Blonde stereotype

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The stereotypes of blond people, especially blond women, are exemplified by the public image of Paris Hilton.[1][2][3]

Blonde stereotypes are stereotype of blond haired people, especially women, and its sub-types of blonde bombshell and dumb blonde. Blondes are differently stereotyped from brunettes as more desirable and less intelligent. There are many blonde jokes made on those premises.

Background[edit]

There are several aspects to the stereotypical perception of blond-haired women.[4] On one hand, over history, blond hair in women has been considered attractive and desirable.[5] Blond hair has been considered attractive for long periods of time in various European cultures, particularly when coupled with blue eyes. This perception is exploited in culture and advertising.[6]

In contemporary popular culture, it is often stereotyped that men find blond women more attractive than women with other hair colors.[7] For example, Anita Loos popularized this idea in her 1925 novel Gentlemen Prefer Blondes.[7] Blondes are often assumed to have more fun; for example, in a Clairol commercial for hair colorant, they use the phrase "Is it true blondes have more fun?"[7] Some women have reported they feel other people expect them to be more fun-loving after having lightened their hair.[7] In North America, the blonde stereotype is also associated with being less serious or less intelligent.[7]

On the other hand, a blonde woman is often perceived as making little use of intelligence and as a "woman who relies on her looks rather than on intelligence."[5] At the same time, people tend to presume that blondes are less serious-minded and less intelligent than brunettes, as reflected in "blonde jokes".[6] The roots of this notion may be traced to Europe, with the "dumb blonde" in question being a French courtesan named Rosalie Duthe, satirised in a 1775 play Les curiosites de la Foire for her habit of pausing a long time before speaking, appearing not only stupid but literally dumb (in the sense of mute).[6] The latter stereotype of "dumb blonde"[8] is exploited in blonde jokes.

Alfred Hitchcock preferred to cast blonde women for major roles in his films as he believed that the audience would suspect them the least, comparing them to "virgin snow that shows up the bloody footprints", hence the term "Hitchcock blonde".[9] This stereotype has become so ingrained it has spawned counter-narratives, such as in the 2001 film Legally Blonde in which Reese Witherspoon succeeds at Harvard despite biases against her beauty and blonde hair,[7] and terms developed such as cookie cutter blond (CCB), implying standardized blond looks and standard perceived social and intelligence characteristics of a blond. Many actors and actresses in Latin America and Hispanic United States have blond hair, blue eyes, and pale skin.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]

Typology[edit]

Grace Kelly, an ice-cold blonde, in To Catch a Thief

Annette Kuhn divides blonde stereotypes in cinema into three categories in The Women's Companion to International Film:[19]

In cognitive linguistics, the stereotype uses expressivity of words to affect an emotional response which determines a gender role of a certain kind.[20][21] In feminist critique, stereotypes like the blonde bombshell or the "dumb blonde" are seen as negative images that undermine the power of women.[22]

Blonde bombshell[edit]

Jean Harlow, the original blonde bombshell, in Riffraff

A blonde bombshell is a gender stereotype that connotes a very attractive woman with blonde hair.[23][24] The blonde bombshell is one of the most notable and consistently popular female character types in cinema.[25] Many showbiz stars have used it to their advantage, including Jean Harlow, Marlene Dietrich, Clara Bow, Marilyn Monroe, Jayne Mansfield, and Mamie Van Doren.[26] A review of English language tabloids from the United Kingdom has shown it to be recurring blond stereotype, along with "busty blonde" and "blonde babe".[27]

Jean Harlow started the stereotype with her film Bombshell.[28][29] Following her, Monroe, Mansfield and Van Doren helped establish the stereotype typified by a combination of curvaceous physique, very light-colored hair and a perceived lack of intelligence.[30] During the 1950s, the blonde bombshell started to replace the Femme fatale as the mainstream media stereotype.[31] Marjorie Rosen, the historian of women in films, says of the two top blonde bombshells of the time that "Mae West, firing off vocal salvos with imperious self-assurance, and Jean Harlow, merchandising her physical allure for the masses, transformed the idea of passive female sexuality into an aggressive statement of fact".[32] In 1993, Sharon Stone hosted a documentary about Jean Harlow, Harlow: The Blonde Bombshell.[33]

See also: Pin-up girl

Dumb blonde[edit]

See also: Bimbo
Goldie Hawn was the last Hollywood actress to successfully exploit the "dumb blonde" stereotype.[4]

