Dulo clan

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The Dulo Clan or the House of Dulo was the ruling dynasty of the Huno-Bulgars (or Bulgars) [1] of states in various parts of eastern Europe, including the Hunnic Empire in Pannonia (from 450 AD), Old Great Bulgaria (632 AD), Volga Bulgaria (until the 13th century) and modern Bulgaria (since 681 AD). The clan was ruling dynasty of the eastern Bulgars, the Utigurs Huns.[2] The founding ancestor of the Dulo clan was a mighty "Maeotian" king from whom Attila the Hun probably descended.[3] The Nominalia of the Bulgarian Khans names this ancestor as Avitohol.[4]

Kubrat, a member of the dynasty, founded Old Great Bulgaria, on the territory of modern Ukraine.[5] During the second half of the 7th century his sons split up the Bulgar family and spread over Europe, from the Volga to the shadow of Vesuvius:[6] Batbayan (Ukraine), Kotrag (Volga Bulgaria), Kuber (Balkan Macedonia), Asparuh (Danube Bulgaria) and also Alcek (Italy). In the year 681 Asparuh of the house of Dulo founded modern Bulgaria, establishing the First Bulgarian Empire south of the Danube.

The last known ruler of Bulgaria from the house of Dulo was Sevar who reigned 738–754 AD and with him the House of Dulo (the House of Attila) died out.[7] The successor of the last Dulo was a bolyar named Kormisosh, of the House of Vokil (or Uokil).[8][9][10]

Origin[edit]

The origins of the Bulgars and Dulo clan are not known precisely, there are many theories about their origin.

Hunnic theory[edit]

Traditionally historians associate Bulgars and their ruling dynasty of Dulo with the Huns,[11] in fact most scholars equate the Bulgars with the Huns.[12] Most Roman, Greek and later Byzantium historians ( as Jordanes, Priscus and Procopius ) refer to Bulgars and Huns indiscriminately to describe the same people. The European Huns that entered Europe in the 4th century AD, were grouped into four major tribes: Utigurs, Kutrigurs, Akatziroi and Sabirs. On Attila’s death, his empire crumbled and his people, who had probably been only a conglomeration of kindred tribes that he had welded together, divided again into these tribes; and they retreated from Pannonia (modern day Hungary) westward into the territories of modern day Ukraine. One of these tribes, the Utigurs Huns, the tribe of Attila,[13] was soon to be known as the Bulgars. It was in 482, some thirty years after Attila’s death, that the Bulgars first appear by name.[14]

Although this theory shed some light on the origin of Dolo clan and Bulgars, it posits that their origin is intimately related to the origin of the Huns, a problem that still remains to be solved.

Indo-European theories[edit]

The ruling dynasty Vokil (or Uokil) of Bulgaria can be traced directly back to China[15][16] and the Yuezhi people.[17] The Yuezhi are usually identified with the Tókharoi, and Chinese transcription of Tokhara is Tuhuoluo or Duhuoluo (吐火羅) which could be an early form of the name Dulo. The Yuezhi were an Europoid people, dominated by haplogroup R1a1a (Y-DNA), and probably spoke Tocharian language, an extinct Indo-European language to which many Bulgarian words could be traced.[18] They lived in eastern Tarim Basin and in Gansu province in China. There were five aristocratic tribes ( yabghu, a term later used by the Turks) of the Yuezhi, known in Chinese history as Xiūmì (Ch: 休密), Guishuang (Ch: 貴霜), Shuangmi (Ch: 雙靡), Xidun (Ch: 肸頓), and Dūmì (Ch: 都密). The Yuezhi used artificial skull deformation, similar to the artificial cranial deformation practiced by the Bulgars and their burials were of podboy type similar to the burials found in necropolises in northern Bulgaria. During the 2nd century BC the Yuezhi lost several wars with neighbouring Xiongnu, the clash from 162 BC was so severe that the king of the Yuezhi was killed and, in accordance with nomadic traditions, a drinking cup was made from his skull, a habit well known in the history of Danube Bulgaria. The majority of the Yuezhi (this part of the Yuezhi people was then called "Greater Yuezhi" or Da Yuezhi (大月氏)) migrated west,[19][20] storming into the territories of ancient Bactria, Hindo Kush and modern day Kazakhstan. A small part of Yuezhi that remained in Gansu was called the "Lesser Yuezhi" (Xiao Yuezhi 小月氏) and they appear to be the Buluoji/Bulgars of China.[21] Initially the Gteater Yuezhi settled in the Ili valley, immediately north of the Tian Shan mountains, but in the year 132 BCE, the Wusun, in alliance with the Xiongnu and out of revenge from an earlier conflict, managed to dislodge the Yuezhi, forcing them to move south. The Yuezhi crossed the neighbouring urban civilization of the Dayuan in Ferghana and settled on the northern bank of the Oxus, in the region of Transoxiana. From there, during the 1st century AD, one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi, namely the Guishuang (Ch: 貴霜) founded the Kushan Empire[22] extending their control over the northwestern area of the Indian subcontinent and ruled the region for several centuries. The other four tribes gradually moved further west, during the 4th century AD they entered Europe and became known as Huns (or European Huns, to distinguish them from Xiongnu) with the aforementioned four tribes of Utigurs, Kutrigurs, Akatziroi and Sabirs.

