Duke of Northumberland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Armorials of Percy ancient: Azure, five fusils conjoined in fesse or[1] These arms are still quartered by the Dukes of Northumberland, but were superseded c. 1300 by the adoption by Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy (d.1314) of the arms Or, a lion rampant azure, the source for which is variously given as the "Lion of Brabant",[2] the extinct arms of Redvers, Earls of Devon,[3] or the Lion of Arundel combined with the tinctures of Warenne

Duke of Northumberland is a title that has been created three times in English and British history, twice in the Peerage of England and once in the peerage of Great Britain.

1551 creation[edit]

The title was first created in the Peerage of England in 1551 for John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick. He had already been created Viscount Lisle in 1543 and Earl of Warwick in 1547, also in the Peerage of England. In 1553, Dudley advanced the claim of his daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey, to the English throne, but when she was deposed by Queen Mary I, Dudley was convicted of high treason and executed. An illegitimate son of one of his younger sons, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, Sir Robert Dudley, claimed the dukedom when in exile in Italy. On 9 March 1620 the Emperor Ferdinand II officially recognised the title, an act which infuriated James I of England.

1683 creation[edit]

George FitzRoy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, an illegitimate son of king Charles II, was created Duke of Northumberland in the Peerage of England in 1683. He had already been created Baron of Pontefract, Viscount Falmouth and Earl of Northumberland in 1674, also in the Peerage of England. However, all the titles became extinct on his death in 1716 as he left no heirs.

Jacobite creation[edit]

In 1716 Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton, was created Duke of Northumberland, together with other subsidiary titles in the Jacobite Peerage, by The Old Pretender. The title had no legal validity in the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1766 creation[edit]

The title was created for the third time in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1766 for Hugh Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, the former Sir Hugh Smithson, 4th Baronet (1714–1786), who had assumed by Act of Parliament in 1750, for himself and his descendants, the surname Percy, due to his having married in 1740 the daughter of Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset (1684–1750), whose mother Lady Elizabeth Percy (1667–1722), was the last of the blood of the ancient House of Percy, being the only surviving child of Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland (1644–1670). In 1749 King George II created her father, who had inherited the Dukedom of Somerset in 1748, Baron Warkworth, of Warkworth Castle in the County of Northumberland, and Earl of Northumberland, with special remainder to his son-in-law Sir Hugh Smithson, 4th Baronet.[4][5] This was a deliberate move to allow the ancient name and title of the Percys to be revived in the descendants of the Smithson baronets (see Smithson baronets for earlier history of this title; the Duke of Somerset was also created Earl of Egremont at the same time with a different remainder – see this article for further information). Sir Hugh Smithson, Bart, thus became in 1750 Sir Hugh Percy, Bart, later in 1750 2nd Earl of Northumberland and in 1766 1st Duke of Northumberland.[6] In 1784 he was also created Lord Lovaine, Baron of Alnwick in the County of Northumberland, in the Peerage of Great Britain, with remainder to his second son Lord Algernon Percy,[7] who succeeded as 2nd Lord Lovaine and who was created Earl of Beverley in 1790.[8]

The Duke was succeeded in the dukedom and remaining titles by his eldest son, Hugh, the 2nd Duke, a Lieutenant-General in the British Army. The 2nd Duke was in his turn succeeded by his eldest son, Hugh, the 3rd Duke, who in 1812, five years before he succeeded in the dukedom, had been summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Baron Percy.[9] The 3rd Duke later held office as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland from 1829 to 1830. He was childless and was succeeded by his younger brother, Algernon, 1st Baron Prudhoe, the 4th Duke, who in 1814 had been created Baron Prudhoe, of Prudhoe Castle in the County of Northumberland, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.[10] The 4th Duke was an Admiral in the Royal Navy and notably served as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1852. He was also childless and on his death in 1865 the barony of Prudhoe became extinct while the barony of Percy (which could be passed on through the female line) was inherited by his great-nephew, John Stewart-Murray, 7th Duke of Atholl. He was succeeded in the dukedom and remaining titles by his first cousin, George, the 2nd Earl of Beverley, the 5th Duke, the eldest son of the aforementioned Algernon, 1st Earl of Beverley, second son of the 1st Duke. The barony of Lovaine and earldom of Beverley have sinced remained merged in the dukedom.

