Duke of Parma

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Parmese Ducal Family
Coat of arms of the House of Bourbon-Parma.svg

The Duchy of Parma was a small Italian state which existed between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1860.

The Duke of Parma was also Duke of Piacenza, except for the first years of the rule of Ottavio Farnese (1549–1556), and the time of the Napoleonic wars, when the two were established as separate positions held by two individuals. The Duke of Parma also usually held the title of Duke of Guastalla from 1735 (when Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor took it from Mantua) to 1847 (when the territory was ceded to Modena), again, except for the Napoleonic dukes, when Napoleon's sister Pauline was Duchess of Guastalla and of Varella.

The position is currently claimed by a member of the Bourbon family, which also holds the Spanish throne. Therefore, the current claimant to the Duchy of Parma is a legitimate (though not prime) claimant to the Kingdom of Spain; indeed, the recent pretender to the Parmese throne, the late Carlos-Hugo, was also a pretender to the Spanish throne in the 1970s (see Carlism).

Reigning Dukes of Parma (1545–1802)[edit]

House of Farnese 1545–1731[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Pier Luigi
16 September 1545 – 10 September 1547
Pier Luigi Farnese di Tiziano.jpg 19 November 1503
Rome
son of Cardinal Alexander Farnese (future Pope Paul III) and probably Silvia Ruffini
Girolama Orsini
1519
Rome
4 children
10 September 1547
Piacenza
aged 43
Ottavio
9 November 1549 – 15 September 1586
Ottavio Farnese duca.jpg 9 October 1524
Valentano
son of Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma and Girolama Orsini
Margaret of Parma
4 November 1538
Rome
2 children
18 September 1586
Parma
aged 61
Alessandro
15 September 1586 – 3 December 1592
Vaenius - Alexander Farnese.png 27 August 1545
Rome
son of Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma and Margaret of Parma
Maria of Portugal
11 November 1565
Bruxelles
3 children
3 December 1592
Saint Waast, Netherlands
aged 46
Ranuccio I
3 December 1592 – 5 March 1622
Ranuccio First Farnese.jpg 28 March 1569
Parma
son of Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma and Maria of Portugal
Margherita Aldobrandini
7 May 1600
Rome
9 children
5 March 1622
Parma
aged 52
Odoardo
5 March 1622 – 11 September 1646
Odoardo Farnese2.jpg 28 April 1612
Parma
son of Ranuccio I Farnese, Duke of Parma and Margherita Aldobrandini
Margherita de Medici
11 October 1628
Florence
4 children
11 September 1646
Piacenza
aged 44
Ranuccio II
11 September 1646 – 11 December 1694
RanuccioII.jpg 17 September 1630
Casalmaggiore
son of Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma and Margherita de Medici
(1) Marguerite of Savoy
29 April 1660
Turin
2 children
(2) Isabella of Modena
18 February 1664
Modena
3 children
(3) Maria of Modena
1 October 1668
Modena
9 children
11 December 1694
Parma
aged 64
Francesco
11 December 1694 – 26 February 1727
Francesco Farnese.jpg 19 May 1678
Parma
son of Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma and Maria of Modena
Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg
26 February 1727
Parma
no issues
26 May 1727
Piacenza
aged 49
Antonio
26 February 1727 – 20 January 1731
Antonio Farnese, the last Farnese Duke of Parma.jpg 29 May 1679
Parma
son of Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma and Maria of Modena
Enrichetta d'Este
26 February 1727
Parma
no issues
26 February 1731
Parma
aged 49

House of Bourbon 1731–1735[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles I
29 December 1731 – 3 October 1735
Charles 20 January 1716
Madrid
son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth of Parma
Maria Amalia of Saxony
19 June 1738
13 children
14 December 1788
Madrid
aged 72

House of Habsburg 1735–1748[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Emperor Charles VI
3 October 1735 – 20 October 1740
KarlVICarrenodeMiranda1673.jpg 1 October 1685
Vienna
son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg
Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1 August 1708
Barcelona
4 children
20 October 1740
Vienna
aged 55
Maria Theresa
20 October 1740 – 18 October 1748
MariaTheresia Maske.jpg 13 May 1717
Vienna
daughter of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
12 February 1736
16 children
29 November 1780
Vienna
aged 63

House of Bourbon-Parma 1748–1803[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Philip
18 October 1748 – 18 July 1765
Felipe de Parma.jpg 15 March 1720
Madrid
son of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese
Princess Louise Élisabeth of France
25 October 1739
3 children
18 July 1765
Alessandria
aged 45
Ferdinand
18 July 1765 – 9 October 1802
Ferdinando de Parma.jpg 20 January 1751
Parma
son of Philip, Duke of Parma and Princess Louise Élisabeth of France
Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria
19 July 1769
7 children
9 October 1802
Fontevivo
aged 51

Honorary Dukes of Parma (1808–1814)[edit]

These did not actually rule over any territory of Parma and Piacenza, but were of the honorary, hereditary type duché grand-fief, granted by Napoleon in 1808.

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, duc de Parme
1808–1814
Maurin - Cambaceres.png 18 October 1753
Montpellier
son of Jean-Antoine de Cambaceres and Marie-Rose Vassal
never married 8 March 1824
Paris
aged 70
Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance
1808–1814
Charles-François Lebrun (1739-1824), French statesman (small).jpg 19 March 1739
Saint-Sauveur-Lendelin
fourth son of Paul Lebrun and Louise Le Cronier
Sophie de Marbois
1804
Louvre
1 daughter
16 June 1824
Sainte-Mesme
aged 85

Reigning Dukes of Parma (1814–1859)[edit]

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, 1814–1847[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Marie Louise
11 April 1814 – 17 December 1847
L'impératriceMarie-Louise.jpg 12 December 1791
Vienna
daughter of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
(1) Napoleon I of France
1 April 1810
Louvre
1 son
(2) Adam Albert, Count von Neipperg
7 September 1821
Parma
three children
(3) Charles René, Count of Bombelles
Parma
17 February 1834
no issue
17 December 1847
Parma
aged 56

House of Bourbon-Parma, 1847–1859[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles II
17 December 1847 – 17 May 1849
Charles II, Duke of Parma c 1850.JPG 22 December 1799
Madrid
son of Louis of Etruria and Maria Louisa, Duchess of Lucca
Maria Teresa of Savoy
5 September 1820
2 children
16 April 1883
Nice
aged 84
Charles III
17 May 1849 – 27 March 1854
Charles III, Duke of Parma.JPG 14 January 1823
Pianore
son of Charles II, Duke of Parma and Maria Teresa of Savoy
Louise Marie Thérèse of France
10 November 1845
4 children
27 March 1854
Parma
aged 31
Robert I
27 March 1854 – 9 June 1859
RobertIP.jpg 9 July 1848
Florence
son of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Louise Marie Thérèse of France
(1) Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
5 April 1869
12 children

(2) Maria Antonia of Portugal
15 October 1884
12 children
16 November 1907
Viareggio
aged 63

See also[edit]