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The Dual Contracts, signed on March 19, 1913, and also known as the Dual Subway System, were contracts for the construction and/or rehabilitation and operation of rapid transit lines in the City of New York. The majority of the lines of the present-day New York City Subway were built or reconstructed under these contracts. The contracts were "dual," in that they were signed between the City and two separate private companies (the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company) who all worked together to make the construction of the Dual Contracts possible.
- 1 Background
- 2 The Contracts
- 3 IRT lines
- 4 BMT lines
- 5 Results
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
In the late 19th century and for most of the 20th century, New York was host to millions of immigrants each year. Many of the immigrants crowded into tenements and other apartment buildings in the inner city. This resulted in overpopulation of the buildings, and congestion of city streets. As living in Manhattan was becoming a hazard, subway lines to the outer boroughs were planned during the early 20th century, after the first subway line was opened. Dispersion resulted in the expansion and development of the boroughs, and helped prepare New York for the millions of immigrants that came in the following years.
Some opposed the Dual Contracts as they thought that the company owners and city officials were just looking for another way to produce personal revenue. Reformists like George McAneny and Charles Hughes would not have it any other way than to see the expansion of the city and the subway. They wanted to see the inner city become less populated and spread the people to the outer boroughs of the city. They planned to expand the city and disperse the people by building subway lines which would hopefully result in new homes being built near the subway lines and the areas surrounding. This would lower population densities in the city and also made as a good reason to help prove the subway expansion as necessary.
Before the Contracts, there was crowding in many of the forms of transportation in the city. The following is a list of annual ridership for each mode of transportation between June 30, 1910, and June 30, 1911:
- Interborough Rapid Transit Company – subways, elevated roads — 578,154,088
- Hudson Manhattan Railroad — 52,756,434
- Brooklyn Union Elevated Railroad System — 167,371,328
- East River ferries — 23,460,000
- Municipal ferry to Staten Island — 10,540,000
- Hudson River ferries — 91,776,200
In total, 924,058,050 passengers were carried that year over these six modes of transport.
It was expected that, within five years of completion:
When completed the rapid transit facilities of the City will have been more than trebled. During the year ended June 30, 1911, shortly after which the construction of the new system was begun, the existing rapid transit lines carried 798,281,850 passengers. The new Dual System will have a capacity of upwards of [3 billion], although it is not expected that such capacity will be demanded immediately upon the completion of the system. The combined trackage of the existing lines (including 7.1 miles of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad) amounts to 303 miles of single track. To this will be added by the new lines of the Dual System 334 miles of single track, making a new system with 637 miles of single track. What this will mean to the City may be appreciated by considering how the existing lines will be amplified by the new additions and extensions. The Hudson and Manhattan road, however, is not to be a part of the Dual System.
Contracts 3 and 4
Contract 3 was signed between the City and the IRT, operator of the original subway line in New York City. Contract 4 was signed between the City and the Municipal Railway Company, a subsidiary of the BRT (later BMT), formed especially for the purpose of contracting with the city for construction of the lines. Contracts 1 and 2 were the original subway contracts between the City and the IRT for the city's first subway. These contracts predated the Dual Contracts, which were contracts 3 and 4.
Under the terms of Contracts 3 and 4, the city would build new subway and elevated lines, and rehabilitate and expand certain existing elevated lines, and lease them to the private companies for operation. The cost would be borne more-or-less equally by the City and the companies. The City's contribution was in cash raised by bond offerings, while the companies' contributions were variously by supplying cash, facilities and equipment to run the lines.
The contract negotiations were long and sometimes acrimonious. For instance, when the IRT was reluctant (if not totally opposed) to the BRT's proposed access to Midtown Manhattan via the Broadway Line, the city and state negotiators immediately offered the BRT all of the lines under proposal, including such obvious IRT tie-ins such as the upper Lexington Avenue Line, and both lines in Queens. The IRT quickly gave in to the 'invasion' of Midtown Manhattan by the BRT.
The assignment of the proposed lines in Queens proved to be an imposition on both companies. Instead of one company enjoying a monopoly in that borough, both proposed lines — a short line to Astoria, and a longer line reaching initially to Corona, and eventually to Flushing — were assigned to both companies, to be operated in what was called "joint service." The lines would start from a huge station called Queensborough Plaza. The IRT would access the station from both the 1907 Steinway Tunnel and an extension of the Second Avenue Elevated from Manhattan over the Queensborough Bridge. The BRT would feed the Queens lines from a new tunnel from 60th Street in Manhattan. Technically the line was under IRT 'ownership', but the BRT/BMT was granted trackage rights in perpetuity, essentially making it theirs also.
