Dubrovnik

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This article is about a city in Croatia. For other uses, see Dubrovnik (disambiguation).
Dubrovnik
City
City of Dubrovnik
Grad Dubrovnik
The walled city of Dubrovnik
The walled city of Dubrovnik
Flag of Dubrovnik
Flag
Coat of arms of Dubrovnik
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): "Croatian Athens", "Pearl of the Adriatic", "Thesaurum mundi"
1995 map of Dubrovnik
1995 map of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik is located in Croatia
Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia
Coordinates: 42°38′25″N 18°06′30″E / 42.64028°N 18.10833°E / 42.64028; 18.10833Coordinates: 42°38′25″N 18°06′30″E / 42.64028°N 18.10833°E / 42.64028; 18.10833
Country Croatia
County Dubrovnik-Neretva County
Government
 • Mayor Andro Vlahušić (HNS)
Area
 • City 21.35 km2 (8.24 sq mi)
Elevation 3 m (10 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • City 42,615
 • Density 2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
 • Urban 28,434
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 20000
Area code(s) 020
Vehicle registration DU
Website http://www.dubrovnik.hr/
Stradun, Dubrovnik's main street.
View of the old city.

Dubrovnik (pronounced [dǔbroːʋniːk] ( );[2] Italian: Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea, in the region of Dalmatia. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva County. Its total population is 42,615 (census 2011).[1] In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.

The prosperity of the city of Dubrovnik was historically based on maritime trade. As the capital of the Republic of Ragusa, a maritime republic, the city achieved a high level of development, particularly during the 15th and 16th centuries. Dubrovnik became notable for its wealth and skilled diplomacy.

The beginning of tourism in Dubrovnik is associated with the construction of the Hotel Imperial in Dubrovnik in 1897.[3] According to CNNGo, Dubrovnik is among the 10 best preserved medieval walled cities in the world.[4] Although Dubrovnik was demilitarised in the 1970s to protect it from war, in 1991, after the breakup of Yugoslavia, it was besieged by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) for seven months and received significant shelling damage.

Name[edit]

The historical Latin and Dalmatian name of Dubrovnik is Ragusa (pronounced [raˈɡu.sa]), or Ragusium in older form. Ragusa is also the name in Italian, shared with another Ragusa in Sicily. The historical name in Greek is Ragouza (Ραγοούζα).

The current name was officially adopted in 1918 after the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, but was in use from the Middle Ages. It is also referred to as Dubrovnik in the Charter of Ban Kulin in 1189. See also: Other names of Dubrovnik.

The name Dubrovnik is from dubrava, which means "oak grove". dub in many Slavic languages means "oak", compare Russian:дуб and дубрава.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

Historical lore indicates that Dubrovnik was founded in the 7th century on a rocky island named Laus, which is said to have provided shelter for refugees from the nearby city of Epidaurum.[5]

Another theory by the late Tibor Živković appeared in 2007, based on new archaeological excavations. New findings (a Byzantine basilica from the 8th century and parts of the city walls) contradict the traditional theory. The size of the old basilica clearly indicates that there was quite a large settlement at the time.[6] There is also increasing support in the scientific community[who?] for the theory that major construction of Dubrovnik took place before the Common Era. This "Greek theory" has been boosted by recent findings of numerous Greek artifacts during excavations in the Port of Dubrovnik. Also, drilling below the main city road has revealed natural sand, contradicting the theory of Laus (Lausa) island.

Dr Antun Ničetić, in his book Povijest dubrovačke luke ("History of the Port of Dubrovnik"), expounds the theory that Dubrovnik was established by Greek sailors. A key element in this theory is the fact that ships in ancient times travelled about 45–50 nautical miles (83–93 km; 52–58 mi) per day, and required a sandy shore to pull out of water for the rest period during the night. The ideal rest site would have fresh water sources in its vicinity. Dubrovnik has both, and is situated roughly halfway between the two known Greek settlements of Budva and Korčula, 95 nautical miles (176 km; 109 mi) apart from each other.

Republic of Ragusa[edit]

Main article: Republic of Ragusa
Medieval fortresses, Lovrijenac & Bokar, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik before the earthquake in 1667

After the fall of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, the town came under the protection of the Byzantine Empire. Dubrovnik in those medieval centuries had a population of Latinized Illyrians.[7] After the Crusades, Dubrovnik came under the sovereignty of Venice (1205–1358), which would give its institutions to the Dalmatian city. After a fire destroyed almost the whole city in the night of August 16, 1296, a new urban plan was developed.[8][9][10] By the Peace Treaty of Zadar in 1358, Dubrovnik achieved relative independence as a vassal-state of the Kingdom of Hungary.

