Duke of Leinster
Duke of Leinster is a title in the Peerage of Ireland and the premier dukedom in that peerage. The title refers to Leinster, but unlike the province the title is pronounced "Lin-ster". The subsidiary titles of the Duke of Leinster are: Marquess of Kildare (1761), Earl of Kildare (1316), Earl of Offaly (1761), Viscount Leinster, of Taplow in the County of Buckingham (1747), Baron Offaly (1620) and Baron Kildare, of Kildare in the County of Kildare (1870). The viscounty of Leinster is in the Peerage of Great Britain, the barony of Kildare in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, and all other titles in the Peerage of Ireland. The courtesy title of the eldest son and heir of the Duke of Leinster is Marquess of Kildare.
Earls of Kildare from 1316 
This branch of the Welsh-Norman FitzGerald dynasty, which came to Ireland in 1169, were initially created Earls of Kildare. The earldom was created in 1316 for John FitzGerald. Two senior FitzGeralds, Garret Mór FitzGerald and his son, Garret Óg FitzGerald served as Lords Deputy of Ireland (the representative of the Lord of Ireland (the King of England) in Ireland). The tenth Earl, Thomas FitzGerald, known as Silken Thomas, was attainted and his honours were forfeit in 1537. In 1554, Thomas's half-brother and only male heir, Gerald FitzGerald, was created Earl of Kildare in the Peerage of Ireland. He was subsequently restored to the original Patent in 1569, as 11th earl. The second (1554-created) earldom became extinct in 1599, although the original earldom survived.
Dukes of Leinster from 1766 
|Genealogy of Dukes of Leinster from 1766 : Premier Duke, Marquess, and Earl of Ireland|
The Most Noble Maurice (FitzGerald), 6th Duke of Leinster. (1887–1922).
Marquess and Earl of Kildare, co. Kildare, Earl and Baron of Offaly, all in the Peerage of Ireland;
The family was originally based in a large castle in Maynooth in County Kildare. In later centuries the family owned estates in Waterford with country residence being a Georgian house called Carton House which had replaced the castle in County Kildare. In Dublin, the Earl built a large townhouse residence on the southside of Dublin called Kildare House. When the Earl was awarded a dukedom and became Duke of Leinster, the house was renamed Leinster House. One of its occupants was Lord Edward FitzGerald, who became an icon for Irish nationalism through his involvement with the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which ultimately cost him his life.
Leinster House was sold by the Leinsters in 1815. After nearly a century as the headquarters of the Royal Dublin Society, which held its famed Spring Show and Horse Show in its grounds, Oireachtas Éireann, the two chamber parliament of the new Irish Free State, rented Leinster House in 1922 to be its temporary parliament house. In 1924 it bought the building for parliamentary use. It has remained the parliament house of the Irish state.
The Dukes of Leinster had by the early 20th century lost all their property and wealth. Their Carton House seat was sold (though one of Ireland's most historic buildings with perfectly preserved 18th century grounds, it was controversially turned into a hotel and golf course in the late 1990s by the current owner in an act condemned by environmentalists), as later on was their other residence in Waterford. The family now live in a smaller property in Ramsden, Oxfordshire.
A controversial claim by the supposed descendants of the 5th Duke (largely debunked by Michael Estorick in 1981) was made and failed, with the Lord Chancellor accepting the claim made by the 9th Duke of Leinster.
Dukes of Leinster, first Creation (1691) 
Earls of Kildare (1316) 
- Other titles: Lord of Offaly (c. 1193–?)
- John FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Kildare (1250–1316), already 4th Lord of Offaly, was rewarded for serving Edward Longshanks, King of England in Scotland
- Thomas FitzGerald, 2nd Earl of Kildare (d. 1328), younger (only surviving) son of the 1st Earl
- John FitzGerald (1314–1323), eldest son of the 2nd Earl, died in childhood
- Richard FitzGerald, 3rd Earl of Kildare (1317–1329), second son of the 2nd Earl, died unmarried
- Maurice FitzGerald, 4th Earl of Kildare (1318–1390), third and youngest son of the 2nd Earl
- Gerald FitzGerald, 5th Earl of Kildare (d. 1410), a son of the 4th Earl
- The 5th Earl had sons, but they presumably predeceased him
- John FitzGerald, 6th Earl of Kildare (de jure; d. 1427), a younger son of the 4th Earl
- Thomas FitzGerald, 7th Earl of Kildare (d. 1478), son of the 6th Earl
- Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare (c. 1456–1513), eldest son of the 7th Earl (Gearóid Mór FitzGerald)
- Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare (1487–1534), eldest son of the 8th Earl (Gearóid Óg Fitzgerald)
- Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare (d. 1537), "Silken Thomas", eldest son of the 9th Earl, led an insurrection in Ireland and his honours were forfeit, and he died unmarried
- Other titles (11th–13th Earls): Earl of Kildare and Baron of Offaly (1554)
- Other title (presumed, at least 11th Earl): Lord Garratt
- Gerald FitzGerald, 11th Earl of Kildare (1525–1585), second son of the 9th Earl, was given a new creation in 1554 then restored to his brother's honours in 1569
- Gerald FitzGerald, Lord Garratt or Offaly[N 1] (1559–1580), eldest son of the 11th Earl, predeceased his father without male issue
- Henry FitzGerald, 12th Earl of Kildare (1562–1597), second son of the 11th Earl, died without male issue
- William FitzGerald, 13th Earl of Kildare (d. 1599), third and youngest son of the 11th Earl, died unmarried
- Gerald FitzGerald, 14th Earl of Kildare (d. 1612), elder son of Edward, himself third and youngest son of the 9th Earl
- Gerald FitzGerald, 15th Earl of Kildare (1611–1620), only son of the 14th Earl, died in childhood
- George FitzGerald, 16th Earl of Kildare (1612–1660), a son of Thomas, himself younger brother of the 14th Earl
- Wentworth FitzGerald, 17th Earl of Kildare (1634–1664), elder son of the 16th Earl
- John FitzGerald, 18th Earl of Kildare (1661–1707), only son of the 17th Earl, died without surviving issue
- Henry FitzGerald, Lord Offaly (1683–1684), only son of the 18th Earl, died in infancy
- Robert FitzGerald, 19th Earl of Kildare (1675–1744), only son of Robert, himself younger son of the 16th Earl
- Other titles (20th Earl): Viscount Leinster, of Taplow in the County of Buckingham (GB 1747)
- James FitzGerald, 20th Earl of Kildare (1722–1773) was created Marquess of Kildare in 1761
Marquesses of Kildare (1761) 
- Other titles: Earl of Kildare (1316), Earl of Offaly (1761), Viscount Leinster, of Taplow in the County of Buckingham (GB 1747) and Lord of Offaly (c. 1193–?)
