Duke of Silesia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Dukes of Silesia)
Jump to: navigation, search

The Duke of Silesia was the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. In accordance with the last will and testament of Bolesław, upon his death his lands were divided into four or five hereditary provinces distributed among his sons, and a royal province of Kraków reserved for the eldest, who was to be High Duke of all Poland. This was known as the fragmentation of Poland. Subsequent developments lead to further splintering of the duchies.

At the beginning of the 14th century, fourteen independent Duchies existed in Silesia: Brzeg, Wrocław, Świdnica, Jawor, Ziębice, Głogów, Ścinawa, Żagan and Oleśnica in Lower Silesia; Koźle, Cieszyn, Bytom, Niemodlin, Opole, Strzelce, Racibórz and Opava in Upper Silesia and the eclessiatical duchy of Nysa. Between 1327 and 1329 most dukes accepted the overlordship of Bohemian king John of Bohemia, who acquired the right of succession for all of these duchies. In the coming centuries all branches of the Silesian Piasts died out, and with the death of George William, Duke of Liegnitz the dynasty ceased to exist.

Duchy of Silesia[edit]

POL województwo dolnośląskie COA.svg

The Duchy of Silesia, one of the hereditary provinces of Poland, Silesia, was granted to Bolesław III's eldest son, Władysław II the Exile, and was subsequently divided among his sons Bolesław I the Tall (Wrocław/Lower Silesia), Mieszko I Tanglefoot (Racibórz/Upper Silesia) and Konrad Spindleshanks (Głogów). After Konrad's death Głogów was again united with the Duchy of Wrocław/Lower Silesia.

Dukes of Silesia[edit]

Piast Dynasty[edit]

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling Part Notes
Władysław the Exile Wladyslaw Wygnaniec (Chronica Polanarum).jpg 1105 1138–1146 30 May 1159 Silesia also monarch of Poland
exiled by his brothers
Bolesław the Curly Jan Matejko, Bolesław IV Kędzierzawy.jpg 1125 1146–1163 5 January 1173 Silesia brother of Wladyslaw II
also Duke of Masovia and monarch of Poland

Partitions of Silesia[edit]

In 1173 Bolesław returned and he agreed to let Mieszko and Bolesław rule in their own Duchies, separated from the Duchy of Silesia. This led to the creation of the Duchy of Racibórz for Mieszko I and the Duchy of Opole for Jarosław, beginning the fragmentation of the Duchy of Silesia. The territories controlled by Mieszko I and Jarosław roughly corresponded to what is known as Upper Silesia, while the territories remaining with Bolesław I roughly corresponded to Lower Silesia.

Silesia 1172-1177.jpg

Lower Silesia[edit]

Duchy of Lower Silesia was a direct continuation of the Duchy of Silesia, but without the territories roughly corresponding to Upper Silesia; hence it was composed of the territories roughly corresponding to Lower Silesia. Some sources refer to it as the Duchy of Silesia; some as Duchy of Lower Silesia; others yet as the Duchy of Wrocław (Breslau). Wrocław was the capital of the Duchy of Silesia, yet this early (1172–1248) Duchy of Silesia should not be confused with the smaller Duchy of Wrocław that was created with further fragmentation in 1248. The Duchy went through various border changes in the coming years, sometimes losing and sometimes gaining territory. In 1248 Lower Silesia was divided when Bolesław II had to cede the Duchy of Wrocław to his younger brother Henry III.

Silesia 1248-1249.jpg

      Duchy of Lower Silesia

1138-1248
Duchy of Lower Silesia

In 1248, the Duchy of Lower Silesia was partitioned in the duchies of Wrocław and Legnica.

      Duchy of Wrocław       Duchy of Legnica

1248-1251
Duchy of Wrocław (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Legnica (Lower Silesia)

In 1251, in Lower Silesia, the Duchy of Glogów emerged from Wrocław.

      Duchy of Głogów

1251-1274
Duchy of Wrocław (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Głogów (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Legnica (Lower Silesia)

In 1274, the Duchy of Świdnica-Jawor emerged from Legnica. In the same year, the Duchy of Zágán emerged from Glogów.

      Duchy of Świdnica-Jawor       Duchy of Żagań

1274-1311
Duchy of Wrocław (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Głogów (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Legnica (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Świdnica-Jawor (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Zágán (Lower Silesia)

In 1311,the Duchy of Brzeg emerged from Legnica.

      Duchy of Brzeg

1311-1313
Duchy of Wrocław (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Głogów (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Legnica (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Brzeg (Lower Silesia)

In 1313, the Duchy of Oleśnica emerged from Glógow.

      Duchy of Oleśnica

1313-1322
Duchy of Wrocław (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Głogów (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Legnica (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Brzeg (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Oleśnica (Lower Silesia)

In 1322, the Duchy of Ziebice emerged from Swidnica-Jawor.