Between the 14th century and 1808, Dubrovnik ruled itself as a free state, although it was a vassal from 1440 to 1804 of the Ottoman Empire and paid an annual tribute to its sultan.[11] The Republic reached its peak in the 15th and 16th centuries, when its thalassocracy rivalled that of the Republic of Venice and other Italian maritime republics.

For centuries, Dubrovnik was an ally of Ancona, the other Adriatic maritime republic rival of Venice, which was the Ottoman Empire's chief rival for control of the Adriatic. This alliance enabled the two towns set on opposite sides of the Adriatic to resist attempts by the Venetians to make the Adriatic a "Venetian Bay", also said[by whom?] to control directly or indirectly all the Adriatic ports. Ancona and Dubrovnik developed an alternative trade route to the Venetian (Venice-Austria-Germany): starting in Dubrovnik it went on to Ancona, through Florence and ended in Flanders as seen on this map.

The Republic of Ragusa received its own Statutes as early as 1272, statutes which, among other things, codified Roman practice and local customs. The Statutes included prescriptions for town planning and the regulation of quarantine (for sanitary reasons).[12]

The Republic was an early adopter of what are now regarded as modern laws and institutions: a medical service was introduced in 1301, with the first pharmacy, still operating to this day, being opened in 1317. An almshouse was opened in 1347, and the first quarantine hospital (Lazarete) was established in 1377. Slave trading was abolished in 1418, and an orphanage opened in 1432. A 20 km (12 mi) water supply system was constructed in 1436.

The city was ruled by the local aristocracy which was of Latin-Dalmatian extraction and formed two city councils. As usual for the time, they maintained a strict system of social classes. The republic abolished the slave trade early in the 15th century and valued liberty highly. The city successfully balanced its sovereignty between the interests of Venice and the Ottoman Empire for centuries.

The languages spoken by the people were the Romance Dalmatian and late-common Slavic. The latter started to replace Dalmatian little by little since the 11th century among the common people who inhabited the city. Italian and Venetian would become important languages of culture and trade in Dubrovnik. At the same time, Dubrovnik became a cradle of Croatian literature.

Onuphrius' Fountain

The economic wealth of the Republic was partially the result of the land it developed, but especially of seafaring trade. With the help of skilled diplomacy, Dubrovnik merchants travelled lands freely and on the sea the city had a huge fleet of merchant ships (argosy) that travelled all over the world. From these travels they founded some settlements, from India to America, and brought parts of their culture and flora home with them. One of its keys to success was not conquering, but trading and sailing under a white flag with the word Latin: Libertas(freedom) prominently featured on it. The flag was adopted when slave trading was abolished in 1418.

Many Conversos, Jews from Spain and Portugal, were attracted to the city. In May 1544, a ship landed there filled exclusively with Portuguese refugees, as Balthasar de Faria reported to King John. During this time there worked in the city one of the most famous cannon and bell founders of his time: Ivan Rabljanin (Magister Johannes Baptista Arbensis de la Tolle). Already in 1571 Dubrovnik sold its protectorate over some Christian settlements in other parts of the Ottoman Empire to France and Venice. At that time there was also a colony of Dubrovnik in Fes in Morocco. The bishop of Dubrovnik was a Cardinal protector in 1571. Cardinal protectors were only in 16 other countries, too, in 1571, namely in France, Spain, Austria, Portugal, Poland, England, Scotland, Ireland, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, Savoy, Lucca, Greece, Illyria, Armenia and Lebanon.

Territory of the Republic before 1808

The Republic gradually declined after a crisis in Mediterranean shipping and the catastrophic earthquake of 1667[13] killed over 5,000 citizens and levelled most of the public buildings, ruining the well-being of the Republic. In 1699, the Republic sold two mainland patches of its territory to the Ottomans in order to avoid being caught in the clash with advancing Venetian forces. Today this strip of land belongs to Bosnia and Herzegovina and is that country's only direct access to the Adriatic. A highlight of Dubrovnik's diplomacy was the involvement in the American Revolution.[14]

In 1806, the city surrendered to the Napoleonic army,[15] as that was the only way to end a month long siege by the Russian-Montenegrin fleets (during which 3,000 cannonballs fell on the city). At first, Napoleon demanded only free passage for his troops, promising not to occupy the territory and stressing that the French were friends of Dubrovnik. Later, however, French forces blockaded the harbours, forcing the government to give in and let French troops enter the city. On this day, all flags and coats of arms above the city walls were painted black as a sign of mourning. In 1808, Marshal Auguste de Marmont abolished the republic and integrated its territory first into Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy and later into the Illyrian provinces under French rule. This was to last until the 28th January 1814 when the city surrendered to Captain Sir William Hoste leading a body of British and Austrian troops who were besieging the fortress.

