||This article needs attention from an expert in Middle Ages. (August 2014)|
|Vassal of Francia (c. 790 – 819, 823–827, 838–887, 896–897), Bulgaria (827–838), and Great Moravia (887–897)|
Pannonian Duchy under Braslav
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|Today part of|| Croatia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Pannonian Croatia is a name given in historiography to the succession of medieval early Slavic polities located in the southwestern parts of the former Roman province of Pannonia between the fall of the Avar Khaganate starting in the 790s, and the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in the 890s. They were mostly under Frankish suzerainty, part of Frankish Pannonia, and are known from Frankish primary sources.
In the 19th- and 20th-century Croatian historiography, the focus was usually placed on the territories between the rivers Drava and Sava, referring to them as Pannonian Croatia (Croatian: Panonska Hrvatska), or Southern Pannonia, Transsavian Croatia, or just Pannonia.[note 1]
Under the Roman emperor Diocletian (284-305), Pannonia was divided into 4 provinces: Pannonia Savia, Pannonia Prima, Pannonia Valeria, and Pannonia Secunda. The rivers of the Pannonian Plain formed most of their borders, mainly Danube, Drava, and Sava. This system persisted with the Diocese of Pannonia until the 440s.
Arrival of the Slavs
In 827, the Bulgarians invaded and conquered Savia and parts of territories to the north of Savia. In 829 they imposed a local duke Ratimir as the new ruler of Pannonian Croatia in their name, the Franks however claimed the territory, which in their view belonged (since 827) to the March of Carantania and thus under the rule of Count Radbod, who had been head of the March of Pannonia and March of Carinthia since 828.
In 838, Ratbod deposed Ratimir and subordinated Savia to the Frankish March of Carantania.
Following the rise of the Principality of Hungary in the mid 890s, no further Slavic rulers were recorded in the territory until the mid 920s when the Duke of Croatia Tomislav united the territory with Dalmatian Croatia to form the Kingdom of Croatia.
There has remained a general uncertainty and dispute over the relationship between the Croatian and Hungarian kingdoms in the 10th and 11th century, with Croatian historian Ferdo Šišić and his followers assuming Tomislav of Croatia had ruled most of the area inhabited by Croats, including Slavonia, while the Hungarian historians Gyula Kristó, Bálint Hóman and János Karácsonyi thought the area between Drava and Sava belonged neither to Croatia nor to Hungary at the time, an opinion that Nada Klaić said she would not preclude, because the generic name "Slavonia" (lit. the land of the Slavs) may have implied so.
Part of a series on the
|History of Croatia|
- List of early East Slavic states
- Principality of Nitra
- East Francia
- Great Moravia
- Principality of Hungary
- Duchy of the Croats
- Kingdom of Croatia
- Dukes of Croatia
- Ban of Slavonia
- The term "Pannonian Croatia" (Panonska Hrvatska) has been used by older Croatian historians to describe this entity in a manner that emphasizes its Croatian nature. Contemporary sources did not actually use the Croatian name as such until the latter half of the 9th century, rendering the name anachronistic before then.
- Oto Luthar, The Land Between: A History of Slovenia, Peter Lang, 2008, p. 105.
- Gračanin, 2008
- Goldstein, 1985, pp. 241–242
- Mediaeval Academy of America (1945). Speculum. University of California. p. 230.
- Opća enciklopedija JLZ. Yugoslavian Lexicographical Institute (Zagreb). 1982.
- Heka, Ladislav (October 2008). "Croatian-Hungarian relations from the Middle Ages to the Compromise of 1868, with a special survey of the Slavonian issue". Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian) (Slavonski Brod: Croatian Historical Institute - Department of History of Slavonia, Srijem and Baranja) 8 (1): 155. ISSN 1332-4853. Retrieved 2012-05-10.
- Goldstein, Ivo (May 1985). "Ponovno o Srbima u Hrvatskoj u 9. stoljeću". Historijski zbornik (in Croatian) (Savez povijesnih društava Hrvatske, Faculty of Philosophy, Zagreb). XXXVII (1). Retrieved 2012-07-27.
- Gračanin, Hrvoje (June 2008). "Od Hrvata pak koji su stigli u Dalmaciju odvojio se jedan dio i zavladao Ilirikom i Panonijom: Razmatranja uz DAI c. 30, 75-78". History Teaching (in Croatian) (Croatian Historical Society) VI (11 (1)). ISSN 1334-1375. Retrieved 2012-07-27.
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (August 2014)|
- Kirilo-Metodievska entsiklopedia (Cyrillo-Methodian Encyclopedia), in 3 volumes, (in Bulgarian), [DR5.K575 1985 RR2S], Sofia 1985
- Welkya - Creation of Slavic Script, .
- Dejiny Slovenska (History of Slovakia) in 6 volumes, Bratislava (volume 1 1986)
- Steinhübel, Ján: Nitrianske kniežatstvo (Principality of Nitra), Bratislava 2004
- Map – Kocel's state around the year 870 (Kocelova država oko god. 870.) at the Wayback Machine (Croatian)