- James FitzGerald, 1st Marquess of Kildare (1722–1773) was created Duke of Leinster in 1766
- George FitzGerald, Earl of Offaly (1748–1765), eldest son of the 1st Marquess
Dukes of Leinster, second Creation (1766) 
- Other titles: Marquesse of Kildare (1761), Earl of Kildare (1316), Earl of Offaly (1761), Viscount Leinster, of Taplow in the County of Buckingham (GB 1747) and Lord of Offaly (c. 1193–?)
- James FitzGerald, 1st Duke of Leinster (1722–1773), elder son of the 19th Earl
- William FitzGerald, 2nd Duke of Leinster (1749–1804), second son of the 1st Duke
- George FitzGerald, Marquess of Kildare (1783–1784), eldest son of the 2nd Duke, died in infancy
- Augustus FitzGerald, 3rd Duke of Leinster (1791–1874), second son of the 2nd Duke
- Other titles (4th Duke onwards): Baron Kildare (UK 1870)
- Charles FitzGerald, 4th Duke of Leinster (1819–1887), eldest son of the 3rd Duke
- Gerald FitzGerald, 5th Duke of Leinster (1851–1893), eldest son of the 4th Duke
- Maurice FitzGerald, 6th Duke of Leinster (1887–1922), eldest son of the 5th Duke, died unmarried
- Edward FitzGerald, 7th Duke of Leinster (1892–1976), third and youngest son of the 5th Duke
- Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Duke of Leinster (1914–2004), only legitimate son of the 7th Duke
- Maurice FitzGerald, 9th Duke of Leinster (b. 1948), elder son of the 8th Duke
Line of succession 
- Lord John FitzGerald (b. 1952) (younger son of the 8th Duke)
- Edward FitzGerald (b. 1988) (only son of Lord John)
- Peter Charles FitzGerald (b. 1925) (grandson of Lord Charles FitzGerald, fifth son of the 4th Duke)
- Stephen Peter FitzGerald (b. 1953) (only son of Peter FitzGerald)
Coat of arms 
The coat of arms of the Dukes of Leinster derives from the legend that John FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Kildare, as a baby in Woodstock Castle, was trapped in a fire when a pet monkey rescued him. The FitzGeralds then adopted a monkey as their crest (and later supporters) and occasionally use the additional motto Non immemor beneficii (Not forgetful of a helping hand). The motto "Crom A Boo" comes from the medieval Croom Castle and "Abu", meaning "up" in Irish; Crom Abu was the FitzGeralds' medieval warcry. Crom (Croom) and Shanet (Shanid) were two castles about 16 miles apart in Co Limerick, one being the seat of the Geraldines of Kildare, and the other that of the Geraldines of Desmond, whose distinctive war cries were accordingly “Crom-a-boo” and “Shanet-a-boo.” In 1495 an act of Parliament was passed (10 Hen. VII. C. 20) “to abolish the words Crom-a-boo and Butler-a-boo.” The word “Abu” or “Aboo,” an exclamation of defiance, was the usual termination of the war cries in Ireland, as in a' buaidh, "to victory!"
- Arms: Argent a saltire gules.
- Crest: A monkey statant proper environed about the middle with a plain collar and chained or.
- Supporters: Two monkeys, environed and chained as in the crest.
- Motto: Crom a boo (Now it would be spelt "Crom Abu". In English, "Up Croom", or "Croom to victory."
Further reading 
- Estorick, Michael. Heirs & Graces: the Claim to the Dukedom of Leinster. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1981.
- Fitzgerald, Alan John, Barons,Rebels & Romantics: the Fitzgeralds First Thousand Years. 1stBooks Library, 2004
See also 
- Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles (1904 ). The Art of Heraldry: An Encyclopaedia of Armory. London: Bloomsbury Books. p. 485. ISBN 0-906223-34-2.
- Peterkin, Tom. Battle over Irish dukedom settled, Daily Telegraph, April 21, 2007. Accessed June 12, 2008.
- Burke's Peerage and Gentry
- Complete Peerage. (1890) Vol III. (D-F) p358 "Fitz-Gerald of Offaly".
- This Gerald FitzGerald is variously reported to have been called "Lord Offaly" or "Lord Garratt" (Garratt being a corruption of FitzGerald)