Languages[edit]

The official language until 1472 was Latin. Later, the Senate of the Republic decided that the official language of the Republic would be the Dubrovnik dialect of the Romance Dalmatian language, and forbade the use of the Slavic language in senatorial debate. The Gospari (the Aristocracy) held on to their language for many centuries, while it slowly disappeared.

Although the Latin language was in official use, inhabitants of the republic were[when?] mostly native speakers of Slavonic languages (as confirmed[clarification needed] by count Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy in 1698, when he noted "In Dalmatia ... Ragusans ... call themselves Croats"[16]). The Dalmatian language was also spoken in the city.

The Italian language as spoken in the republic was heavily influenced by the Venetian language and the Tuscan dialect. Italian took root among the Dalmatian Romance-speaking merchant upper classes, as a result of Venetian influence.[17]

Austrian rule[edit]

When the Habsburg Empire annexed these provinces after the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the new authorities implemented a bureaucratic administration, established the Kingdom of Dalmatia, which had its own Sabor (Diet) or Parliament, based in the city of Zadar, and political parties such as the Autonomist Party and the People's Party. They introduced a series of modifications intended to slowly centralize the bureaucratic, tax, religious, educational, and trade structure. Unfortunately for the local residents, these steps largely failed, despite the intention of wanting to stimulate the economy. And once the personal, political and economic damage of the Napoleonic Wars had been overcome, new movements began to form in the region, calling for a political reorganization of the Adriatic along the national lines.[citation needed]

The combination of these two forces—a flawed Habsburg administrative system and new national movement claiming ethnicity as the founding block toward a community—posed a particularly perplexing problem; since Dalmatia was a province ruled by the German-speaking Habsburg monarchy, with bilingual (Slavic- and Italian-speaking) elites that dominated the general population consisting of a Slavic Catholic majority (and a Slavic Orthodox minority of not more than 300 people).[citation needed]

The "Libertas" Flag of Dubrovnik

In 1815, the former Dubrovnik Government (its noble assembly) met for the last time in Ljetnikovac in Mokošica. Once again, extreme measures were taken to re-establish the Republic, but it was all in vain. After the fall of the Republic most of the aristocracy was recognized by the Austrian Empire.

In 1832, Baron Šišmundo Getaldić-Gundulić (Sigismondo Ghetaldi-Gondola) was (1795–1860) was elected Mayor of Dubrovnik, serving for 13 years; the Austrian government granted him the title of "Baron".

Count Rafael Pucić (Raffaele Pozza), Dr. Jur., (1828–90) was elected for first time Podestà of Dubrovnik in the year 1869 after this was re-elected in 1872, 1875, 1882, 1884) and elected twice into the Dalmatian Council, 1870, 1876. The victory of the Nationalists in Split in 1882 strongly affected in the areas of Korčula and Dubrovnik. It was greeted by the mayor (podestà) of Dubrovnik Rafael Pucić, the National Reading Club of Dubrovnik, the Workers Association of Dubrovnik and the review "Slovinac"; by the communities of Kuna and Orebić, the latter one getting the nationalist government even before Split.

The Austrian and Austro-Hungarian rule followed the Divide et impera policy. The Austrian policy of denationalizing the Dalmatian coasts left its mark in the political division of the population as best expressed in the political parties: the Croatian People's Party and the mostly Italianite Autonomous Party.[citation needed]

In 1889, the Serbian-Catholics circle supported Baron Francesco Ghetaldi-Gondola, the candidate of the Autonomous Party, vs the candidate of Popular Party Vlaho de Giulli, in the 1890 election to the Dalmatian Diet.[18] The following year, during the local government election, the Autonomous Party won the municipal re-election with Francesco Gondola, who died in power in 1899. The alliance won the election again on 27 May 1894. Frano Getaldić-Gundulić founded the Società Philately on 4 December 1890.

