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Duk-Duk is a secret society, part of the traditional culture of the Tolai people of the Rabaul area of New Britain, the largest island in the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea, in the South Pacific.
The society has religious and political as well as the social objectives. It represents a form of law and order through its presiding spirit Duk-Duk, a mysterious figure dressed in leaves to its waist, with a large conical head-dress. Women and children were forbidden to look at this figure.
The Dukduk society uses male duk duk and female tubuan masks. Both types are cone-shaped and are constructed of cane and fibre, with short, bushy capes of leaves. Traditionally the duk duk was taller than the tubuan and was faceless. The tubuan had circular eyes and a crescent-shaped mouth painted on a dark background.
Only males could belong to Duk-Duk, with an entrance fee (in dewarra, small cowrie shells strung on strips of cane, often 100 metres or more).
The society has its secret signs and rituals, and festivals which were in past times closed to strangers on pain of death. Duk-Duk only appeared with the full moon.
Justice was executed, fines extorted, taboos, feasts, taxes and all tribal matters arranged by the Duk-Duk members, wearing masks or chalk on their faces. In carrying out punishments, they were allowed to burn houses and even kill people.
The society's practice has been dying out since around the start of the 20th century, but Duk-Duk dancers are now featured as tourist attractions.
Sources and References
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.
- Duk-Duk and other Customs or Forms of Expression of the Melanesians Intellectual Life, by Graf von Pfeil in "Journal of Anthropology"
- H. Romilly, The Western Pacific and New Guinea (London, 1886)pp 27-33