      Duchy of Ziębice

1322-1335
Duchy of Wrocław (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Głogów (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Legnica (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Brzeg (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Olésnica (Lower Silesia) Duchy of Ziębice (Lower Silesia)

Dukes of Lower Silesia[edit]

Piast Dynasty[edit]
Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling Part Notes
Bolesław I the Tall Bolesław I Wysoki tomb effigy.PNG 1127 1163–1201 8 December 1201 Lower Silesia
Henry I the Bearded Jan Matejko, Henryk I Brodaty.jpg 1165 1201–1238 19 March 1238 Lower Silesia also monarch of Poland.
Henry II the Pious Henryk II Pobożny tomb effigy.PNG 1196 1238–1241 9 April 1241 Lower Silesia also monarch of Poland.
Henry III the White Henryk III Biały seal.PNG 1227 or 1230 1241–1266 3 December 1266 Wrocław Son of Henry II the Pious
Bolesław II the Bald Bolesław II Rogatka.JPG c. 1220/5 1241–1278 26–31 December 1278 Legnica Brother of Henry III the White. He gained Legnica in the partition of 1248.
Conrad I ConradGlogów.jpg 1228/31 1251-1274 6 August 1274 Głogów First duke of Głogów. Brother of Henry III the White and Boleslaw II the Bald.
Henry IV Probus Henryk IV Probus tomb effigy.PNG 1257/1258 266–1290 23 June 1290 Wrocław also monarch of Poland
Henry V the Fat Henryk V Brzuchaty seal 1289.PNG 1248 1278–1296 22 February 1296 Legnica son of Boleslaw II.
Henry V the Fat Henryk V Brzuchaty seal 1289.PNG 1248 1273–1278 22 February 1296 Świdnica-Jawor Rules also in Legnica.
Henry III HenryGlogów.jpg 1251/60 1274-1309 3 December 1309 Głogów Son of Conrad I.
Conrad II the Hunchback KonradGarbaty.jpg 1252/65 1274-1289 11 October 1304 Głogów Brother of Henry III. Jointly with his brother Henry III.
Przemko I PrzemkoScinawski.jpg 1252/65 1274-1289 26 February 1289 Głogów Brother of Henry III and Conrad II. Ruled jointly with them.
Przemko I PrzemkoScinawski.jpg 1252/65 1274-1284 26 February 1289 Żagań Żagań emerged in 1274 from Głogów.
Bolko I the Strict Bolko I. Schweidnitz.png 1252/6 1278–1301 9 November 1301 Świdnica-Jawor jointly with Bernard I.
Bernard I the Lightsome Bernard Zwinny seal.PNG 1253/7 1278–1286 25 April 1286 Świdnica-Jawor jointly with Bolko I.
Conrad II the Hunchback KonradGarbaty.jpg 1252/65 1284-1304 11 October 1304 Żagań Brother of Przemko. Also Duke of Głogów.
Henry V the Fat Henryk V Brzuchaty seal 1289.PNG 1248 1290–1296 22 February 1296 Wrocław son of Boleslaw II. Also duke of Legnica.
Bolesław III the Generous Boleslaus von Liegnitz.png 23 September 1291 1296–1342 21 April 1352 Legnica jointly with his brothers, Henry VI and Wladyslaw.
Henry VI the Good Henryk VI Dobry tomb effigy.PNG 18 March 1294 1296–1335 24 November 1335 Legnica jointly with his brothers, Boleslaw III and Wladyslaw.
Władysław 6 June 1296 1296–1312 after 13 January 1352 Legnica jointly with his brothers, Boleslaw III and Henry VI.
Bolesław III the Generous Boleslaus von Liegnitz.png 23 September 1291 1296–1311 21 April 1352 Wrocław Also duke of Legnica, Brzeg and Opava
Henry I Henry of Jawor.jpg 1292/6 1301–1346 before 15 May 1346 Świdnica-Jawor jointly with Bernard II until 1312, Bolko II from 1326 to 1346, and Henry II from 1334 to 1343.
Bernard II 1291 1301–1312 6 May 1326 Świdnica-Jawor jointly with Henry I.
Bolko II the Small Bolko II Mały tomb effigy.PNG 1312 1326–1368 28 July 1368 Świdnica-Jawor Son of Bernard II. Jointly with Henry I until 1346.
Henry II 1316 1334–1343 28 June 1345 Świdnica-Jawor Son of Bernard II. Jointly with Bolko II and Henry I.
Henry III HenryGlogów.jpg 1251/60 1304-1309 3 December 1309 Żagań Also Duke of Głogów.
Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg 1276 1309-1318 26 April 1318 Głogów Widow of Henry III.
Henry IV the Faithful HenryIVGlogów.jpg 1292 1309-1342 22 Jabuary 1342 Żagań Also Duke of Głogów.
Conrad I KonradIOlesnicki.jpg 1294 1309-1312 22 December 1366 Żagań Also Duke of Olesnica. Jointly with Henry IV and Przemko II.
Przemko II 1305 1309-1321 11 January 1331 Żagań Also Duke of Głogów. Jointly with Conrad I and Henry IV.
Conrad I KonradIOlesnicki.jpg 1294 1309-1366 22 December 1366 Oleśnica First duke of Oleśnica.
Władysław 6 June 1296 1311–1312 after 13 January 1352 Brzeg With his rule, Brzeg emerged as an independent duchy.
Henry VI the Good Henryk VI Dobry tomb effigy.PNG 18 March 1294 1311–1335 24 November 1335 Wrocław Brother of Boleslaw III. In 1327 Henry VI signed a contract of inheritance with King John of Bohemia and upon his death the Duchy of Wrocław fell to the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Bolesław III the Generous Boleslaus von Liegnitz.png 23 September 1291 1312-1352 21 April 1352 Brzeg Also duke of Legnica, Opava and Wrocław.
Henry IV the Faithful HenryIVGlogów.jpg 1292 1318-1321 22 January 1342 Głogów Ruled Głogów with Przemko II.
