Duke of Newcastle

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For the British Prime Minister, see Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle.

Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne is a title which has been created three times in British history while the title of Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne has been created once. The title was created for the first time in the Peerage of England in 1665 when William Cavendish, 1st Marquess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne was made Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. He was a prominent Royalist commander in the Civil War. He had already been created Viscount Mansfield in 1620, Baron Cavendish of Bolsover and Earl of Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1621 and Marquess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1643, and was made Earl of Ogle at the same time as he was given the dukedom. These titles were also in the Peerage of England.

Cavendish was the son of Sir Charles Cavendish, third son of Sir William Cavendish and his wife Bess of Hardwick. William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire, was his uncle (see the Duke of Devonshire for further history of this branch of the family). Sir Charles Cavendish married as his second wife Catherine Ogle, 8th Baroness Ogle, daughter of Cuthbert Ogle, 7th Baron Ogle. In 1629 their son William Cavendish (then Earl of Newcastle-upon-Tyne) succeeded as ninth Baron Ogle. He was succeeded by his son, the second Duke. He was also a politician. His only son and heir apparent Henry Cavendish, Earl of Ogle, predeceased him. On the Duke's death in 1691 all the titles became extinct, except the barony of Ogle which fell into abeyance between his four daughters (one of whom was Lady Elizabeth Cavendish).

Another daughter, Lady Margaret Cavendish, married John Holles, 4th Earl of Clare. In 1694 the dukedom was revived when he was created Marquess of Clare and Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne in the Peerage of England. The Holles family descended from John Holles, 1st Baron Haughton. He was created Baron Haughton, of Haughton in the County of Nottingham, in 1616, and was made Earl of Clare in 1624. His second son was the politician Denzil Holles, 1st Baron Holles. Lord Clare was succeeded by his eldest son, the second Earl. He represented East Retford in the House of Commons and served as Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire. His son, the third Earl, was briefly Member of Parliament for Nottinghamshire in 1660. He was succeeded by his son, the aforementioned fourth Earl, who was elevated to a dukedom in 1694. The Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne had one daughter but no sons and on his death in 1711 all his titles became extinct.

Thomas Pelham-Holles,
1st Duke of Newcastle

The Duke's sister, Lady Grace Holles (d. 1700), married Thomas Pelham, 1st Baron Pelham (see the Earl of Chichester for earlier history of the Pelham family). On his uncle's death in 1711 their eldest son succeeded to the substantial Holles estates and assumed by Royal license the additional surname of Holles. In 1714 the earldom of Clare was revived when he was created Viscount Haughton, in the County of Nottingham, and Earl of Clare, with remainder to his younger brother Henry Pelham, and the following year the dukedom was also revived when he was made Marquess of Clare and Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, with similar remainder to his younger brother Henry. These titles were in the Peerage of Great Britain.

In 1756 (when Henry Pelham had died without male issue and it was apparent that the Duke was to have no children of his own) the Duke was also made Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, in the County of Stafford, with remainder to his nephew Henry Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln. On the Duke's death in 1768 he was succeeded in the dukedom of Newcastle-under-Lyne according to the special remainder by his nephew, the second Duke (for further history of this title see the Earl of Lincoln). All his other titles became extinct except for the Pelham Baronetcy of Laughton and the barony of Pelham of Stanmer, which were passed on to his first cousin once removed, Thomas Pelham (for further history of these titles, see the Earl of Chichester).

The title of the 1756 dukedom was "of Newcastle-under-Lyne" and not "Newcastle-under-Lyme", the usual spelling of the Staffordshire town it refers to.

Extensive personal and estate papers of the Dukes of Newcastle are held in the Portland (Welbeck) and Newcastle (Clumber) collections at the department of Manuscripts and Special Collections, The University of Nottingham.

Dukes of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, first Creation (1665)[edit]

also Marquess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1643), Earl of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1628), Viscount Mansfield (1620) and Baron Ogle (1461)

Earls of Clare (1624)[edit]

also Baron Haughton (1616)

Dukes of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, second Creation (1694)[edit]

also Earl of Clare (1624) and Baron Haughton (1616)

Dukes of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, third Creation (1715)[edit]

also Earl of Clare (1714), Baron Pelham of Laughton (1706), Baron Pelham of Stanmer (1762) and Pelham Baronet, of Laughton (1611)
  • Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1693–1768), a nephew of John Holles, 1st Duke, died without male issue, and his father's Laughton Barony and Baronetcy, his Earldom and his first Dukedom went extinct

Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1756)[edit]

1st Duke: also Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1715), Earl of Clare (1714), Baron Pelham of Laughton (1706), Baron Pelham of Stanmer (1762) and Pelham Baronet, of Laughton (1611)
2nd Duke and after: also Earl of Lincoln (1572)
    • Henry Pelham-Clinton, Earl of Lincoln (1777–1779), only son of Lord Lincoln, died young
see the Earl of Lincoln for further history of that title

Family Tree[edit]


 
 
Thomas Pelham
1st Baron Pelham

1653-1712
 
 
 
Francis Clinton
6th Earl of
Lincoln

1635-1693
See Earldom of Lincoln
for more complete tree of
the Earldom
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thomas Pelham-Holles
1st Duke of
Newcastle-under-Lyne

1693-1768
 
Honourable
Lucy Pelham
 
Henry Clinton
7th Earl of
Lincoln

1684-1728
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
George Clinton
8th Earl of
Lincoln

1718–1730
 
Henry Fiennes
Pelham-Clinton
9th Earl of
Lincoln

Later
Succeeded his Maternal Uncle
under Special Remainder as
2nd Duke of
Newcastle-under-Lyne

1720–1794
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lord Henry Fiennes
Pelham-Clinton
styled
Earl of Lincoln
1750-1778
 
Thomas Pelham-Clinton
3rd Duke of
Newcastle-under-Lyne

10th Earl of Lincoln

1752–1795
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Pelham Fiennes
Pelham-Clinton
4th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
11th Earl of Lincoln

1785–1851
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Pelham
Pelham-Clinton
5th Duke of
Newcastle-under-Lyne

12th Earl of Lincoln

1811–1864
 
 
 
Lord Charles Pelham
Pelham-Clinton
1813-1894
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Pelham Alexander
Pelham-Clinton
6th Duke of
Newcastle-under-Lyne

13th Earl of Lincoln

1834–1879
 
 
 
Charles Stapleton
Pelham-Clinton
1857-1911
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Pelham
Archibald Douglas
Pelham-Clinton
7th Duke of
Newcastle-under-Lyne

14th Earl of Lincoln

1864–1928
 
Henry Francis Hope
Pelham-Clinton-Hope
8th Duke of
Newcastle-under-Lyne

15th Earl of Lincoln

1866–1941
 
Guy Edward
Pelham-Clinton
1894-1934
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Edward Hugh
Pelham-Clinton-Hope
9th Duke of
Newcastle-under-Lyne

16th Earl of Lincoln

1907–1988
 
Edward Charles
Pelham-Clinton
10th Duke of
Newcastle-under-Lyne

17th Earl of Lincoln

1920–1988
Dukedom Extinct
The Earldom of Lincoln passed to the
10th Duke's 10th cousin,
Edward Horace Fiennes-Clinton,
18th Earl of Lincoln

See Earldom of Lincoln
for more complete tree of
the Earldom

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]