Duke of Berwick

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Coat of arms of the Jacobite Dukes of Berwick, as head of the House of FitzJames
Coat of arms of the Spanish Dukes of Berwick, also Duke of Alba

The title Duke of Berwick (BERRick) was created in the Peerage of England on 19 March 1687 for James FitzJames, the illegitimate son of King James II and Arabella Churchill. The title refers to the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed in England by the border with Scotland. At the same time the titles Baron Bosworth and Earl of Tinmouth were created which are subsidiary to the dukedom.

The peerage and its subsidiary titles were generally considered to have been forfeit by the English parliament in 1695, when the Duke was attainted following the enforced exile of his father. The College of Arms in its Roll of the Peerage does not list any such title which means it is non-existent today in England.

Nevertheless, the titles were recognized in France as de facto Jacobite Peerages by King Louis XIV, this to please the exiled King James II & VII, along with other Jacobite Peerages recognized in France, like Duke of Perth, Duke of Melfort, etc. On 13 December 1707, King Philip V confirmed or issued the title in Spain, and conferred the dignity Grandee of Spain to James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick. The Grandeeship is attached to the Spanish title of Duke of Berwick.

If the English peerage were still extant, the title is only inheritable in the male line.[1] At the death of Don Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 17th Duke of Alba and 10th Duke of Berwick, the English title would have been inherited by his nephew Don Fernando FitzJames Stuart, 15th Duke of Peñaranda de Duero (1922–1971), and subsequently Fernando's son Don Jacobo FitzJames Stuart, 16th Duke of Peñaranda de Duero and current head of the House of FitzJames (born in 1947 and without children). They did not claim the English title though which confirms that it is extinct.

The Spanish title, with the accompanying dignity Grandee of Spain, follows the inheritance rules of that country.[2] Spanish noble titles historically have followed the rule of male-preference primogeniture, which allows a female to succeed if she has no living brothers and no deceased brothers who left surviving legitimate descendants. With the death of the 10th Duke of Berwick in September 1953, his only daughter and child, Doña Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart, 18th Duchess of Alba, succeeded him in his Spanish titles, amongst which is title Duquesa de Berwick. With her death in November 2014, the dukedom passed to her eldest son Don Carlos Fitz-James Stuart y Martínez de Irujo, 14th Duke of Huéscar.

Dukes of Berwick (1687–1695)[edit]

Descendant Portrait Birth Marriages Death
James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick
1670–1695
James FitzStuart, Duke of Berwick.png 21 August 1670
Moulins, Allier
son of James II of England and Arabella Churchill
Honora de Burgh, Countess de Lucan
26 March 1695
1 child

Anne Bulkeley
18 April 1700
10 children
12 June 1734
Philippsburg
aged 63

Jacobite Dukes of Berwick (1695–present)[edit]

Descendant Portrait Birth Marriages Death
James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick
1695–1734
James FitzStuart, Duke of Berwick.png 21 August 1670
Moulins, Allier
son of James II of England and Arabella Churchill
Honora de Burgh, Countess de Lucan
26 March 1695
1 child