Przemko II 1305 1318-1331 11 January 1331 Głogów Ruled Głogów with Henry IV. In 1331 the duchy is annexed by the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Bolko II Bolko II of Ziebice.jpg 1 February 1300 1322-1341 11 June 1341 Ziębice First duke of Ziębice. Son of Bolko I the Strict.
Henry I Henry of Jawor.jpg 1292/6 1337-1346 before 15 May 1346 Głogów In 1337 Głogów re-emerges from Bohemia, and is annexed again in 1346.
Nicholas the Small Nicholas the Small.png 1327 1341-1358 23 April 1358 Ziębice
Wenceslaus I 1318 1342–1364 2 June 1364 Legnica
Louis I the Fair LudwiktheFair.jpg 1321 1342–1398 6–23 December 1398 Legnica jointly with his brother, Wenceslaus
Henry V of Iron HenryVofIron.jpg 1319 1342-1369 after 8 April 1369 Żagań Son of Henry IV.
Henry V of Iron HenryVofIron.jpg 1319 1349-1369 after 8 April 1369 Głogów (Half 1) In 1349 Half 1 of Głogów reemerges from Bohemia to be annexed by Żagań line of the Piasts.
Katharina of Croatia ? 1352-1358 before 5 March 1358 Brzeg Widow of Bolesław III the Generous.
Louis I the Fair LudwiktheFair.jpg 1321 1358–1398 6–23 December 1398 Brzeg Stepson of Katharina; also duke of Legnica.
Henry VII the Courageous 1343/5 1361-1399 11 July 1399 Brzeg Duke of Brzeg jointlywith his father Louis I.
Bolko III 1348 1358-1410 13 June 1410 Ziębice Son of Nicholas the Small. Ruled jointly with his brother Henry I.
Henry I 1350 1358-1366 after 8 August 1366 Ziębice Son of Nicholas the Small. Ruled jointly with his brother Bolko III.
Constance of Świdnica 1313 1360-1361 21 November 1363 Głogów (Half 2) In 1360 Half 2 of Głogów reemerges from Bohemia to be given to Constance, widow of Przemko II. She renounces the title in favour of her brother Bolko II.
Bolko II the Small Bolko II Mały tomb effigy.PNG 1312 1361–1368 28 July 1368 Głogów (Half 2) Brother of Constance. After his death in 1368, this half is annexed again to the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Rupert I 27 March 1347 1364–1409 before 12 January 1409 Legnica
Wenceslaus II Wacław Legnicki.jpg 1348 1364–1413 30 December 1419 Legnica
Boleslaw IV 1349 1364–1394 3/4 March 1394 Legnica jointly with Henry VIII, Wenceslaus II and Rupert
Henry VIII 1355 1364–1398 12 December 1398 Legnica jointly with Boleslaw IV, Wenceslaus II, and Rupert.
Conrad II the Gray KonradIIOlesnica.jpg 1340 1366-1403 10 June 1403 Oleśnica Son of Conrad I.
Agnes of Austria Agnes von Habsburg.jpg 1322 1368–1392 2 February 1392 Świdnica-Jawor widow of Bolko II. Succeeded her husband according with his will. After her death the duchy was annexed to the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Henry VI the Older HenrykVI 1.jpg before 1345 1369-1393 5 December 1393 Żagań Son of Henry V. Ruled jointly with Henry VII and Henry VIII until 1378.
Henry VII Rumpold HenryVIIrumpold.jpg 1350 1369-1378 24 December 1395 Żagań Son of Henry V. Ruled jointly with Henry VI and Henry VIII.
Henry VIII the Sparrow Henry the Sparrow.jpg 1357 1369-1378 14 March 1397 Żagań Son of Henry V. Ruled jointly with Henry VI and Henry VII.
Henry VI the Older HenrykVI 1.jpg before 1345 1369-1378 5 December 1393 Głogów (Half 1) Son of Henry V. Ruled jointly with Henry VII and Henry VIII.
Henry VII Rumpold HenryVIIrumpold.jpg 1350 1369-1395 24 December 1395 Głogów (Half 1) Son of Henry V. Ruled jointly with Henry VI and Henry VIII until 1378.
Henry VIII the Sparrow Henry the Sparrow.jpg 1357 1369-1378 14 March 1397 Głogów (Half 1) Son of Henry V. Ruled jointly with Henry VI and Henry VII.
Przemysław I Noszak Premyslaus I. of Teschen.jpg 1332/6 1384-1404 23 May 1410 Głogów (Half 2) Also Duke of Cieszyn. The 2nd half of the duchy of Głogów re-emerges from Bohemia. 1st time.
Hedwig of Legnica 1351 1393-1403 1 August 1409 Żagań Widow of Henry VI.
Henry VIII the Sparrow Henry the Sparrow.jpg 1357 1395-1397 14 March 1397 Głogów (Half 1) Ruled alone.
Henry IX 1369 1396-1420 10 July 1420 Legnica (Lubin) Regional duke in Legnica. Also duke of Brzeg.
John I JohnIZagan.jpg 1385 1397-1412 12 April 1439 Głogów (Half 1) Ruled until 1412 with Henry IX, Henry X, and Wenceslaus.
Henry IX the Older HenryIXStarszy.jpg 1387 1397-1467 11 November 1467 Głogów (Half 1) Ruled with John I, Henry X and Wenceslaus
Henry X Rumpold HenryXrumpold.jpg 1390 1397-1423 18 January 1423 Głogów (Half 1) Ruled with John I, Henry IX and Wenceslaus
Wenceslaus I 1391 1397-1417 before 4 February 1431 Głogów (Half 1) Ruled with John I, Henry IX and Henry X
Henry IX 1369 1399-1400 10 July 1420 Brzeg Also duke of Legnica (in Lubin). Jointly with his half-brother Louis II.
Louis II Ludwikbrzeski.jpg 1380/5 1399–1436 30 May 1436 Brzeg Jointly with his half-brother Henry IX. Also duke of Legnica.
Conrad III the Old KonradIIItheOld.jpg 1359 1403-1412 28 December 1412 Oleśnica Son of Conrad II.