The notion of "dumb blonde" has been a topic of academic research reported in scholarly articles and university symposia, which tend to confirm that many people hold to the perception that light-haired women are less intelligent than women with dark hair.[6] There is no evidence to support this perception, which raises the question of its origin.[34] It is believed the originator of the "dumb blonde" was an 18th-century blonde French prostitute named Rosalie Duthé whose reputation of being beautiful but dumb inspired a play about her called Les Curiosites de la Foire (Paris 1775).[7]

A possible explanation is that attractive women have less pressing incentives to cultivate and demonstrate their intellect in order to ensure their future, since attractiveness is an asset as well. The validity of this explanation is corroborated by its applicability to a similar pervasiveness of the "dumb athlete" stereotype.[34] The dumb blonde stereotype (and the associated cognitive bias) may have some negative consequences and it can also damage a blond person's career prospects.[35]

Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (a comic novel, a Broadway musical, and two films) explores the appeal of blond women. The Encyclopedia of Hair describes Marilyn Monroe's blonde role as that of "a fragile woman who relied on her looks rather than on intelligence—what some people refer to as 'dumb blond'."[5] At the same time, in the film she demonstrates a certain amount of wit regarding her life position expressed in her hit[36] "Diamonds are a girl's best friend". Madonna emulated that screen-persona of Monroe in her music video Material Girl.[37]

Many blond actresses have played stereotypical "dumb blondes", including Monore (dyed blonde[38]), Judy Holliday,[6] Jayne Mansfield (dyed blonde[39]),[6] Carol Wayne and Goldie Hawn, best known as the giggling "dumb blonde", stumbling over her lines, especially when she introduced Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In "News of the Future".[6][7] In the American sitcom Three's Company the blond girl (originally Chrissy played by Suzanne Somers, and later Cindy and Terri) is sweet and naïve, while the brunette (Janet played by Joyce DeWitt) is smart.[6]

Further information: Valley girl and Essex girl

Blonde jokes[edit]

Main article: Blonde joke

There is a category of jokes called "blonde jokes" that employs the dumb blonde stereotype.[40] It overlaps at times with other jokes that portray the subject of the joke as promiscuous and/or stupid.[41][42] Some blonde jokes rely on sexual humour to portray or stereotype their subjects as promiscuous.[43] Many of these are rephrased sorority girl or Essex girl jokes,[44] much as other jokes about dumb blondes are based on long-running ethnic jokes. Many of these jokes are mere variants on traditional ethnic jokes or jests about other identifiable groups (such as Italian jokes involving Carabinieri, Sardarji jokes or Pathan jokes). Similar jokes about stereotyped minorities have circulated since the seventeenth century with only the wording and targeted groups changed.[44]

Blonde jokes have been criticized as sexist by several authors, as most blondes in these jokes are female, although male variations also exist.[45] In fact, dumb blonde jokes are overwhelmingly female-specific: according to an extensive search in various publications and on the Internet, about 63% of dumb blonde jokes are directed exclusively at females (compared to less than 5% that directly referenced dumb blond men).[46] Research indicates that because of this, men report being amused by blonde jokes significantly more than women do.[41] The fact that in most of these jokes the target is invariably dim-witted, female and sexually promiscuous makes them even more sexist.[43] In 20th century, a class of meta-jokes about blondes (i.e. jokes about blonde jokes) has emerged. In a typical plot of this type a blonde complains about the unfairness of the stereotype propagated by blonde jokes, with a punch line actually reinforcing the stereotype. [47]

Blondes versus brunettes[edit]

Gentlemen Prefer Blondes starred Marilyn Monroe (left) as the blonde and Jane Russell (right) as her wise brunette friend.[6]

In a November 16, 2011 article titled "Blondes vs. Brunettes: TV Shows with Betty and Veronica-Style Love Triangles", media critic Tucker Cummings cited several TV shows that featured a "classic war between blonde and brunette love interests",[48] including The Office (where lighter haired Pam Beesly competes with brunette Karen Filipelli for the attention of Jim Halpert), Suits (where blonde Jenny Griffith competes with brunette Rachel Zane for the attention of Mike Ross), and Dexter (where blonde Rita Bennent and brunette Lila West compete for the affections of Dexter Morgan, the main character).[48] Typically, she wrote, "... the blonde (is) stable, and typifies the 'girl next door,' while (the) ... brunette, is haughty, and a bit more exotic."[48] In Archie comics, Betty Cooper and Veronica Lodge have been engaged in a mostly friendly competition for over 70 years.[49]

A number of studies have been conducted over the years to measure society’s attitude toward blondes and brunettes. Many of the studies have shown that men, especially those of European descent, find blonde women more attractive than brunettes, redheads, or women of other races who had darker hair, eyes, or complexion.[50][51] A Cornell University study showed that blonde waitresses receive larger tips than brunettes, even when controlling for other variables such as age, breast size, height and weight.[52]

Team Blonde at the 2011 Blondes vs. Brunettes Powder Puff Football Game in Washington D.C.