Anne Bulkeley
18 April 1700
10 children
12 June 1734
Philippsburg
aged 63
James Fitz-James Stuart, 2nd Duke of Berwick
1734–1738
James Fitz-James Stuart, 2nd Duke of Berwick.jpg 21 October 1696
son of James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick and Honora de Burgh, Countess de Lucan
Catalina Colón de Portugal y Ayala, 9th condesa de Gelves
31 December 1716
6 children
2 June 1738
Naples
aged 41
James Fitz-James Stuart, 3rd Duke of Berwick
1738–1785
James Fitz-James Stuart, 3rd Duke of Berwick.jpg 28 December 1718
Madrid
son of James Fitz-James Stuart, 2nd Duke of Berwick and Catalina Colón de Portugal y Ayala, 9th condesa de Gelves
María Teresa de Silva y Alvarez de Toledo
26 June 1738
1 child
30 September 1785
Valencia
aged 66
Carlos Fitz-James Stuart, 4th Duke of Berwick
1785–1787
25 March 1752
Liria
son of James Fitz-James Stuart, 3rd Duke of Berwick and María Teresa de Silva y Álvarez de Toledo
Carolina Augusta, Prinzessin zu Stolberg-Gedern
15 September 1771
2 children
7 September 1787
Madrid
aged 35
Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 5th Duke of Berwick
1787–1794
25 February 1773
Paris
son of Carlos FitzJames Stuart, 4th Duke of Berwick and Carolina Augusta, Prinzessin zu Stolberg-Gedern
María Teresa de Silva Fernández de Híjar y Palafox
24 January 1790
2 children
3 April 1794
died
aged 21
Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 6th Duke of Berwick
1794–1795
3 January 1792
son of Jacobo FitzJames Stuart, 5th Duke of Berwick and María Teresa de Silva Fernández de Híjar y Palafox
never married 5 January 1795
aged 3
Carlos Fitz-James Stuart, 7th Duke of Berwick
1795–1835
19 May 1794
Madrid
son of Jacobo FitzJames Stuart, 5th Duke of Berwick and María Teresa de Silva Fernández de Híjar y Palafox
Rosalia Ventimiglia y Moncada d,Aragona
15 February 1817
3 children
7 October 1835
Sion
aged 41
Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 8th Duke of Berwick
1835–1881
3 June 1821
Palermo
son of Carlos FitzJames Stuart, 7th Duke of Berwick and Rosalia Ventimiglia Ventimiglia y Moncada d,Aragona
María Francisca Portocarrero Palafox y Kirck Patrick, 12th duquesa de Peñaranda
14 February 1848
3 children
10 July 1881
Madrid
aged 60
Carlos Fitz-James Stuart, 9th Duke of Berwick
1881–1901
4 December 1849
Madrid
son of Jacobo FitzJames Stuart, 8th Duke of Berwick and María Francisca Portocarrero Palafox y Kirck Patrick, 12th duquesa de Peñaranda
María del Rosario Falcó y Osorio, 12th condesa de Siruela
10 December 1877
3 children
15 October 1901
New York City
aged 51
Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 10th Duke of Berwick
1901–1953
Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 17th Duke of Alba.jpg 17 October 1878
Madrid
son of Carlos FitzJames Stuart, 9th Duke of Berwick and María del Rosario Falcó y Osorio, 12th condesa de Siruela
María del Rosario de Silva y Gurtubay, 9th marquesa de San Vicente del Barco
7 October 1920
1 child
24 September 1953
Lausanne
aged 74
Fernando Fitz-James Stuart, 11th Duke of Berwick
1953–1970
24 January 1922
El Guadalperal
son of Carlos Fernando Fitz-James Stuart y Falcó, 14th duque de Peñaranda, younger brother of the 10th Duke of Berwick, and María del Carmen de Saavedra y Collado, 13th marquesa de Villaviciosa
María Isabel Gómez y Ruiz
1944
4 children
20 July 1970
El Guadalperal
aged 48
Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 12th Duke of Berwick
1970–present
15 November 1947
son of Fernando FitzJames Stuart, 11th Duke of Berwick and María Isabel Gómez y Ruiz
not married

Spanish Dukes of Berwick (1707–present)[edit]

Before 1953, the Spanish Dukes were also the Jacobite Dukes of Berwick.

Descendant Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart, 11th Duchess of Berwick
1953–2014
DuquesaAlba palacio dueñas.jpg March 28, 1926
Liria Palace, Madrid
daughter of Fitz-James Stuart, 10th Duke of Berwick and María del Rosario de Silva, Duchess of Alba
Honorable Luis Martínez de Irujo y Artázcoz
m. 1947; dec. 1972
with him 6 children

Jesús Aguirre y Ortiz de Zárate
m. 1978; dec. 2001

Alfonso Díez Carabantes
m. 2011
20 November 2014
Palacio de las Dueñas, Seville
aged 88

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Family of the Dukes of Berwick - website The Jacobite Heritage
  2. ^ BERWICK - website Paul Theroff’s Royal Genealogy Site

External links[edit]