John I JohnIZagan.jpg 1385 1403-1439 12 April 1439 Żagań Ruled until 1412 with Henry IX, Henry X, and Wenceslaus.
Henry IX the Older HenryIXStarszy.jpg 1387 1403-1412 11 November 1467 Żagań Ruled with John I, Henry X and Wenceslaus
Henry X Rumpold HenryXrumpold.jpg 1390 1403-1412 18 January 1423 Żagań Ruled with John I, Henry IX and Wenceslaus
Wenceslaus I 1391 1403-1412 before 4 February 1431 Żagań Ruled with John I, Henry IX and Henry X
Przemysław II 1362 1404-1406 1 January 1406 Głogów (Half 2) Also Duke of Oświęcim. Son of Przemysław I.
Przemysław I Noszak Premyslaus I. of Teschen.jpg 1332/6 1406-1410 23 May 1410 Głogów (Half 2) Also Duke of Cieszyn. 2nd time.
Bolesław I 1363 1410-1431 6 May 1431 Głogów (Half 2) Also Duke of Cieszyn.
John I 1358 1410-1428 27 August 1428 Ziębice Son of Bolko III. Ruled jointly with his brother Henry II until 1420. After his death the duchy was annexed to the Kingdom of Bohemia, and later mortgaged it to Půta III of Častolovice during 1429-1435.
Henry II 1396 1410-1420 11 March 1420 Ziębice Son of Bolko III. Ruled jointly with his brother John I.
Euphemia 1385 1435-1442 17 November 1447 Ziębice Daughter of Bolko III. In 1435 she bought the Duchy to the Emperor and Častolovice's heiresses. In 1442 it was sold to the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Conrad IV the Older KonradIVtheOlder.jpg 1384 1412-1416 9 August 1447 Oleśnica Son of Conrad III. Ruled jointly with his brother Conrad V.
Conrad V Kantner 1385 1412-1439 10 September 1439 Oleśnica Son of Conrad III. Ruled jointly with his brothers Conrad IV, Conrad VI, Conrad VII and Conrad VIII until 1427.
Conrad VI the Dean 1391 1416-1427 3 September 1427 Oleśnica Son of Conrad III. Ruled jointly with his brothers Conrad V, Conrad VII and Conrad VIII.
Conrad VII the White Conrad IV arrests his brother Conrad VII.jpg after 1396 1416-1427 14 February 1452 Oleśnica Son of Conrad III. Ruled jointly with his brothers Conrad V, Conrad VI and Conrad VIII. 1st time
Conrad VIII the Younger after 1397 1416-1427 5 September 1444 Oleśnica Son of Conrad III. Ruled jointly with his brothers Conrad V, Conrad VI and Conrad VII.
Louis II Ludwikbrzeski.jpg 1380/5 1413–1436 30 May 1436 Legnica Also duke of Brzeg.
Rupert II 1396/1402 1420-1431 24 August 1431 Legnica (Lubin) Regional duke in Legnica. Jointly with his brother Louis.
Wenceslaus III 1400 1420-1423 14 January or 28 May 1423 Legnica (Oława) Regional duke in Legnica.
Louis III before 1405 1423-1441 before 18 June 1441 Legnica (Oława) Regional duke in Legnica. From 1431 also duke of Legnica (in Lubin).
Louis III before 1405 1431-1441 before 18 June 1441 Legnica (Lubin) Regional duke in Legnica. Since 1423 duke of Legnica (in Oława).
Władysław I 1420 1431-1460 14 February 1460 Głogów (Half 2) Also Duke of Cieszyn. Ruled jointly with Wenceslaus I, Przemysław III and Bolesław II.
Wenceslaus I 1413/8 1431-1442 1474 Głogów (Half 2) Also Duke of Cieszyn. Ruled jointly with Władysław I, Przemysław III and Bolesław II.
Przemysław III 1422/5 1431-1442 18 March 1477 Głogów (Half 2) Also Duke of Cieszyn. Ruled jointly with Władysław I, Wenceslaus I and Bolesław II. 1st time.
Bolesław II 1425/8 1431-1442 4 October 1452 Głogów (Half 2) Also Duke of Cieszyn. Ruled jointly with Władysław I, Wenceslaus I and Przemysław III.
Elisabeth of Brandenburg 29 September 1403 1436–1449 31 October 1449 Legnica Widow of Louis II. After her death in 1449, Legnica is annexed by the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Elisabeth of Brandenburg 29 September 1403 1436–1443 31 October 1449 Brzeg Also duchess in Legnica. In 1443 is forced to give Brzeg to John I and Henry X of Lubin.
Margareta of Opole 1412/4 1431-1441 15 January 1454 Legnica (Oława) Regional duchess in Legnica, widow of Louis III
Conrad VII the White Conrad IV arrests his brother Conrad VII.jpg after 1396 1439-1450 14 February 1452 Oleśnica Ruled alone. 2nd time.
Balthasar BaltazarZagan.jpg 1415 1439-1461 15 July 1472 Żagań Ruled with Rudolf, Wenceslaus II and John II. 1st time.
Rudolf RudolfZagan.jpg 1418 1439-1454 18 September 1454 Żagań Ruled with Balthasar, Wenceslaus II and John II
Wenceslaus II WaclawZagan.jpg 1434 1439-1449 29 April 1488 Żagań Ruled with Balthasar, Rudolf and John II.
John II the Mad JohnIItheMad.jpg 16 April 1435 1439-1449 22 September 1504 Żagań Ruled with Balthasar, Rudolf and Wenceslaus II. 1st time.
John I 1425 1441-1446 after 21 November 1453 Legnica (Oława) Regional duke in Legnica, jointly with his brother, Henry X. In 1446, due to the difficult financial situation, Lubin was sold to the Duchy of Żagań.
Henry X 1426 1441-1446 before 28 May 1452 Legnica (Oława) Regional duke in Legnica, jointly with his brother, John I. In 1446, due to the difficult financial situation, Lubin was sold to the Duchy of Żagań.