In a 2012 interview with NBC News, Dr. Lisa Walker, Sociology Department Chair at the University of North Carolina said that hair color "absolutely" plays a role in the way people are treated and claimed that numerous studies had shown that blonde women were paid higher salaries than other women.[53] In a study by Diana J. Kyle and Heike I. M. Mahler (1996), the researchers asked subjects to evaluate photographs of the same woman with “natural” (not dyed) looking brown, red, and blond hair in the context of a job application for an accounting position.[54] The researchers found that the blond-haired applicant was rated as significantly less capable than her brunette counterpart. In addition, participants designated the female applicant’s starting salary as significantly lower when she was depicted as a blonde than when she was shown with brown hair.[54]

A study that looked at the CEOs of the London Financial Times Stock Exchange’s (FTSE) top 500 companies investigated how hair color could be a potential barrier to professional success.[46] In another study by Brian Bates, two sets MBA graduates were given the same Curriculum vitae of the same women split between two sets of attached photos - blonde and brunette. The brunette was considered more for an managerial position and for a higher salary.[55] A 2011 University of Westminster study evaluated how men perceived women who entered a London nightclub as a blonde or a brunette. The study, published in the Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, used the same woman and had her dye her hair a different color for each visit.[56] The results showed that, as a blonde, she was more likely to be approached for conversation than as a brunette. However, when the researchers interviewed the men who spoke to her, the men rated her more intelligent and attractive as a brunette than as a blonde.[57][58]

French magazine Le Monde believes that the rivalry is more prevalent in the United States. In a 2012 article, Le Monde argued that American TV has almost, without exception, characterized blonde women as having the positive values of purity, goodness, and sincerity, frequently at the expense of their brunette counterparts.[59] The article provided several examples including Bewitched (where Samantha, the blonde witch, compete against her her dark haired cousin Serena),[59] Dynasty (where blonde Krystal pitted against brunette Alexis),[59] and V (in both the original series in 1984 and the remake in 2009 shows an intelligent, humanistic blonde battling a brunette leader of the alien cannibals).[59]

In Russia, according to a 2011 survey by the Southern Federal University, brunettes are considered more attractive than blondes.[60] One theory forwards, as an explanation, the concept the feminization of blond hair, which can be seen by the overwhelming association of the dumb blond persona with females. This idea draws on the stereotype that females have a lower psychometric intelligence than males.[61]

Counter representation[edit]

At the same time, there are many examples where the stereotype is exploited only to combat it.[6] The film Legally Blonde starring Reese Witherspoon featured the stereotype as a centerpiece of its plot. However the protagonist turns out to be very intelligent and is shown to have been underachieving due to society's low expectations of her. Country music entertainer Dolly Parton, aware of this occasional characterization of her, addressed it in her 1967 hit "Dumb Blonde". Parton's lyrics challenged the stereotype, stating "just because I'm blond, don't think I'm dumb 'cause this dumb blonde ain't nobody's fool". Parton has said she was not offended by "all the dumb-blonde jokes because I know I'm not dumb. I'm also not blonde."[62]

