Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn, BWV 23
|Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn|
|Church cantata by J. S. Bach|
Nikolaikirche, c. 1850
|Related||performed with BWV 22|
|Performed||7 February 1723Leipzigand 20 February 1724 ,|
|Bible text||Luke 18:31,34|
|Chorale||Elisabeth Cruciger: Herr Christ, der einig Gotts Sohn|
Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn (You true God and Son of David), BWV 23, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in Köthen between 1717 and 1723 for the Sunday Estomihi and performed it as an audition piece for the position of Thomaskantor in Leipzig on 7 February 1723.
History and words
Bach probably composed the cantata in Köthen between 1717 and 1723 for Quinquagesima Sunday (also known as Estomihi), but it was revised to be included as Bach's other test piece (with Jesus nahm zu sich die Zwölfe, BWV 22) for the position of Thomaskantor in Leipzig. The work was performed there on 7 February 1723 (after the sermon), and performed again on 20 February 1724. It is unclear whether a "test" performance of the 1723 revised version took place in Köthen before Bach's audition at the Thomaskirche.
The prescribed readings for the Sunday were taken from the First Epistle to the Corinthians, "praise of love" (1 Corinthians 13:1–13), and from the Gospel of Luke, healing the blind near Jericho (Luke 18:31–43). Authorship of the poetry is unknown.
The chorale theme Christe, du Lamm Gottes first appeared in print in Johannes Bugenhagen's Braunschweig church order, published in Wittenberg in 1525. The theme is an adaptation of Luther's setting of the Kyrie eleison in his 1525 Deutsche Messe.
Scoring and structure
The cantata is scored for three vocal soloists (soprano, alto, and tenor), four-part choir, cornett, three trombones (or trombe), two oboes, two violins, viola, and basso continuo. The piece has four movements:
- Duet aria (soprano, alto): Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn
- Recitative (tenor): Ach! gehe nicht vorüber
- Chorus: Aller Augen warten, Herr
- Chorale: Christe, du Lamm Gottes
In this cantata, Bach combines elements of ritornello and concerto writing to expand his range of structural experimentation. Although the chorale was a later addition, its melody is incorporated earlier in the piece. The text's theme is optimistic, but the music throughout has a sense of underlying sadness. Craig Smith describes the cantata as "one of the densest and greatest".
The opening movement is "a sinewy and somewhat enigmatic quintet" for soprano and alto voices (assuming the role of the blind man addressing Jesus) with low active oboes and continuo. The movement is in adapted ternary form with an opening and closing "Italianate" ritornello. The soprano line includes a "drooping" motive, hinting at later harmonic and emotional development. There is a "thorny, even awkward juxtaposition of triple and duple meters" throughout the duet.
The tenor recitative is quite similar to that for bass in BWV 22: they are in major and use chordal strings underlying the vocal line. This movement adds an instrumental rendition of the melody of the closing chorale in oboe and violin.
The chorus is "dance-like but not toe-tapping, major but not ebulliently so, employing the full chorus but restrained throughout". The form is free rondo with interspersed extended episodes of tenor and bass duet. The opening includes the BACH motif.
The closing chorale sets the same verse three times, likely representing the Trinity and drawing the listener's attention to the Passion narrative. It opens with "some of the weightiest and most ponderous music that Bach ever composed". The instrumental introduction varies between settings: the first and second begin with an oboe figure in G minor, the third with imitative counterpoint above the continuo. The harmonic structure of the movement is unsettled, ending on a C major chord that does not resolve. There is a concluding coda of Amens, heralded by a syncopated figure.
- J.S. Bach: Cantatas BWV 23 & BWV 159, Kurt Thomas, Frankfurter Kantorei, Deutsche Bachsolisten, Ursula Buckel, Eva Bornemann, Johannes Hoefflin, Cantate 1962
- Bach Cantatas Vol. 2 – Easter, Karl Richter, Münchener Bach-Chor, Münchener Bach-Orchester, Edith Mathis, Anna Reynolds, Peter Schreier Archiv 1974
- Les Grandes Cantates de J.S. Bach Vol. 29, Fritz Werner, Heinrich-Schütz-Chor Heilbronn, Württembergisches Kammerorchester Heilbronn, Ingeborg Reichelt, Barbara Scherler, Friedrich Melzer, Erato 1973
- J.S. Bach: Das Kantatenwerk – Sacred Cantatas Vol. 2, Gustav Leonhardt, Tölzer Knabenchor, King's College Choir, Leonhardt Consort, boy soloist, Paul Esswood, Marius van Altena, Teldec 1973
- Die Bach Kantate Vol. 28, Helmuth Rilling, Gächinger Kantorei, Bach-Collegium Stuttgart, Arleen Augér, Helen Watts, Aldo Baldin, Niklaus Tüller, Hänssler 1977
- J.S. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. 3, Ton Koopman, Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra & Choir, Barbara Schlick, Elisabeth von Magnus, Paul Agnew, Antoine Marchand 1995
- J.S. Bach: Cantatas Vol. 8 – Leipzig Cantatas, Masaaki Suzuki, Bach Collegium Japan, Midori Suzuki, Yoshikazu Mera, Gerd Türk, BIS 1998
- Bach Edition Vol. 5 – Cantatas Vol. 2, Pieter Jan Leusink, Holland Boys Choir, Netherlands Bach Collegium, Ruth Holton, Sytse Buwalda, Nico van der Meel, Brilliant Classics [date missing]
- Bach Cantatas Vol. 21: Cambridge/Walpole St Peter, John Eliot Gardiner, Monteverdi Choir, the Choirs of Clare and Trinity Colleges, English Baroque Soloists, Ruth Holton, Claudia Schubert, James Oxley, Soli Deo Gloria 2000
- J.S. Bach: Cantatas for the Complete Liturgical Year Vol. 6 (Sexagesima and Estomihi Sundays), Sigiswald Kuijken, La Petite Bande, Siri Thornhill, Petra Noskaiová, Marcus Ullmann, Jan van der Crabben, Accent 2007
- J.S. Bach: Jesus, deine Passion, Philippe Herreweghe, Collegium Vocale Gent, Dorothee Mields, Petra Noskaiova, Matthew White, Jan Kobow, Harmonia Mundi France 2007
- Dellal, Pamela. "BWV 23 – Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn". Emmanuel Music. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Leaver, Robin A. (2007). Luther's liturgical music : principles and implications. Grand Rapids, Mich: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-8028-3221-4.
- Terry, Charles Sanford (1921). Bach's Chorals III. pp. 124–125.
- Chafe, Eric (2000). Analyzing Bach cantatas. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516182-3.
- BWV 23 Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn, University of Alberta
- Julian Mincham, "Chapter 45 BWV 23", jsbachcantatas
- Craig Smith, "BWV 23", Emmanuel Music
- Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn, BWV 23: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project, free according to the copyright law of Canada
- Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn (1st version) BWV 23; BC A 47a / Sacred cantata Leipzig University
- Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn (2nd version) BWV 23; BC A 47b / Sacred cantata Leipzig University
- Cantata BWV 23 Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn history, scoring, sources for text and music, translations to various languages, discography, discussion, bach-cantatas website
- Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn history, scoring, Bach website (German)
- BWV 23 Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn English translation, University of Vermont
- BWV 23 Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn: text, scoring, University of Alberta