John I 1425 1443-1450 after 21 November 1453 Brzeg Jointly with his brother Henry X. In 1450 Brzeg is sold to Opole.
Henry X 1426 1443-1450 before 28 May 1452 Brzeg Jointly with his brother John I. In 1450 Brzeg is sold to Opole.
Conrad IX the Black 1415 1450-1471 14 August 1471 Oleśnica Son of Conrad V. Ruled jointly with his brother Conrad X, until 1452.
Conrad X the White 1420 1450-1452 21 September 1492 Oleśnica Son of Conrad V. Ruled jointly with his brother Conrad IX. 1st time
Nicholas I 1424 1450-1476 3 July 1476 Brzeg Duke of Opole, buys Brzeg in 1450.
Frederick I 3 May 1446 1455–1488 9 May 1488 Legnica Legnica became independent from Bohemia in 1455
Margareta of Celje Margaret of Celje.jpg 1411 1460-1480 22 July 1480 Głogów (Half 2) Widow of Wladysław I. Ruled jointly with Przemysław III.
Przemysław III 1422/5 1460-1477 18 March 1477 Głogów (Half 2) Ruled jointly with Margaret of Celje. 2nd time.
John II the Mad JohnIItheMad.jpg 16 April 1435 1461-1468 22 September 1504 Żagań Ruled alone. 2nd time
Henry XI 1435 1467-1476 22 February 1476 Głogów (Half 1) Son of Henry IX the Older.
Balthasar BaltazarZagan.jpg 1415 1468-1472 15 July 1472 Żagań Ruled alone. 2nd time
Margareta of Rawa 1441 1471-1475 1 September 1485 Oleśnica Widow of Conrad IX.
John II the Mad JohnIItheMad.jpg 16 April 1435 1472 22 September 1504 Żagań 3rd time. In 1472 Żagań is sold to the Duchy of Saxony.
Barbara 1465 1475-1478 30 November 1479 Oleśnica Daughter of Conrad IX. Deposed in 1478 and died in the next year.
John II the Mad JohnIItheMad.jpg 16 April 1435 1476/1480-1488 22 September 1504 Głogów (Halfs 1 and 2) In 1480 John II reunites both parts of Głogów. In 1488 Głogów is annexed by the Kingdom of Poland.
John II the Good JantheGood.jpg 1460 1476-1481 27 March 1532 Brzeg Duke of Opole, ruled jointly with his brother Nicholas. In 1481 sold Brzegto Frederick I of Legnica.
Nicholas II 1462 1476-1481 27 June 1497 Brzeg Duke of Opole, ruled jointly with his brother John. In 1481 sold Brzeg to Frederick I of Legnica.
Conrad X the White 1420 1478-1492 21 September 1492 Oleśnica Ruled alone. 2nd time. In 1492 Oleśnica was annexed by the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Frederick I 3 May 1446 1481–1488 9 May 1488 Brzeg In 1481 Frederick I of Legnica purchased Brzeg from Opole.
Ludmila of Poděbrady 16 October 1446 1488-1503 20 January 1503 Brzeg Widow of Frederick I.
John II 1477 1488–1495 6 March 1495 Legnica jointly with his brothers, Frederick II and George I
Frederick II the Great FrederickIILegnica.jpg 12 February 1480 1488–1547 17 September 1547 Legnica jointly with his brothers, John II and George I.
George I 1481/3 1488–1521 30 May 1521 Legnica Jointly with his brothers John II and Frederick II.
Frederick II the Great FrederickIILegnica.jpg 12 February 1480 1503–1547 17 September 1547 Brzeg jointly with his brother George I.
George I 1481/3 1503–1521 30 May 1521 Brzeg Jointly with his brother Frederick II.
Frederick III 22 February 1520 1547–1559 15 December 1570 Legnica
George II the Pious Georg II of Brieg.PNG 18 July 1523 1547-1586 7 May 1586 Brzeg Jointly with his brother Frederick II.
Henry XI HenryXIlegnica.jpg 23 February 1539 1559–1581 3 March 1588 Legnica
Frederick IV 20 April 1552 1581–1596 27 March 1596 Legnica
Barbara of Brandenburg 10 August 1527 1586-1595 2 January 1595 Brzeg Widow of George II.
Joachim Frederick 29 September 1550 1595–1602 25 March 1602 Brzeg
Joachim Frederick 29 September 1550 1596–1602 25 March 1602 Legnica
George Rudolf Jiří Rudolf Lehnický z Břehu 1653 av.jpg 12 January 1595 1602–1653 14 January 1653 Legnica jointly with his brother, John Christian
John Christian 28 August 1591 1602–1612 25 December 1639 Legnica jointly with his brother, George Rudolf.
George Rudolf Jiří Rudolf Lehnický z Břehu 1653 av.jpg 12 January 1595 1602–1612 14 January 1653 Brzeg jointly with his brother, John Christian
John Christian 28 August 1591 1602–1633 25 December 1639 Brzeg jointly with his brother, George Rudolf.
George III 4 September 1611 1633–1664 4 July 1664 Brzeg
Louis IV LudwikIVLegnica.jpg 19 April 1616 1653–1663 24 November 1653 Legnica
Christian Christian, Duke of Brieg.PNG 9 April 1618 1653–1654 28 February 1672 Legnica
George III 4 September 1611 1653–1654 4 July 1664 Legnica
Christian Christian, Duke of Brieg.PNG 9 April 1618 1663–1672 28 February 1672 Legnica
George III 4 September 1611 1663–1664 4 July 1664 Legnica
Christian Christian, Duke of Brieg.PNG 9 April 1618 1664-1672 28 February 1672 Brzeg
George William George William.jpg 29 September 1660 1672–1675 21 November 1675 Legnica
George William George William.jpg 29 September 1660 1672-1675 21 November 1675 Brzeg
Louise of Anhalt-Dessau 10 February 1631 1672-1680 25 April 1680 Legnica (Oława) Regional duchess in Legnica, widow of Christian. After her death the Duchy was annexed by the Holy Roman Empire.