The author of the comic strip Blondie, Chic Young, starting with "Dumb Dora", gradually transformed his subsequent Blondie into a smart, hard-working, family-oriented woman.[63][64] In the Simpsons' season 21, episode 20 To Surveil With Love, Lisa faced prejudice from her brunette peers because of her blond hair at a debate meeting. Refusing to give up and wanting to prove the stereotype wrong, she intentionally dyed her hair dark brown. In the 1970s and 1980s, actress Loni Anderson portrayed curvy blond character Jennifer Marlowe as an intelligent, eloquent, and sophisticated anti-stereotype on the American sitcom WKRP in Cincinnati.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Paris Hilton: Being a dumb blonde was only an act", Metro
  2. ^ "Paris Hilton Says She Plays a Dumb Blonde on TV 'Because It's Funny", Newsweek
  3. ^ Howard Breuer, "Paris Hilton Insists She's Not Stupid", People
  4. ^ a b Hornaday, Ann (May 4, 2014) "In Praise of the Dumb Blonde" The Washington Post, page E14. Retrieved May 4, 2014[1]
  5. ^ a b c Encyclopedia of Hair, p. 255
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Encyclopedia of Hair',' pp. 149-151
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Victoria Sherrow. Encyclopedia of hair: a cultural history. Page 149
  8. ^ Regenberg, Nina (2007), "Are Blonds Really Dumb?", in mind (magazine) (3) 
  9. ^ Allen, Richard (2007). Hitchcock's Romantic Irony. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-13574-0. 
  10. ^ Quinonez, Ernesto (2003-06-19). "Y Tu Black Mama Tambien". Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  11. ^ The Blond, Blue-Eyed Face of Spanish TV
  12. ^ Blonde, Blue-Eyed Euro-Cute Latinos on Spanish TV
  13. ^ Latinos Not Reflected on Spanish TV
  14. ^ What are Telenovelas? – Hispanic Culture
  15. ^ Racial Bias Charged On Spanish-Language TV
  16. ^ Black Electorate
  17. ^ Jones, Vanessa E. (2004-08-19). "Pride or Prejudice?". Boston.com. Retrieved 09-08-2010.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  18. ^ POV - Corpus Film Description
  19. ^ Annette Kuhn, The Women's Companion to International Film, page 47, University of California Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-520-08879-5
  20. ^ Vyvyan Evans and Melanie Green, Cognitive Linguistics: An Introduction, page 11, Routledge, 2006, ISBN 9780805860146
  21. ^ Suzanna Danuta Walters, Material Girls, page 44, University of California Press, 1995, ISBN 9780520089785
  22. ^ Gladys L. Knight, Female Action Heroes, page 17, ABC-CLIO, 2010, ISBN 9780313376122
  23. ^ Myra Marx Ferree, Judith Lorber and Beth B. Hess, Revisioning Gender, page 226, Rowman Altamira, 1999, ISBN 9780761906179
  24. ^ bomshell, Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners
    bombshell, Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary
  25. ^ Ed Sikov, Film Studies: An Introduction, page 134, Columbia University Press, 2009, ISBN 9780231142939
  26. ^ Stephanie Ann Smith, Household Words, page 76, University of Minnesota Press, 2006, ISBN 9780816645534
  27. ^ Martin Conboy, Tabloid Britain: Constructing a Community Through Language, page 127, Routledge, 2006, ISBN 9780415355537
  28. ^ Sherrow, Victoria (2006). Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-313-33145-9. 
  29. ^ Jordan, Jessica Hope (2009). The Sex Goddess In American Film 1930–1965: Jean Harlow, Mae West, Lana Turner and Jayne Mansfield. Cambria Press. p. 213. ISBN 978-1-60497-663-2. 
  30. ^ Sikov, Ed (2009). Film Studies: An Introduction. Columbia University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-231-14293-9. 
  31. ^ Harry M. Benshoff and Sean Griffin, America on Film: Representing Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality at the Movies, page 214, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, ISBN 9781444357592
  32. ^ Deirdre Beddoe, Discovering women's history: a practical guide to researching the lives of women since 1800, page 38, Longman, 1998, ISBN 9780582311480
  33. ^ Harlow: The Blonde Bombshell at the Internet Movie Database
  34. ^ a b "Despite the Dumb Jokes, Stereotypes May Reflect Some Smart Choices"
  35. ^ The Observer (29 July 2001), "The new blonde bombshell", The Guardian (London) 
  36. ^ "Decade by Decade 1940s: Ten Years of Popular Hits", ISBN 0-7390-5176-8, p. 32