In 1905, the Committee for establishing electric tram service, headed by m. Luko Bunić – certainly one of the most deserving persons who contributed to the realisation of the project - was established. Other members of the Committee were: Ivo Papi, Dr. Miho Papi, Dr. Artur Saraka, Mato Šarić, Dr. Antun Pugliesi, Dr. Mato Gracić, Dr. Ivo Degiulli, Ernest Katić and Antun Milić.[19]

Pero Čingrija (1837–1921), one of the leaders of the People's Party in Dalmatia, played the main role in the merger of the People's Party and the Party of Right into a single Croatian Party in 1905.

1918–1991[edit]

With the fall of Austria–Hungary in 1918, the city was incorporated into the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). Dubrovnik became one of the 33 oblasts of the Kingdom. In 1929 Yugoslavia was divided among 9 Banovinas the city became part of the Zeta Banovina. In 1939 Dubrivnik became part of the newly created Banovina of Croatia.

During World War II, Dubrovnik became part of the Nazi-puppet Independent State of Croatia, occupied by the Italian army first, and by the German army after 8 September 1943. In October 1944 Tito's partisans liberated Dubrovnik, and it became consequently part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Soon after their arrival into the city, partisans executed approximately 78 influential and well known citizens without a trial, including Catholic priests, on the nearby island of Daksa.[20] Communist leadership during the next several years continued political prosecutions which culminated on 12 April 1947 with the capture and imprisonment of more than 90 citizens of Dubrovnik.[21]

In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.

Break-up of Yugoslavia[edit]

Main article: Siege of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik Shelling (black dots) 1991 to 1992.

In 1991 Croatia and Slovenia, which at that time were republics within Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, declared their independence. At that event, Socialist Republic of Croatia was renamed Republic of Croatia.

Despite demilitarization of the old town in early 1970s in an attempt to prevent it from ever becoming a casualty of war, following Croatia's independence in 1991, Yugoslavia's Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), by then composed primarily of Serbs, attacked the Croatian military in the city. New Croatian government set up military outpost in the city itself. The regime in Montenegro led by president of Montenegro, Momir Bulatović, and Prime minister of Montenegro, Milo Đukanović, which was installed by and loyal to the Serbian government led by Slobodan Milošević, declared that Dubrovnik would not be permitted to remain in Croatia because they claimed it was historically never been part of Croatia.[citation needed] This was in spite of the large Croat majority in the city and that very few Montenegrins resided there, though Serbs accounted for 6.8 percent of the population.[22] On October 1, 1991 Dubrovnik was attacked by JNA with a siege of Dubrovnik that lasted for seven months. The heaviest artillery attack was on December 6 with 19 people killed and 60 wounded. Total casualties in the conflict according to Croatian Red Cross were 114 killed civilians, among them celebrated poet Milan Milisić. Foreign newspapers have been criticised for exaggerating the damage sustained by the old town, instead of responding to human casualties.[23] Nonetheless, the artillery attacks on Dubrovnik damaged 56% of its buildings to some degree, as the historic walled city, a UNESCO world heritage site, sustained 650 hits by artillery rounds.[24] The Croatian Army lifted the siege in May 1992, and liberated Dubrovnik's surroundings by the end of October, but the danger of sudden attacks by the JNA lasted for another three years.[25]

Following the end of the war, damage caused by the shelling of the Old Town was repaired. Adhering to UNESCO guidelines, repairs were performed in the original style. As of 2005, most damage had been repaired. The inflicted damage can be seen on a chart near the city gate, showing all artillery hits during the siege, and is clearly visible from high points around the city in the form of the more brightly coloured new roofs. ICTY indictments were issued for JNA generals and officers involved in the bombing.

General Pavle Strugar, who coordinated the attack on the city, was sentenced to an eight-year prison term by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia for his role in the attack.

The 1996 Croatia USAF CT-43 crash, near Dubrovnik Airport, killed everyone on a United States Air Force jet with United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown, The New York Times Frankfurt Bureau chief Nathaniel C. Nash and 33 other people.

Heritage[edit]

Old City of Dubrovnik
Native name
Croatian: Stari grad Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik1.jpg
The Old Harbour at Dubrovnik
Location Dubrovnik-Neretva County,  Croatia
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii, iv
Designated 1979 (3rd Session)
Reference No. 95
Europe and North America
Extension 1994
Endangered 1991–1998
Official name: Stari grad Dubrovnik

The annual Dubrovnik Summer Festival is a 45 day-long cultural event with live plays, concerts, and games. It has been awarded a Gold International Trophy for Quality (2007) by the Editorial Office in collaboration with the Trade Leaders Club.