The 5th Duke was succeeded by his eldest son, Algernon, the 6th Duke, who notably served as Lord Privy Seal between 1879 and 1880 under Lord Beaconsfield. The 6th Duke's eldest son, Henry, the 7th Duke, was summoned to the House of lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Lord Lovaine in 1887.[11] The 7th Duke's eldest son, Henry Percy, Earl Percy, predeceased him. He was succeeded by his fourth but eldest surviving son, Alan, the 8th Duke, whose eldest son, Henry, the 9th Duke, was killed during the retreat to Dunkirk during the Second World War. Henry was succeeded by his younger brother, Hugh, the 10th Duke. In 1957, on the death of his fourth cousin once removed, James Stewart-Murray, 9th Duke of Atholl, Hugh succeeded as 9th Baron Percy, the barony of Percy thus returning to the Percy family. As of 2012 the titles are held by his second son, Ralph, the 12th Duke, who succeeded on the death of his elder brother in 1995.

Other members of the Percy family[edit]

Several other members of the Percy family have also gained distinction. James Smithson, illegitimate son of the first Duke, was a chemist and mineralogist and the founding donor of the Smithsonian Institution. Charlotte Percy, Duchess of Northumberland, wife of the third Duke, was governess of the future Queen Victoria. Lord Josceline Percy, second son of the fifth Duke, was a politician. Lord Henry Percy, third son of the fifth Duke, was a soldier. Lord Algernon Percy, second son of the sixth Duke, was a politician. Lord Eustace Percy, seventh son of the seventh Duke, was a politician who was raised to the peerage as Baron Percy of Newcastle in 1953. Jane Percy, Duchess of Northumberland, wife of the twelfth Duke, is Lord-Lieutenant of Northumberland since 2009. See also Earl of Beverley for younger sons of the first Earl of Beverley.

Seats[edit]

The seat of the Dukes of Northumberland is Alnwick Castle, in Alnwick, Northumberland; their London residence is Syon House in Brentford which replaced as their London residence the demolished Northumberland House in the Strand. The traditional burial place of the Dukes of Northumberland is Westminster Abbey in London, the Percys thus being the last family to maintain such a privilege.

List of titleholders[edit]

Dukes of Northumberland; First creation (1551)[edit]

Created by Edward VI of England
Name Period Duchess Notes Other titles
John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland
(1504–1553)
1551–1553 Jane Guildford Tudor courtier and general, regent for Edward VI, executed for high treason against Mary I Earl of Warwick
Viscount Lisle
Baron Lisle

Dukes of Northumberland; Second creation (1683)[edit]

Created by Charles II of England
Name Period Duchess Notes Other titles
George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland
(1665–1716)
1683–1716 Catherine Wheatley
Mary Dutton
Illegitimate son of Charles II, died without heirs male Earl of Northumberland
Viscount Falmouth
Baron of Pontefract

Earls of Northumberland; Fifth creation (1749)[edit]

Created by George II of Great Britain
Name Period Countess Notes Other titles
Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset, 1st Earl of Northumberland (1684–1750) 1749–1750 Frances Thynne Duke of Somerset etc.
Baron Warkworth
Hugh Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland (1714–1786) 1750–1786 Elizabeth Percy,
2nd Baroness Percy
Son-in-law of Algernon Seymour, 1st Earl of Northumberland; created Duke of Northumberland in 1766 Baron Warkworth
Baronet of Stanwick

Dukes of Northumberland; Third creation (1766)[edit]

Created by George III of Great Britain
Name Period Duchess Notes Other titles
Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland
(1714–1786)
1766–1786 Elizabeth Percy,
2nd Baroness Percy
Created Lord Lovaine in 1784, with remainder to his second son Lord Algernon Percy, later 2nd Lord Lovaine and 1st Earl of Beverley. Earl of Northumberland
Earl Percy
Baron Warkworth
Baron Lovaine
Baronet of Stanwick
Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland
(1742–1817)
1786–1817 Frances Burrell Son of the preceding Earl of Northumberland
Earl Percy
Baron Percy
Baron Warkworth
Baronet of Stanwick
Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland
(1785–1847)
1817–1847 Lady Charlotte Clive Son of the preceding; had been summoned to the House of Lords as Baron Percy in 1812
Algernon Percy, 4th Duke of Northumberland
(1792–1865)
1847–1865 Lady Eleanor Grosvenor Brother of the preceding; had been created Baron Prudhoe in his own right in 1814 Earl of Northumberland
Earl Percy
Baron Percy
Baron Warkworth
Baron Prudhoe
Baronet of Stanwick
George Percy, 5th Duke of Northumberland
(1778–1867)
1865–1867 widowed Cousin of the preceding; eldest son of Algernon Percy, 1st Earl of Beverley, second son of the 1st Duke of Northumberland – had succeeded in earldom in 1830 Earl of Northumberland
Earl Percy
Earl of Beverley
Baron Warkworth
Lord Lovaine
Baronet of Stanwick
Algernon George Percy, 6th Duke of Northumberland (1810–1899) 1867–1899 Louisa Drummond Son of the preceding
Henry George Percy, 7th Duke of Northumberland (1846–1918) 1899–1918 Lady Edith Campbell Son of the preceding; had been summoned to the House of Lords as Lord Lovaine in 1887
Alan Ian Percy, 8th Duke of Northumberland
(1880–1930)
1918–1930 Lady Helen Gordon-Lennox Son of the preceding
Henry George Alan Percy, 9th Duke of Northumberland (1912–1940) 1930–1940 none Son of the preceding
Hugh Algernon Percy, 10th Duke of Northumberland (1914–1988) 1940–1988 Lady Elizabeth Montagu Douglas Scott Brother of the preceding Earl of Northumberland
Earl Percy
Earl of Beverley
Baron Percy
(from 1957)
Baron Warkworth
Lord Lovaine
Baronet of Stanwick
Henry Alan Walter Richard Percy, 11th Duke of Northumberland (1953–1995) 1988–1995 none Son of the preceding
Ralph George Algernon Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland (b. 1956) since 1995 Jane Richard Brother of the preceding

