Counts and dukes of Apulia and Calabria

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The Duchy of Apulia and Calabria in the political context of Italy and the Balkans in 1084.

This is a list of Counts and Dukes of Apulia and Calabria in Southern Italy from the 11th century to the 12th century. The county was originally a creation of Guaimar IV of Salerno, who was acclaimed Duke of Apulia and Calabria by the Normans. He in turn created the Norman leader, William Iron Arm, a member of the famous Hauteville clan, count at Melfi. Although never recognized by the emperor, William is usually considered the first count of Apulia and Calabria. In 1047, the Emperor Henry III took away Guaimar's ducal title. He christened William's brother and successor Drogo Dux et Magister Italiae comesque Normannorum totius Apuliae et Calabriae and made him a direct vassal of the emperor.

Counts of Apulia and Calabria[edit]

Count Portrait Birth Marriages Death
William I Iron Arm
1042–1046
before 1010
son of Tancred of Hauteville and Muriella
Guida of Sorrento 1046
Drogo
1046–1051
before 1010
son of Tancred of Hauteville and Muriella
Altrude of Salerno
1047
1 children
Montiglio
10 August 1051
Humphrey
1051–1057
before 1010
son of Tancred of Hauteville and Muriella
Gaitelgrima
2 children
August 1057
Robert Guiscard
1057–1059
Robert Guiscard 1015
son of Tancred of Hauteville and Fressenda
Alberada of Buonalbergo
1051
2 children

Sikelgaita
1058
8 children
1085
Fiskardo
aged 70

Dukes of Apulia and Calabria[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Robert Guiscard
1059–1085
Robert Guiscard 1015
son of Tancred of Hauteville and Fressenda
Alberada of Buonalbergo
1051
2 children

Sikelgaita
1058
8 children
1085
Fiskardo
aged 70
Roger I Borsa
1085–1111
1060
son of Robert Guiscard and Sikelgaita
Adela of Flanders
1091
1 child
22 February 1111
aged 51
William II
1111–1127
1095
son of Roger I Borsa and Adela of Flanders
1114
No children
July 1127
aged 19

In 1127 the duchy passed to the count of Sicily. It was thereafter used intermittently as a title for the heir apparent.

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Roger II
1127–1134
Roger II 22 December 1095
Mileto
son of Roger I of Sicily and Adelaide del Vasto
Elvira of Castile
1117
6 children

Sibyl of Burgundy
1149
2 children

Beatrix of Rethel
1151
1 child
26 February 1154
Palermo
aged 59
Roger III
1134–1149
opposed by Ranulf
1118
son of Roger II and Elvira of Castile
never married 12 May 1148
aged 30
Ranulf
1137–1139
candidate of Pope Innocent II
and the Emperor Lothair II
son of Robert, Count of Caiazzo and Gaitelgrima Matilda Troia
30 April 1139
William III
1149–1151
William I 1131
son of Roger II and Elvira of Castile
Margaret of Navarre
4 children
7 May 1166
Palermo
aged 35
Roger IV
1156–1161
1152
son of William I of Sicily and Margaret of Navarre
never married 1161
Palermo
aged 9

The title was left vacant after the death of Roger IV. It may have been revived for a short-lived son of William II. It was revived by King Tancred for his eldest son in 1189.

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Bohemond
1181
1181
son of William II of Sicily and Joanna of England
never married 1181
aged less than 1
Roger V
1189–1193
1175
son of Tancred of Sicily and Sibylla of Acerra
Irene Angelina
1193
No children
1193
aged 18

Sources[edit]

  • Chalandon, Ferdinand. Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicile. Paris: 1907.
  • Houben, Hubert (translated by Graham A. Loud and Diane Milburn). Roger II of Sicily: Ruler between East and West. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  • Matthew, Donald. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  • Norwich, John Julius. The Normans in the South 1016–1130. London: Longman, 1967.
  • Norwich, John Julius. The Kingdom in the Sun 1130–1194. London: Longman, 1970.
  • Takayama, Hiroshi. The Administration of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily. BRILL, 1993.

External links[edit]