The patron saint of the city is Sveti Vlaho (Saint Blaise), whose statues are seen around the city. He has an importance similar to that of St. Mark the Evangelist to Venice. One of the larger churches in city is named after Saint Blaise. February 3 is the feast of Sveti Vlaho (Saint Blaise), who is the city's patron saint. Every year the city of Dubrovnik celebrates the holiday with Mass, parades, and festivities that last for several days.[26]

The Old Town of Dubrovnik is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 50 kuna banknote, issued in 1993 and 2002.[27]

The city boasts of many old buildings, such as the Arboretum Trsteno, the oldest arboretum in the world, dating back to before 1492. Also, the third oldest European pharmacy is located in the city, which dates back to 1317 (and is the only one still in operation today). It is located at Little Brothers monastery in Dubrovnik.[28]

In history, many Conversos (Marranos) were attracted to Dubrovnik, formerly a considerable seaport. In May 1544, a ship landed there filled exclusively with Portuguese refugees, as Balthasar de Faria reported to King John. Another admirer of Dubrovnik, George Bernard Shaw, visited the city in 1929 and said: "If you want to see heaven on earth, come to Dubrovnik."

In the bay of Dubrovnik is the 72-hectare wooded island of Lokrum, where according to legend, Richard the Lionheart was cast ashore after being shipwrecked in 1192. The island includes a fortress, botanical garden, monastery and naturist beach.

Lapad peninsula

Among the many tourist destinations are a few beaches. Banje, Dubrovnik's main public beach, is home to the Eastwest Beach Club. There is also Copacabana Beach, a stony beach on the Lapad peninsula,[29] named after the popular beach in Rio de Janeiro.

Dubrovnik has also been mentioned in popular film and theatre. In the film 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea with Michael Caine, one of the characters said to have been dreaming of fairy from Dubrovnik (motive known from local legends and literature). In the 1968 movie Rosemary's Baby, Rosemary tells her husband Guy that he is "in Dubrovnik" when he attempts to talk with her after she discovers he has made a pact with the devil to use her womb to bear Satan's son.

Important monuments[edit]

Rooftops in Dubrovnik's Old City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Bokar fortress
Aerial view of Dubrovnik from the southwest

Few of Dubrovnik's Renaissance buildings survived the earthquake of 1667 but fortunately enough remained to give an idea of the city's architectural heritage.[30] The finest Renaissance highlight is the Sponza Palace which dates from the 16th century and is currently used to house the National Archives.[31] The Rector's Palace is a Gothic-Renaissance structure that displays finely carved capitals and an ornate staircase. It now houses a museum.[32][33] Its façade is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 50 kuna banknote, issued in 1993 and 2002.[27] The St. Saviour Church is another remnant of the Renaissance period, next to the much-visited Franciscan Monastery.[28][34][35] The Franciscan monastery's library possesses 30,000 volumes, 216 incunabula, 1,500 valuable handwritten documents. Exhibits include a 15th-century silver-gilt cross and silver thurible, an 18th-century crucifix from Jerusalem, a martyrology (1541) by Bemardin Gucetic and illuminated psalters.[28]

Dubrovnik's most beloved church is St Blaise's church, built in the 18th century in honour of Dubrovnik's patron saint. Dubrovnik's baroque Cathedral was built in the 18th century and houses an impressive Treasury with relics of Saint Blaise. The city's Dominican Monastery resembles a fortress on the outside but the interior contains an art museum and a Gothic-Romanesque church.[36][37] A special treasure of the Dominican monastery is its library with 216 incunabula, numerous illustrated manuscripts, a rich archive with precious manuscripts and documents and an extensive art collection.[38][39][40]

Walls of Dubrovnik[edit]

Main article: Walls of Dubrovnik

A feature of Dubrovnik is its walls that run almost 2 km (1.24 mi) around the city. The walls run from four to six meters (13.2 to 19.8 feet) thick on the landward side but are much thinner on the seaward side. The system of turrets and towers were intended to protect the vulnerable city. The walls of Dubrovnik have also been a popular filming site for HBO's Game Of Thrones, Who use the walls as filming location for the fictional city of Kings Landing.[41]

Demographics[edit]