The BRT had a big disadvantage, as both Queens lines were built to IRT specifications. This meant that IRT passengers had a one-seat ride to Manhattan destinations, whereas BRT passengers had to make a change at Queensborough Plaza. This came to be important when service was extended for the 1939 World's Fair, as the IRT was able to offer direct express trains from Manhattan, and the BRT was not. This practice lasted well into the municipal ownership of the lines, and was not ended until 1949. Both companies shared in the revenues from this service. To facilitate this arrangement originally, extra long platforms were constructed along both Queens routes, so separate fare controls/boarding areas could be established. This quickly turned out to be operationally unworkable, so eventually a proportionate formula was worked out. The bonus legacy of this construction was that the IRT was able to operate 11-car trains on this line, and when the BMT took over the Astoria Line, minimal work had to done to accommodate 10-car BMT units.
Several provisions were imposed on the companies, which eventually led to their downfall and consolidation into City ownership in 1940:
- The fare was limited to five cents, and this led to financial troubles for the two companies after post-World War I inflation.
- The City had the right to "recapture" any of the lines it built, and run them as its own.
- The City was to share in the profits.
- Astoria Line and Flushing Line
- Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line south of Times Square – 42nd Street, including the Brooklyn Branch
- Lexington Avenue Line north of Grand Central – 42nd Street
- Jerome Avenue Line
- Ninth Avenue Line from 155th Street to the Jerome Avenue Line
- Pelham Line
- White Plains Road Line north of 177th Street (present-day Tremont Avenue)
- Eastern Parkway Line beyond Atlantic Avenue
- Nostrand Avenue Line
- New Lots Line
The following lines were rebuilt with extra tracks:
- Ninth Avenue Line from Rector Street to 155th Street (one new track)
- Second Avenue and Third Avenue Lines from City Hall station to 129th Street and from 116th Street to 155th Street, respectively.
All Manhattan and Queens BMT lines were built under the Dual Contracts, as were all subway and some elevated lines in Brooklyn.
Lines and line segments built new
- 14th Street Eastern Line west of Broadway Junction; two-tracked underground structure
- Astoria Line and Flushing Line east of Queensboro Plaza (trackage rights over IRT); both three-track elevated structures
- Broadway Line; four-track underground structure
- Brighton Beach Line between DeKalb Avenue and Prospect Park
- Fourth Avenue Line; underground structure with four tracks north of 59th Street and two tracks south of 59th Street
- Fulton Street Line east of Grant Avenue; three-track elevated structure
- Jamaica Line east of Cypress Hills; two-track elevated structure
- Manhattan Bridge tracks and approaches
- Nassau Street Line between Chambers Street to a merge with the Montague Street Tunnel to Brooklyn
Grade-separated rights-of-way built to replace surface railroads
- Brighton Beach Line between Neptune Avenue (south of Sheepshead Bay) and Coney Island – Stillwell Avenue. Four-track elevated structure.
- Culver Line between Ninth Avenue and West Eighth Street (merge with Brighton Beach Line). Three-track elevated structure.
- Myrtle Avenue Line east of Myrtle–Wyckoff Avenues. Two-track elevated structure.
- Sea Beach Line from Fourth Avenue Subway to 86th Street. Four-track open cut.
- West End Line between Ninth Avenue and Bay 50th Street. Three-track elevated structure.
Existing rights-of-way rehabilitated and expanded
- Brighton Beach Line from Prospect Park to Church Avenue. Existing open cut widened and expanded from two to four tracks.
- Jamaica Line from merge with line from Marcy Avenue to Broadway Junction. Elevated line expanded from two to three tracks.
- Myrtle Avenue Line from Broadway–Myrtle to Myrtle–Wyckoff Avenues, including track connection to Jamaica Line. Elevated structure expanded from two to three tracks.
- Fulton Street Line from Nostrand Avenue to east of split from Canarsie Line at Pitkin Avenue. Two track elevated expanded to three tracks and new flying junction complex with six tracks replaced two tracks between former Manhattan Junction in East New York and Pitkin Avenue. This portion gave the Canarsie Line two dedicated tracks.
As reformists predicted the Dual Contracts resulted in city expansion. People moved to the newly built homes along the newly built subway lines. These homes were affordable, about the same cost as the houses in Brooklyn and Manhattan (Derrick 7). The Dual Contracts were the key to dispersion of the city’s congested areas. The Dual Contracts helped lower high population areas and probably helped saves lives as people were no longer living in heavily diseased areas. According to the Federal Census of New York City for 1920 there was a decrease in population in the Manhattan borough decreased from 1910-1920. The census resulted in the following:
- 1905 State census-1,271,848
- 1910 United State census-1,269,591
- 1915 State census-1,085,308
- 1920 United State census-1,059,589
People were allowed to move to better parts the same cost and could have a better and more comfortable life in the suburbs. They could still commute to work every day as most of the better off city workers who moved to the outer boroughs did (Derrick 7). This also helped the business districts as people could still work. The Dual Contracts as a whole helped shape New York City into what it is today.
- Derrick, Peter (2001). Tunneling to the Future: The Story of the Great Subway Expansion that Saved New York. NYU Press. ISBN 0814719104.