Duke of Fife

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Dukedom of Fife
2nd creation (1900)
Duke of Fife COA.svg
Creation date 24 April 1900
Peerage Peerage of the United Kingdom
First holder Alexander Duff,
6th Earl Fife
Present holder James Carnegie, 3rd Duke
Heir apparent David Carnegie,
Earl of Southesk
Remainder to heirs male of the body of the grantee, his daughters and heirs male of the bodies of his daughters
Subsidiary titles Earl of Macduff
Dukedom of Fife
1st creation (1889)
Macduff arms.svg
Creation date 29 June 1889
Peerage Peerage of Ireland
First holder Alexander Duff,
6th Earl Fife
Present holder extinct (last holder was Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife)
Remainder to heirs male of the body of the grantee
Subsidiary titles Marquess of Macduff

Duke of Fife is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom which has been created twice, in both cases for Alexander Duff, 6th Earl Fife, who in 1889 had married Louise, Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of the future King Edward VII.

The dukedom of Fife was the last dukedom in Britain created for a person who was not a son, grandson or consort of the Sovereign.

History[edit]

Alexander Duff (1849–1912) was the eldest son of the 5th Earl Fife. Upon his father's death on 7 August 1879, he succeeded as 6th Earl Fife in the Peerage of Ireland and 2nd Baron Skene in the Peerage of the United Kingdom (only the latter title gave him a seat in the House of Lords). In 1885, Queen Victoria created him Earl of Fife in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.[1]

On Saturday 27 July 1889, Lord Fife married Princess Louise, the third child and eldest daughter of the then-Prince of Wales (the future King Edward VII) and his wife Princess Alexandra, at the Private Chapel at Buckingham Palace. The couple were third cousins in descent from George III. The wedding marked the second time a descendant of Queen Victoria married a British subject (the first being the marriage of The Princess Louise, the Queen's fourth daughter, to the Duke of Argyll).

Two days after the wedding, the Queen elevated Lord Fife to the further dignity of Duke of Fife and Marquess of Macduff, in the County of Banff, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.[2] In the first creation of the dukedom of Fife, Queen Victoria's Letters Patent of 29 June 1889 contained the standard remainder "heirs male of his body". Letters Patent of 24 April 1900 created a second dukedom of Fife with a special remainder that allowed the dukedom to pass to the daughters of the first Duke, in default of a son, and then to the male heirs of those daughters. On the same date and occasion, the Duke of Fife was also created Earl of Macduff, with similar remainder which allowed the earldom to pass to the daughters of the first Duke, in default of a son, and then to the male heirs of those daughters.

Upon the 1st Duke of Fife's death in 1912, the peerages created in 1889 and some older peerages held by the Duff family became extinct, while the peerages created in 1900 passed to the 1st Duke's elder daughter, Alexandra (1891–1959, née Lady Alexandra Duff). On 15 October 1913, she married Prince Arthur of Connaught, the only son of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, third eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and thus a younger brother of her maternal grandfather King Edward VII. As such, Arthur and Alexandra were first cousins once removed. Their only son, Alastair, died in 1943.

When the 2nd Duchess of Fife died in 1959, her hereditary peerages passed to her nephew James Carnegie (born 1929), eldest son of her sister Maud (née Lady Maud Duff) and her husband Charles Carnegie, 11th Earl of Southesk. 33 years later, in 1992, the 3rd Duke of Fife also succeeded his father as 12th Earl of Southesk and chief of the Clan Carnegie. The heir apparent of the present Duke of Fife is his son, David Carnegie, Earl of Southesk.

The family's current main residence is Elsick House near Stonehaven, The Mearns, within the watershed of the Burn of Elsick.

Other titles[edit]

From 1790 until 1809 (extinct) and from 1827 until its extinction in 1857, the title Baron Fife (GB / UK) was held by the Earl Fife. In 1735 the title of Baron Braco (I) was created for the later 1st Earl Fife.

The titles Marquess of Macduff (created 1889), Earl Fife (1759), Earl of Fife (1885), Viscount Macduff (1759), Baron Braco (1735), and Baron Skene (1857) became extinct along with the first Dukedom of Fife. Marquess of Macduff, Earl of Fife, and Baron Skene are in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, all the others are in the Peerage of Ireland.

The subsidiary titles held by the present Duke are: Earl of Macduff (created 1900), Earl of Southesk (1633), Lord Carnegie of Kinnaird (1616), Lord Carnegie (1633) and Baron Balinhard (1869). Earl of Macduff and Baron Balinhard are in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, all the others are in the Peerage of Scotland. All subsidiary titles other than that the Earl of Macduff have been subsidiary titles of the Earl of Southesk.