Historical populations
of Dubrovnik
Year Pop. ±%
1880 15,666 —    
1890 15,329 −2.2%
1900 17,384 +13.4%
1910 18,396 +5.8%
1921 16,719 −9.1%
1931 20,420 +22.1%
1948 21,778 +6.7%
1953 24,296 +11.6%
1961 27,793 +14.4%
1971 35,628 +28.2%
1981 46,025 +29.2%
1991 51,597 +12.1%
2001 43,770 −15.2%
2011 42,615 −2.6%
Source: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 2005
Franjo Tuđman Bridge

The total population of the city is 42,615 (census 2011), in the following settlements:[1]

The population was 42,615 in 2011,[1] down from 49,728 in 1991[42] In the 2011 census, 90.34% of the population was Croat.[43]

Transport[edit]

Dubrovnik has an international airport of its own. It is located approximately 20 km (12 mi) from Dubrovnik city centre, near Čilipi. Buses connect the airport with the Dubrovnik old main bus station in Gruž. In addition, a network of modern, local buses connects all Dubrovnik neighbourhoods running frequently from dawn to midnight. However, Dubrovnik, unlike Croatia's other major centres, is not accessible by rail;[44] until 1975 Dubrovnik was connected to Mostar and Sarajevo by a narrow gauge railway(760 mm)[45][46] built during the Austro-Hungarian rule of Bosnia.

The A1 highway, in use between Zagreb and Ploče, is planned to be extended all the way to Dubrovnik. Because the area around the city is disconnected from the rest of Croatian territory, the highway will either cross the Pelješac Bridge whose construction is currently stalled, or run through Neum in Bosnia and Herzegovina and continue to Dubrovnik.

Education[edit]

Dubrovnik has a number of educational institutions. These include Dubrovnik International University, the University of Dubrovnik, a Nautical College, a Tourism College, a University Centre for Postgraduate Studies of the University of Zagreb, American College of Management and Technology, Diocesan Classical Gymnasium "Ruđer Bošković" in Dubrovnik and an Institute of History of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.

Climate[edit]

Dubrovnik has a borderline humid subtropical (Cfa) and Mediterranean climate (Csa) in the Köppen climate classification, since only two summer months have less than 40 millimetres (1.6 in) of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as solely humid subtropical or Mediterranean. It has hot, moderately dry summers and mild, wet winters. The Bura wind blows uncomfortably cold gusts down the Adriatic coast between October and April, and thundery conditions are common all the year round, even in summer, when they interrupt the warm, sunny days. The air temperatures can slightly vary, depending on the area or region. Typically, in July and August daytime maximum temperatures reach 28 °C (82 °F), and at night drop to around 23 °C (73 °F). More comfortable, perhaps, is the climate in Spring and Autumn when maximum temperatures are typically between 20 °C (68 °F) and 28 °C (82 °F).

  • Air temperature
    • average annual
16.4 °C (61.5 °F)
    • average of coldest period=January
10 °C (50 °F)
    • average of warmest period=August
25.8 °C (78.4 °F)
  • Sea temperature
    • average May–September
17.9–23.8 °C (64.2–74.8 °F)
1,020.8 mm
    • average annual rain days
109.2
  • Sunshine
    • average annual
2629 h
    • average daily hours
7.2 h
Climate data for Dubrovnik
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.4
(65.1)
24.1
(75.4)
23.0
(73.4)
26.3
(79.3)
29.5
(85.1)
35.3
(95.5)
35.3
(95.5)
36.7
(98.1)
33.5
(92.3)
28.0
(82.4)
24.6
(76.3)
20.2
(68.4)
36.7
(98.1)
Average high °C (°F) 12.3
(54.1)
12.6
(54.7)
14.4
(57.9)
16.9
(62.4)
21.5
(70.7)
25.3
(77.5)
28.2
(82.8)
28.5
(83.3)
25.1
(77.2)
21.1
(70)
16.6
(61.9)
13.4
(56.1)
19.66
(67.38)
Average low °C (°F) 6.6
(43.9)
6.8
(44.2)
8.4
(47.1)
11.0
(51.8)
15.3
(59.5)
18.9
(66)
21.4
(70.5)
21.6
(70.9)
18.4
(65.1)
14.9
(58.8)
10.7
(51.3)
7.8
(46)
13.48
(56.26)
Record low °C (°F) −3.6
(25.5)
−5.2
(22.6)
−4.0
(24.8)
3.8
(38.8)
5.2
(41.4)
11.2
(52.2)
14.1
(57.4)
14.1
(57.4)
8.5
(47.3)
4.5
(40.1)
−1.0
(30.2)
−3.2
(26.2)
−5.2
(22.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 98.3
(3.87)
97.9
(3.854)
93.1
(3.665)
91.4
(3.598)
70.1
(2.76)
44.0
(1.732)
28.3
(1.114)
72.5
(2.854)
86.1
(3.39)
120.1
(4.728)
142.3
(5.602)
119.8
(4.717)
1,063.9
(41.884)
Avg. precipitation days 11.2 11.2 11.2 12.0 9.4 6.4 4.7 5.1 7.2 10.8 12.4 12.0 113.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 127.1 130.0 167.4 201.0 263.5 306.0 353.4 334.8 261.0 213.9 117.0 99.2 2,574.3
Source: http://at.wetter.com/reise/laenderinfos/klimadatenbank/?continent=EU&country=EUHR&station=HRXXX0043, http://klima.hr/k1/k1_2/dubrovnik.pdf (1971-2000)