The heir apparent is the present holder's elder son George Percy, Earl Percy (b. 1984)

Family tree[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
Hugh Percy,
1st Duke of Northumberland

1714–1786
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hugh Percy,
2nd Duke of Northumberland

1742–1817
 
 
 
Algernon Percy,
1st Earl of Beverley

1750–1830
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hugh Percy,
3rd Duke of Northumberland

1785–1847
 
Algernon Percy,
4th Duke of Northumberland

1792–1865
 
George Percy,
5th Duke of Northumberland

1778–1867
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Algernon Percy,
6th Duke of Northumberland

1810–1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Percy,
7th Duke of Northumberland

1846–1918
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alan Percy,
8th Duke of Northumberland

1880–1930
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Percy,
9th Duke of Northumberland

1912–1940
 
Hugh Percy,
10th Duke of Northumberland

1914–1988
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Percy,
11th Duke of Northumberland

1953–1995
 
Ralph Percy,
12th Duke of Northumberland

b. 1956

Ducal Pipers[edit]

Since at least the mid 18th century, the family has maintained a Northumbrian piper; the earliest known of these was Joseph Turnbull, who was painted in 1756 playing his pipes; the portrait, entitled Joseph Turnbull, Piper to the Duchess of Northumberland is at Alnwick Castle. At this time, before the Third Creation of the Dukedom, he would actually have been piper to the Countess. A later piper, William Green stated that Joe Turnbull was the first Piper at Alnwick Castle – that was ever!. A list of the Ducal Pipers is at.[12] The present Ducal Piper is Richard Butler. The piper's main duty is to play at the Shrove Tuesday football match in Alnwick.

Other pipers have been associated less formally with the family – the notorious piper James Allan (1729–1810) was a favourite of the Countess; in the last century Tom Clough is known to have played for the Duke and his guests at Alnwick; one such guest was Edward VII, in 1905.[13]

See also[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

  • Lord Percy Percy, played by Tim McInnerny, is a major character in the first two series of the British sitcom Blackadder. In the first series, he is the Duke of Northumberland while the Lord Percy in the second series is presumably his descendant and is heir to the dukedom. Coincidentally, the first series was filmed at Alnwick Castle, the residence and seat of the real Duke of Northumberland.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.849
  2. ^ Burke's General Armory, 1884 & Landed Gentry
  3. ^ Smith-Ellis, W., Antiquities of Heraldry, Vol. 1, pp.204–5, who suggests that a Roll of Arms c.1308–14 temp. Edward II lists the arms of Redvers as abatue or extinct and states in the same roll that they were borne by Sir Henry de Percy, whose father was heir of his 2nd brother Ingelram, who married Adeline, daughter and heiress of William de Fors by Isabel, daughter and heiress of Baldwin de Rivers, Earl of Devon. The Courtenays were also heirs of Isabel de Fors, and also quarter the Redvers lion
  4. ^ The London Gazette: no. 8887. p. 2. 23 September 1749.
  5. ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.1037
  6. ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.851
  7. ^ The London Gazette: no. 12514. p. 2. 27 January 1784.
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 13249. p. 646. 26 October 1790.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 16583. p. 497. 14 March 1812.
  10. ^ The London Gazette: no. 17164. p. 1596. 17 August 1816.
  11. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25723. p. 4001. 22 July 1887.
  12. ^ http://www.northumbrianpipes.com/DucalPipers.htm Ducal Pipers
  13. ^ The Clough Family of Newsham, edited by Chris Ormston and Julia Say, Northumbrian Pipers' Society, ISBN 0-902510-20-7

External links[edit]