Upper Silesia[edit]

Upper Silesia was divided into the Duchies of Cieszyn, and Opole-Racibórz. In 1340 the Duchy of Racibórz was united with Opava, a Bohemian fief.

Silesia 1248-1249.jpg

      Duchy of Opole-Racibórz

1173-1281
Duchy of Opole-Racibórz (Upper Silesia)

In 1281, the Duchy of Cieszyn is created.

      Duchy of Cieszyn

1281-1282
Duchy of Cieszyn (Upper Silesia) Duchy of Opole-Racibórz (Upper Silesia)

In 1282, the Duchies of Opole and Racibórz were created from the partition of the Duchy of Opole-Racibórz. With this partition, it was created also the Duchy of Bytom.

      Duchy of Opole       Duchy of Racibórz       Duchy of Bytom

1282-1315
Duchy of Cieszyn (Upper Silesia) Duchy of Opole (Upper Silesia) Duchy of Racibórz (Upper Silesia) Duchy of Bytom (Upper Silesia)

In 1315, the Duchy of Oświęcim emerged from the Duchy of Cieszyn.

      Duchy of Oświęcim

1315-1445
Duchy of Cieszyn (Upper Silesia) Duchy of Oświęcim (Upper Silesia) Duchy of Opole (Upper Silesia) Duchy of Racibórz (Upper Silesia) Duchy of Bytom (Upper Silesia)

In 1445, the Duchy of Zator emerged from the Duchy of Oświęcim.