Duke of Fife (1889)[edit]

The Duke of Fife tartan, first designed to celebrate the marriage of Louise, daughter of Edward VII, to Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife.
Created by Victoria of the United Kingdom
# Name Period Spouse Notes Other titles
1 Alexander William George Duff
(1849–1912)
1889–1912 Louise, Princess Royal Grandson-in-law of Queen Victoria Marquess of Macduff, Earl Fife, Viscount Macduff, Baron Braco, Baron Skene

Dukes of Fife (1900)[edit]

Created by Victoria of the United Kingdom
# Name Period Spouse Notes Other titles
1 Alexander William George Duff
(1849–1912)
1900–1912 Louise, Princess Royal Grandson-in-law of Queen Victoria Marquess of Macduff, Earl Fife, Viscount Macduff, Baron Braco, Baron Skene
2 Princess Alexandra Victoria Alberta Edwina Louise
(1891–1959)
1912–1959 Prince Arthur of Connaught Granddaughter of King Edward VII and daughter of the preceding Countess of Macduff
3 James George Alexander Bannerman Carnegie
(born 1929)
since 1959 The Hon. Caroline Dewar divorced Great-grandson of King Edward VII and nephew of the preceding Earl of Southesk, Earl of Macduff, Lord Carnegie of Kinnaird, Lord Carnegie of Kinnaird and Leuchars, Baron Balinhard

Line of succession[edit]

  1. David Charles Carnegie, Earl of Southesk (born 1961)
  2. Charles Duff Carnegie, Lord Carnegie (born 1989)
  3. the Hon. George William Carnegie (born 1991), second son of Lord Southesk
  4. the Hon. Hugh Alexander Carnegie (born 1993), third and youngest son of Lord Southesk

Family tree[edit]

Coat of arms[edit]

  • Shield: Quarterly: 1st, Or a Lion rampant Gules armed and langued Azure (Dukedom of Fife); 2nd, the arms of the United Kingdom as borne by HM King Edward VII differenced by a Label of five points Argent the points charged with two Thistles between three Crosses of St George Gules (HRH The Princess Royal, Duchess of Fife); 3rd, grandquarterly: 1st and 4th, Vert a Fess dancetty Ermine between a Hart's Head cabossed in chief and two Escallops in base Or (Duff of Braco); 2nd and 3rd, Gules three Skeans paleways Argent hafted and pommelled Or surmounted by as many Wolves' Heads couped of the third (Skene of that Ilk); 4th, Gules a Banner displayed Argent charged with a Canton Azure a Saltire of the second (Bannerman of Elsick); over all ensigned of an Earl's Coronet proper an Inescutcheon Argent an Eagle displayed Azure armed beaked and membered Gules on its breast an Antique Covered Cup Or (Carnegie)
  • Crests: Centre: a Thunderbolt proper winged Or (Carnegie); Dexter: a Knight denoting the ancient MacDuff armed at all points on a Horse in full speed in his dexter hand a Sword erect all proper his Jupon Argent on his sinister arm a Shield Or charged with a Lion rampant Gules the visor of his helmet shut over which on a Wreath of his liveries with a long Mantling flowing therefrom behind him and ending in a Tassel of the fourth doubling of the third is set a Lion rampant issuing out of a Wreath of the third and fourth the Caparisons of the horse Gules fimbriated Or and thereon six Shields of the last each charged with a Lion rampant of the fourth (Dukedom of Fife); Sinister: a Man in armour issuing from the loins and wearing a Tabard emblazoned of the arms Argent on a Fess between three Boars' Heads erased Gules three Mascles Or sustaining with his dexter hand a Banner developed Argent having a Canton Azure charged with a Saltire of the first (Ethel, Countess of Southesk)
  • Supporters: Dexter: a Lion rampant guardant Gules langued Azure collared with a Label of five points Argent the points charged with two Thistles between three Crosses of St George Gules; Sinister: a Talbot Argent collared Gules the Collar charged with a Label of three points Argent
  • Mottoes: Above the centre crest: Dred God; Above the dexter crest: Deo Juvante; Above the sinister crest: Pro Patria; Beneath the shield: Virtute Et Opera

References[edit]

  1. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25490. p. 3239. 14 July 1885.
  2. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25958. p. 4077. 27 July 1889.
  3. ^ a b Some references list the 11th and 12th Earls of Southesk as the 8th and 9th Earls of Southesk because of the attainder on the titles of 1715 which was not reversed until 1855.

External links[edit]