p. 136. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  9. ^ Schoppa, R. Keith (2008). East Asia: identities and change in the modern world, 1700-present (illustrated ed.). Pearson/Prentice Hall. p. 58. ISBN 0132431467. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  10. ^ Dillon, Michael (1999). China's Muslim Hui Community: Migration, Settlement and Sects. Curzon Press. p. 59. ISBN 0700710264. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  11. ^ Dillon, Michael (2012). China: A Modern History (reprint ed.). I.B.Tauris. p. 90. ISBN 1780763816. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  12. ^ Atwill, David G. (2005). The Chinese Sultanate: Islam, Ethnicity, and the Panthay Rebellion in Southwest China, 1856-1873 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 120. ISBN 0804751595. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  13. ^ Asian Research Trends, Volumes 3-4. Contributor Yunesuko Higashi Ajia Bunka Kenkyū Sentā (Tokyo, Japan). Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies. 1993. p. 137. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  14. ^ Mansfield, Stephen (2007). China, Yunnan Province. Compiled by Martin Walters (illustrated ed.). Bradt Travel Guides. p. 69. ISBN 1841621692. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  15. ^ China's Southwest. Regional Guide Series. Contributor Damian Harper (illustrated ed.). Lonely Planet. 2007. p. 223. ISBN 1741041856. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  16. ^ Giersch, Charles Patterson (2006). Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China's Yunnan Frontier (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 217. ISBN 0674021711. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  17. ^ Mosk, Carl (2011). Traps Embraced Or Escaped: Elites in the Economic Development of Modern Japan and China. World Scientific. p. 62. ISBN 9814287520. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  18. ^ Comparative Civilizations Review, Issues 32-34. 1995. p. 36. Retrieved 24 April 2014.