There are many necropolis in northern Bactria strikingly similar to these in northern Bulgaria and probably they could be linked with the Yuezhi. Very important are the archaeological excavations of several necropolises in the Bishkek valley in Southern Tajikistan, in the basin of the river Kafir-nigan, a right tributary of Amu-Darya (Oxus). Another important site is the Babashov necropolis, located on the right bank of Amu Darya (Oxus), not far from the Bishkek valley. About 50% of the skulls are artificially deformed. The buried are mesobrachiocranic Europoids with slight Mongoloid features,[23] similar to anthropological data collected from medieval Bulgar necropolises.[24] The necropolises in Northern Bactria are well dated. Those in the Bishkek valley had existed from the end of II c. BC till the beginning of I c. AD, the Babashnov necropolis - from I c. BC till III c. AD.[25] They are attributed to unidentified nomads who at the end of the II c. BC attacked the Greko-Bactrian kingdom and put an end to its existence. These necropolises ceased to function during the II-III c. AD.

Turkic theory[edit]

Many researchers agree that the origin of the clan probably was Turkic.[26][27][28][29] However modern genetic research denies such a connection.[30][31][32]

Iranian theory[edit]

Many modern Bulgarian scholars support this theory.[33][34] The most prominent of them, namely Peter Dobrev, argues the Turkic names of the animals in the Bulgar calendar show that the Turkic peoples had borrowed these words from the Iranian Bulgars.[35]

Finno-Ugrian theory[edit]

It was supported by Marin Drinov and some other scientists.[36]

Slavic theory[edit]

This theory considers Bulgarians to be of Slavic origin.[37]

By the 6th century the Bulgarian martenitsa was identical to the Chinese one and consisted only of the red part. In the late 6th and early 7th century, during the wars with the Khazars, two children (a boy Boyan and a girl Huba) from Dulo dynasty were given to the Khazars as hostages, according to an old steppe tradition. Subsequently they were lost, and the rulers of the Dulo dynasty divided martenitsa into two parts, white and red, to remember their loss.