      Duchy of Zator

1315-1445
Duchy of Cieszyn (Upper Silesia) Duchy of Oświęcim (Upper Silesia) Duchy of Zator (Upper Silesia) Duchy of Opole (Upper Silesia) Duchy of Racibórz (Upper Silesia) Duchy of Bytom (Upper Silesia)

Dukes of Upper Silesia[edit]

Piast Dynasty[edit]
Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling Part Notes
Mieszko I Tanglefoot Mieszko IV.JPG 1130 1163-1211 6 May 1211 Opole-Racibórz First Duke of Opole-Raciborz, emerged from Silesia with the Duchy of Lower Silesia.
Casimir I Kazimierz I opolski seal 1226.PNG 1179-1180 1211-1230 13 May 1230 Opole-Racibórz
Mieszko II the Fat Mieszko the Fat.jpg 1220 1230-1246 22 October 1246 Opole-Racibórz
Władysław I Rauden wladislaus.JPG 1225 1246-1282 27 August or 13 September 1282 Opole-Racibórz In 1282 Opole-Raciborz was divided in various duchies, to the four sons of Władysław.
Przemysław 12 June 1268 1282-1306 7 May 1306 Racibórz Son of Władysław of Opole-Racibórz. Ruled jointly with his brother Mieszko I.
Mieszko I Mieszko I Cieszyński.JPG 1252/6 1282-1290 27 June 1315 Racibórz Son of Władysław of Opole-Raciborz. Ruled jointly with his brother Przemysław.
Bolko I Boleslaus Bolko tomb.png before 21 October 1258 1282-1313 14 May 1313 Opole Ruled with his brother Casimir until 1284.
Casimir 1253/7 1282-1284 10 March 1312 Opole Ruled with his brother Bolko I.
Casimir 1253/7 1284-1312 10 March 1312 Bytom First duke of Bytom, which emerged from Opole-Racibórz.
Mieszko I Mieszko I Cieszyński.JPG 1252/6 1290-1315 27 June 1315 Cieszyn First duke of Cieszyn. Also duke of Racibórz.
Leszek 1292 1306-1336 1336 Racibórz Son of Przemysław I. After his death in 1336, Raciborz was annexed by the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Siemowit 1292 1312-1316 after 1 July 1342 Bytom Son of Casimir. Deposed in 1316.
Bolko II Boleslaus Bolko tomb.png before 1300 1313-1356 21 June 1356 Opole Ruled with his brothers Albert until 1323.
Albert after 1300 1313-1323 25 September 1373 Opole Ruled with his brother Bolko II.
Casimir I 1280/90 1315-1358 29 September 1358 Cieszyn
Władysław Władysław I Oświęcimski seal 1317.PNG 1275/80 1315-1324 15 May 1324 Oświęcim First Duke of Oświęcim, which emerged from Cieszyn.
Władysław 1277/83 1316-1352 8 September 1352 Bytom Brother of Siemowit. Ruled jointly with his brother George until 1327.
George 1300 1316-1327 1327 Bytom Ruled jointly with his brother Władysław.
John I the Scholastic 1308/10 1324-1372 29 September 1372 Oświęcim
Bolesław 1330 1352-1355 4 October 1355 Bytom Son of Władysław.
Margareta of Sternberg ? 1355-1357 after 5 June 1365 Bytom Widow of Bolesław. In 1357, the duchy was divided in two parts, being one annexed by the Duchy of Oleśnica, and the other annexed by the Duchy of Cieszyn.
Władysław II WladyslawOpolczyk.jpg 1332 1356-1396 18 May 1401 Opole Ruled with his brothers Henry and Bolko III.
Henry before 18 August 1338 1356-1365 before 23 October 1365 Opole Ruled with his brothers Władysław II and Bolko III
Bolko III Bolko III. von Oppeln.png 1337 1356-1370 21 October 1382 Opole Ruled with his brothers Władysław II and Henry.
Przemysław I Noszak Premyslaus I. of Teschen.jpg 1332/6 1358-1410 23 May 1410 Cieszyn Also Duke of Głogów.
John II 1344/51 1372-1376 19 February 1376 Oświęcim Son of John I.
John III 1366 1376-1405 19 August 1405 Oświęcim Son of John II.
Bolko IV 1363/7 1396-1437 6 May 1437 Opole Ruled with his brothers Jan Kropidło and Bernard.
Bishop Jan Kropidło Jan Kropidło.PNG 1360/4 1396-1421 3 March 1421 Opole Ruled with his brothers Nicholas I and Bolko IV.
Bernard 1374/8 1396-1400 2/4 April 1455 Opole Ruled with his brothers John I and Jan Kropidło
Przemysław I 1362 1405-1406 1 January 1406 Oświęcim Son of Przemysław Noszak of Cieszyn.
Casimir I 1396 1406-1434 7 April 1434 Oświęcim Son of Przemysław I.
Bolesław I 1363 1410-1431 6 May 1431 Cieszyn Also Duke of Głogów.
Wenceslaus I 1413/8 1431-1468 1474 Cieszyn Also Duke of Głogów. Ruled jointly with Władysław I, Przemysław II and Bolesław II.
Bolesław II 1425/8 1431-1442 4 October 1452 Cieszyn Also Duke of Głogów. Ruled jointly with Władysław I, Wenceslaus I and Przemysław II.