  37. ^ Suzanna Danuta Walters, Material Girls: Making Sense of Feminist Cultural Theory, page 44, University of California Press, 1995, ISBN 9780520915688
  38. ^ Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, p. 130, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  39. ^ Mann, May (1974). Jayne Mansfield: A Biography. Abelard-Schuman. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-200-72138-7. 
  40. ^ Thomas, Jeannie B. (1997). "Dumb Blondes, Dan Quayle, and Hillary Clinton: Gender, Sexuality, and Stupidity in Jokes". The Journal of American Folklore 110 (437): 277–313. doi:10.2307/541162. 
  41. ^ a b Greenwood, D; LM Isbell (2002). "Ambivalent Sexism and the Dumb Blonde: Men's and Women's Reactions to Sexist Jokes". Psychology of Women Quarterly (Blackwell Publishers) 26 (4): 341–350. doi:10.1111/1471-6402.t01-2-00073. 
  42. ^ Thomas, Jeannie B. (1997). "Dumb Blondes, Dan Quayle, and Hillary Clinton: Gender, Sexuality, and Stupidity in Jokes". The Journal of American Folklore 110 (437): 277–313. doi:10.2307/541162. 
  43. ^ a b Karen Ross, The Handbook of Gender, Sex and Media, chapter 6, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, ISBN 9781118114223
  44. ^ a b Giselinde Kuipers, Good Humor, Bad Taste: A Sociology of the Joke, page 24, Walter de Gruyter, 2006, ISBN 9783110186154
  45. ^ Blundy, Anna (2007-08-25). "'Blonde' jokes aren't funny - No other minority would stand for this cruel stereotyping". Spectator, the (Romford): 18–19. ISSN 0038-6952. 
  46. ^ a b Takeda, M.B.; Helms, M.M., Romanova, N. (2006), "Hair colour stereotyping and CEO selection in the United Kingdom", Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 13 (3): 85–99, doi:10.1300/j137v13n03_06 
  47. ^ Limor Shifman, Dafna Lemish, "Virtually Blonde: Blonde Jokes in the Global Age and Postfeminist Discourse", in: The Handbook of Gender, Sex and Media
  48. ^ a b c Cummings, Tucker (November 16, 2011) "Blondes vs. Brunettes: TV Shows with Betty and Veronica-Style Love Triangles." Yahoo.com Retrieved May 6, 2012. [2]
  49. ^ Goulart, Ronald (1986) Ron Goulart’s Great History of Comic Books: The Definitive Illustrated History from the 1890s to the 1980s. Chicago: Contemporary Books. Pages 248-249
  50. ^ Simpson, Jeffry A. and Douglas T. Kenrick (1997) Evolutionary Social Psychology. Oxford, U.K.: Taylor and Francis, pages 109-140
  51. ^ Feinman, S., & Gill, G. W. (1978). “Sex differences in physical attractiveness preferences". Journal of Social Psychology, 105, 43-52.
  52. ^ Lynn, Michael, Ph.D., (2009) "Determinants and Consequences of Female Attractiveness and Sexiness: Realistic Tests with Restaurant Waitresses". Ithaca, New York: Cornell University, School of Hotel Administration.
  53. ^ Gallagher, Dianne (October 30, 2012). “Blonde vs. Brunette: Does it Determine How You Get Treated?” WCNC, NBC Charlotte, retrieved November 17, 2012 [3]
  54. ^ a b Kyle, D.J.; Mahler, H.I. (1996), "The effects of hair color and cosmetic use on perceptions of a female's ability", Psychology of Women Quarterly 20 (3): 447–455, doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.1996.tb00311.x 
  55. ^ Brian Bates, "The new blonde bombshell", The Guardian, 29 July 2001
  56. ^ Swami, Verin and Seishin Barrett (August 28, 2011) “British men’s hair color preferences: An assessment of courtship solicitation and stimulus ratings” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Volume 52, Issue 6, pages 595-600 [4]
  57. ^ Saad, Gad, Ph.D., (February 28, 2012) “Do Gentlemen Prefer Blondes? Blonde women: Approached more frequently but judged more harshly.” Psychology Today [5]
  58. ^ Macrae, Fiona (January 2, 2012) “Men find brunettes more attractive and intelligent than blondes” Daily Mail On-Line [6]
  59. ^ a b c d Leblin, Arnaud (December 20, 2012) "Semaine des lecteurs – Blondes vs. Brunes" Le Monde. Retrieved April 27, 2013 [7]
  60. ^ Исследование. Убойная Сила XXI века.” rg.ru
  61. ^ Petrides, K.V.; Furnham, A., Martin, G.N. (2004), "Estimates of emotional and psychometric intelligence: Evidence for gender-based stereotypes", The Journal of Social Psychology 144 (2): 149–162, doi:10.3200/socp.144.2.149-162 
  62. ^ Karen Thomas. She's having a blonde moment. October 27, 2003. USA Today.
  63. ^ "The Comics", by Coulton Waugh, M. Thomas Inge, 1991, ISBN 0-87805-499-5
  64. ^ Blondie: the Bumstead Family History, by Dean Young and Melena Ryzik (2007) ISBN 1-4016-0322-X

References[edit]