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Dubrovnik is twinned with:[47]

Gallery[edit]

Panorama[edit]

Panoramic view of the Old Town of Dubrovnik
Panoramic view from the Old Harbour

In popular culture[edit]

Dubrovnik is also currently being used to represent the city of King's Landing and the locations of Daenerys Targaryen in the HBO series Game of Thrones. Locations used in filming include St. Dominic Street, Lokrum Island, The Knežev dvor and Sponza palaces, Lovrijenac (Fort of St. Lawrence), and Fort Bokar and the Minčeta tower.[52]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Dubrovnik". Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. 
  2. ^ "Hrvatski jezični portal; Dubrovnik" (in Croatian). Novi liber. Retrieved February 6, 2014. 
  3. ^ Croatia Business Law Handbook, World Strategic and Business Information Library, p. 249, USA International Business Publications, Edition 6, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4330-0882-5
  4. ^ 10 best medieval walled cities on CNNGo.com
  5. ^ Andrew Archibald Paton (1862). "Chapter 9: Ragusa". Researches on the Danube and the Adriatic; or Contributions to the Modern History of Hungary and Transylvania, Dalmatia and Croatia, Servia and Bulgaria, Volume 1. London: Trübner and Co. p. 218. 
  6. ^ Tibor Zivkovic, Historical review, vol. LIV, S. 9–25 On the foundation of Ragusa
  7. ^ Ragusa was an island originally
  8. ^ Dubrovnik: A History, page 289, Robin Harris, Saqi Books, 2006. ISBN 978-0-86356-959-3
  9. ^ Dubrovnik, 2nd: The Bradt City Guide, page 7, Piers Letcher, Robin McKelvie, Jenny McKelvie, Bradt Travel Guides, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84162-191-3
  10. ^ Dubrovnik, page 25, Volume 581 of Variorum collected studies series, Bariša Krekić, Variorum, 1997. ISBN 978-0-86078-631-3
  11. ^ Pitcher, Donald Edgar. An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire, Leiden: Brill, 1968, p. 70
  12. ^ Naprijed, Naklada. The Croatian Adriatic Tourist Guide, pg. 354, Zagreb (199). ISBN 953-178-097-8
  13. ^ Husebye, Eystein Sverre. Earthquake Monitoring and Seismic Hazard Mitigation in Balkan Countries
  14. ^ Dubrovnik and the American Revolution: Francesco Favi's Letters, Francesco Favi, ed. by Wayne S. Vucinich, Ragusan Press, 1977.
  15. ^ Dalmatia and Montenegro: Volume 2.
  16. ^ "Jezik, lingvistika i politika: Ilirski iliti slovinski jezik". hercegbosna.org (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 20 February 2006. 
  17. ^ (Italian) Marzio, Scaglioni (1996). "La presenza italiana in Dalmazia, 1866–1943". Tesi di Laurea. Facoltà di Scienze politiche - Università degli studi di Milano. Archived from the original on 2010-02-17. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  18. ^ Trudna tożsamość: problemy ... - Búsqueda de libros de Google. Books.google.cl. 2007-09-20. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  19. ^ "Tramway in Dubrovnik". Croatian Post. 
  20. ^ "Nakon ulaska partizana u Dubrovnik u listopadu 1944.: Partizani pogubili hrvatske antifašiste | Izdvojeno | Glas Koncila". Glas-koncila.hr. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  21. ^ Politički zatvorenik http://www.hdpz.t-com.hr/broj236/Franic.htm Retrieved 16 January 2012
  22. ^ Srđa Pavlović. "Pavlovic: The Siege of Dubrovnik". Yorku.ca. Archived from the original on 2010-02-15. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  23. ^ Joseph Pearson, 'Dubrovnik's Artistic Patrimony, and its Role in War Reporting (1991)' in European History Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 2, 197-216 (2010). http://ehq.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/40/2/197
  24. ^ "Chronology for Serbs in Croatia". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 2004. Retrieved January 5, 2011. 
  25. ^ Raymond Bonner (August 17, 1995). "Dubrovnik Finds Hint of Deja Vu in Serbian Artillery". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2010. 
