Dual resonance model
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It was based upon the observation that the amplitudes for the s-channel scatterings matched exactly with the amplitudes for the t-channel scatterings among mesons and also the Regge trajectory. It began with the Euler beta function model of Gabriele Veneziano in 1968 for a 4-particle amplitude which has the property that it is explicitly s-t crossing symmetric, exhibits duality between the description in terms of Regge poles or of resonances, and provides a closed-form solution to non-linear finite-energy sum rules relating s- and t- channels.
The Veneziano formula was quickly generalized to an equally consistent N-particle amplitude for which, in chronological order Yoichiro Nambu (1968), Holger Bech Nielsen (1969), and Leonard Susskind (1969), provided a physical interpretation in terms of an infinite number of simple harmonic oscillators describing the motion of an extended one-dimensional string, whence came the name "string theory."
The study of dual resonance models was very popular from 1968 to 1974. It fell rapidly out of favor around 1974 mainly because it was superseded by quantum chromodynamics as the accepted theory of strong interactions.
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