Władysław I 1420 1431-1442 14 February 1460 Cieszyn Also Duke of Głogów. Ruled jointly with Wenceslaus I, Przemysław II and Bolesław II.
Przemysław II 1422/5 1431-1442 18 March 1477 Cieszyn Also Duke of Głogów. Ruled jointly with Władysław I, Wenceslaus I and Bolesław II. 1st time.
Wenceslaus I Waclaw of Zator.jpg 1418 1434-1445 c.28 July 1368 Oświęcim Son of Casimir I. Ruled jointly with his brothers Przemysław II and John IV.
Przemysław II 1425 1434-1445 December 1484 Oświęcim Son of Casimir I. Ruled jointly with his brothers Wenceslaus I and John IV.
John IV 1426/30 1434-1457 c.21 February 1497 Oświęcim Son of Casimir I. Ruled jointly with his brothers Przemysław II and Wenceslaus I, until 1445. After his death in 1457, Oświęcim is annexed by the Kingdom of Poland.
John I 1410/3 1437-1439 5 September 1439 Opole Ruled with his brother Nicholas I.
Nicholas I 1424 1437-1476 3 July 1476 Opole Ruled with his brother John I until 1439.
Wenceslaus I Waclaw of Zator.jpg 1418 1445-1468 c.28 July 1368 Zator First duke of Zator, which emerged from Oświęcim.
Przemysław II 1422/5 1468-1477 18 March 1477 Cieszyn Ruled alone. 2nd time.
Casimir II 1450 1468-1490 8 January/7 July 1490 Zator and Zator (Half 1) Ruled jointly with his brothers Wenceslaus II, John V and Wladysław until 1474. Since 1474, ruled Half 1 of Zator, jointly with Wenceslaus II.
Wenceslaus II 1450/55 1468-1487 beforev5 October 1487 Zator and Zator (Half 1) Ruled jointly with his brothers Casimir II, John V and Wladysław until 1474. Since 1474, ruled Half 1 of Zator, jointly with Casimir II.
Wladysław 1455 1468-1482 28 May or 21 September 1494 Zator and Zator (Half 2) Ruled jointly with his brothers Casimir II, Wenceslaus II and John V until 1474. Since 1474, ruled Half 2 of Zator, jointly with John V.
John V before 1455 1468-1513 17 September 1513 Zator and Zator (Half 2) Ruled jointly with his brothers Casimir II, Wenceslaus II and Wladysław until 1474. Since 1474, ruled Half 2 of Zator, jointly with Wladysław. In 1490 he reunifies the duchy as its sole ruler. In 1513 the Duchy is annexed by the Kingdom of Poland.
John II the Good JantheGood.jpg 1460 1476-1521 27 March 1532 Opole Ruled jointly with his brother Nicholas until 1497.
Nicholas II 1462 1476-1497 27 June 1497 Opole Ruled jointly with his brother John.
Casimir II 1449 1477-1528 13 December 1528 Cieszyn Ruled with his son Wenceslaus II.
Wenceslaus II 1488/96 1518-1524 17 November 1524 Cieszyn Ruled with his father Casimir II.
John II the Good JantheGood.jpg 1460 1521 27 March 1532 Racibórz Purchased Raciborz from the Kingdom of Bohemia, to reunite it with Opole and recreate the Duchy of Opole-Raciborz.
John II the Good JantheGood.jpg 1460 1521-1532 27 March 1532 Opole-Racibórz Reunites Opole and Racibórz to recreate the Duchy of Opole-Racibórz, but dies without children; after his death in 1532, the Duchy is annexed by Brandenburg.
Wenceslaus III Adam Waclaw Adam face.jpg December 1524 1528-1579 4 November 1579 Cieszyn
Adam Wenceslaus Adam Waclaw face.JPG 12 December 1574 1579-1617 13 July 1617 Cieszyn
Frederick William Frederick Wilhelm of Cieszyn.jpg 9 November 1601 1617-1625 19 August 1625 Cieszyn
Elizabeth Lucretia Alzbeta Lucretia.jpg 1 June 1599 1625-1653 19 May 1653 Cieszyn After her death without any heirs, Cieszyn was annexed by the Holy Roman Empire.

Ecclesiastical Duchy of Nysa[edit]

Established in 1290 by High Duke Henry IV Probus, held by the Bishops of Wrocław

Major part annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia after the First Silesian War in 1742.

Prussian part secularised in 1810.

  • 1823–1832 Emanuel von Schimonsky
  • 1835–1840 Leopold von Sedlnitzky
  • 1843–1844 Joseph Knauer
  • 1845–1850 Melchior von Diepenbrock

Theocracy abolished in 1850.

See also[edit]

List of Polish rulers
Piast dynasty
Dukes of Masovia
Dukes of Greater Poland
Dukes of Little Poland
Dukes of Cuiavia
Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca

References[edit]

  • Neue deutsche Biographie, Berlin 2001, Bd.: 20, p. 403-407
  • Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, Leipzig 1905–1909, Bd.: 17, p. 845-847

Sites[edit]

http://www.tacitus.nu/historical-atlas/regents/poland/silesia.htm