  26. ^ Dubrovnik news
  27. ^ a b Croatian National Bank. Features of Kuna Banknotes: 50 kuna (1993 issue) & 50 kuna (2002 issue). – Retrieved on 30 March 2009.
  28. ^ a b c "Monuments (1 to 5)". Dubrovnik Online. Archived from the original on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  29. ^ Karen Tormé Olson, Sanja Bazulic Olson (2006). Frommer's Croatia. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 57–58. ISBN 0-7645-9898-8. Retrieved 27 October 2009. 
  30. ^ Oliver, Jeanne. "Dubrovnik Sights". Croatia Traveller. Archived from the original on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  31. ^ "Sponza Palace". DubrovnikCity.com. Archived from the original on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  32. ^ "The Rector's Palace". DubrovnikCity.com. Archived from the original on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  33. ^ "The Rector's Palace". Dubrovnik Guide. Archived from the original on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  34. ^ "Franciscan monastery". Dubrovnik Guide. Archived from the original on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  35. ^ "Franciscan Friary, Dubrovnik". Sacred Destinations. Archived from the original on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  36. ^ "Church of St. Blaise, Dubrovnik". Sacred Destinations. Archived from the original on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  37. ^ "Monuments (16 to 20)". Dubrovnik Online. Archived from the original on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  38. ^ "Dominican Friary, Dubrovnik". Sacred Destinations. Archived from the original on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  39. ^ Oliver, Jeanne. "Dominican Monastery". Croatia Traveller. Archived from the original on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  40. ^ "Monuments (21 To 22)". Dubrovnik Online. Archived from the original on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  41. ^ Oliver, Jeanne. "Dubrovnik's Walls". Croatia Traveller. Archived from the original on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  42. ^ "Encyclopedia, Dubrovnik". A&E Television Networks, History.com. Funk & Wagnalls' New Encyclopedia. World Almanac Education Group. Archived from the original on 2010-02-14. Retrieved 2010-02-14. 
  43. ^ "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census: County of Dubrovnik-Neretva". Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. [dead link]
  44. ^ "Transportation Rail". Dubrovnik Online. Retrieved 20 June 2009. 
  45. ^ "Dubrovnik to Sarajevo 1965". Charlie Lewis. Retrieved 27 September 2011. 
  46. ^ "Dubrovnik to Capljina in 1972". Jim Horsford. Retrieved 27 September 2011. 
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i "O Dubrovniku". dubrovnik.hr (in Croatian). Grad Dubrovnik. Retrieved 2011-12-23. 
  48. ^ Grad Vukovar (2011). "Gradovi prijatelji". vukovar.hr. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  49. ^ "Twin Towns - Graz Online - English Version". www.graz.at. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  50. ^ 29.01.2011. 20:45 (2011-01-29). "Dubrovnik se pobratimio s francuskim Rueil-Malmaisonom – Grad Dubrovnik — Dubrovački vjesnik". Dubrovacki.hr. Retrieved 2011-06-02. 
  51. ^ "Vancouver and Dubrovnik to establish a sister-city relationship". Croatian Times. February 13, 2013. 
  52. ^ Dubrovnik in the spotlight, jaywaytravel.com.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • R. Lambert Playfair (1892). "Ragusa". Handbook to the Mediterranean (3rd ed.). London: J. Murray. 
  • "Ragusa". Austria-Hungary, Including Dalmatia and Bosnia. Leipzig: Karl Baedeker. 1905. OCLC 344268. 
  • F. K. Hutchinson (1909). "Ragusa". Motoring in the Balkans. Chicago: McClurg & Co. OCLC 8647011. 
  • Trudy Ring, ed. (1996). "Dubrovnik". Southern Europe. International Dictionary of Historic Places 3. Fitzroy Dearborn. OCLC 31045650. 

External links[edit]