Dulo Hill on Livingston Island, near Antarctica, is named after the Bulgarian ruling dynasty Dulo.[38]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://promacedonia.org/vz1a/vz1a_a_1.html
  2. ^ Byzantium and Bulgaria, 775-831, Panos Sophoulis, BRILL, 2011, ISBN 9004206957, p. 71.
  3. ^ http://www.promacedonia.org/en/sr/sr_1_1.htm p.11-12
  4. ^ The Huns, Rome and the Birth of Europe, Hyun Jin Kim, Cambridge University Press, 2013, ISBN 1107009065, p. 59.
  5. ^ The” Other Europe in the Middle Ages: Avars, Bulgars, Khazars and Cumans, Florin Curta, Roman Kovalev, BRILL, 2008, ISBN 9004163891, p. 284.
  6. ^ http://www.promacedonia.org/en/sr/
  7. ^ http://www.promacedonia.org/en/sr/sr_1_2.htm, p. 35
  8. ^ http://www.helsinki.fi/slavicahelsingiensia/preview/sh35/pdf/4.pdf
  9. ^ http://everything2.com/title/The+Name+List+of+Bulgarian+Khans
  10. ^ http://en.calameo.com/read/0004463716bda1a7fe8ab
  11. ^ Multicultural China in the Early Middle Ages, Sanping Chen, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012, ISBN 0812206282, p. 96
  12. ^ Maenchen-Helfen, The world of the Huns, pp. 164, 199, 381, 432 and Steven Runciman, A History of the First Bulgarian Empire, London, 1930, pp. 279—81 43 1—32
  13. ^ http://www.davidkfaux.org/CentralAsiaRootsofScandinavia-Y-DNAEvidence.pdf, p. 17
  14. ^ Steven Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, Book I THE CHILDREN OF THE HUNS
  15. ^ http://bghistorypodcast.com/podcast/006-the-fall-of-the-house-of-dulo/
  16. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uokil
  17. ^ http://s155239215.onlinehome.us/turkic/29Huns/Zuev/ZuevEarly1En.htm,p.42-p.46
  18. ^ https://www.academia.edu/4965415/%D0%A2%D0%9E%D0%A5%D0%90%D0%A0%D0%9E-%D0%91%D0%AA%D0%9B%D0%93%D0%90%D0%A0%D0%A1%D0%9A%D0%98_%D0%95%D0%97%D0%98%D0%9A%D0%9E%D0%92%D0%98_%D0%9F%D0%90%D0%A0%D0%90%D0%9B%D0%95%D0%9B%D0%98
  19. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuezhi
  20. ^ http://www.transoxiana.org/Eran/Articles/benjamin.html
  21. ^ http://www.bulgari-istoria-2010.com/booksBG/Sanping_Chen_SOME_REMARKS_ON_THE_CHINESE_BULGARIAN.pdf
  22. ^ Runion, Meredith L. (2007). The history of Afghanistan. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-313-33798-7. The Yuezhi people conquered Bactria in the second century B.C.E. and divided the country into five chiefdoms, one of which would become the Kushan Empire.
  23. ^ T.P. Kijatkina, Kraniologicheskie materialy iz kurgannyh mogil’nikov Severnoj Baktrii. - Trudy Tadzh. arheol. eksp., VII, s.211.
  24. ^ http://www.iriston.com/nogbon/news.php?newsid=367
  25. ^ A.M. Mandel’shtam, Pamjatniki kushanskogo vremeni v Severnoj Baktrii, s.130.
  26. ^ The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Denis Sinor, Cambridge University Press, 1990, ISBN 0521243041, p. 261.
  27. ^ Byzantium and Bulgaria, 775-831, Panos Sophoulis, BRILL, 2011, ISBN 9004206965, p. 71.
  28. ^ The Huns, Rome and the Birth of Europe, Hyun Jin Kim, Cambridge University Press, 2013, ISBN 1107067227, 9781107067226, p. 59.
  29. ^ Multicultural China in the Early Middle Ages, Sanping Chen, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012, ISBN 0812206282, p. 97
  30. ^ http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/03/y-chromosomes-of-bulgarians-karachanak.html
  31. ^ When analyzed in a broader context, the Bulgarian haplogroup profile is located among European populations and apart from Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0056779
  32. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/84067/Bulgar
  33. ^ http://books.google.bg/books?id=TRttHdXjP14C&pg=PA29&dq=bulgar+language+iranian&hl=bg&ei=w5HOTqKgLYOxhAea4PWyDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=bulgar%20language%20iranian&f=false
  34. ^ "The Huns, Rome and the Birth of Europe", Hyun Jin Kim, Cambridge University Press, 2013, ISBN 1107009065, p. 68
  35. ^ http://www.kroraina.com/pb_lang/index.html
  36. ^ http://ia700400.us.archive.org/27/items/pogledvrukhproi00dringoog/pogledvrukhproi00dringoog.pdf
  37. ^ В.М.Флоринский, ХТ-Б-ИБ,стр.45,75
  38. ^ Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica: Dulo Hill.