Dunedin North (New Zealand electorate)

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Dunedin north electorate 2008.png

Dunedin North (known as North Dunedin between 1946 and 1963) is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament (MP) to the New Zealand House of Representatives. It was established for the 1905 election and has existed since.

It is currently held by David Clark of the New Zealand Labour Party, who replaced the long-standing representative Pete Hodgson.[1] It is considered a safe Labour seat, with Labour holding the seat for all but one term (1975–1978) since 1928.

Population centres[edit]

Through the City Single Electorates Act, 1903, the three-member electorates of the four main centres were split again, and this became effective at the end of the 15th Parliament and was thus used for the 1905 election. The City of Dunedin electorate was split into the Dunedin Central, Dunedin North, and Dunedin South electorates.[2]

As the name suggests, the Dunedin North electorate covers the northern half of the city of Dunedin. It is bordered by Waitaki in the north, Dunedin South in west, south, and south-east, and the Pacific Ocean in the north-east.

The electorate covers what is the equivalent of the Waikouaiti Coast-Chalmers ward of the Dunedin City Council outside the actual urban area of Dunedin. This includes the population centre of Waikouaiti, Karitane, Waitati, Seacliff, Warrington, Port Chalmers, Sawyers Bay, Roseneath, and Aramoana. The 2013 redistribution sees the electorate expand to include Palmerston, Macraes Flat, Moeraki, Hampden and Herbert-Waianakarua.[3]

In urban Dunedin it covers most of northern, central and western Dunedin. This includes the city centre and the suburbs of City Rise, Pine Hill, Dunedin North, North East Valley, Opoho, Ravensbourne, Mornington, Roslyn, Maori Hill, Leith Valley, Kaikorai Valley, Brockville, Halfway Bush, and Wakari.

Socio-economic make-up[edit]

A notable influence on voting patterns in the electorate is the location of the University of Otago and Otago Polytechnic in Dunedin North. The electorate has the highest proportion of persons aged 15 to 19 in the country, with 14.1%. It also has the highest proportion of people on a student allowance (8.8%), employed in the education and training industry (11.7%), and employed in the health care and social assistance industry (12.3%).[4]

Dunedin North has a low rate of enrolment compared to New Zealand as a whole. As of 31 May 2012, 78.4% of the estimate eligible population is enrolled to vote, compared to 92.8% nationally. The figure is brought down by the low number of people aged 18 to 24 enrolled — less than half (47.5%) of the estimated eligible population is enrolled, compared to 75.2% nationally. Enrolments of those aged 25 and over are comparable to the national averages.[5]

History[edit]

The electorate was created in 1905, when the City of Dunedin electorate with three members of parliament (and other main centre multi-member electorates) were broken up. From 1946 to 1963 it was called North Dunedin.[6]

The first representative was Alfred Richard Barclay, who had previously represented the City of Dunedin electorate.[7] In the 1908 election, he was defeated by George M. Thomson, who served for two parliamentary terms before being defeated.[8]

Barclay was succeeded by Andrew Walker representing the United Labour Party in the 1914 election. The remnants of United Labour formed the New Zealand Labour Party in 1916 and Walker became the new party's first President. He served for one parliamentary term until the 1919 election, when he was defeated by the Independent Edward Kellett. Kellett died during the parliamentary term on 15 May 1922,[9] and this caused the 1922 by-election, which was won by James Wright Munro.[10]

Munro was confirmed at the 1922 general election,[10] but was defeated by Harold Livingstone Tapley in the 1925 election.[11] Munro in turn defeated Tapley at the 1928 election and then served the electorate until his death on 27 May 1945.[10]

Munro's death caused the 1945 by-election, which was won by Robert Walls.[10] Walls served the electorate until his death on 6 November 1953. This caused the 1953 by-election, which was won by Ethel McMillan, who served the electorate until her retirement in 1975.

McMillan was succeeded by Richard Walls of the National Party in the 1975 election, who held the electorate for one parliamentary term before being defeated by Labour's Stan Rodger in the 1978 election. Rodger retired in 1990 and was succeeded by Pete Hodgson. Hodgson served the electorate until his retirement in 2011.

Members of Parliament[edit]

Key

 Liberal    Independent    Reform    United Labour    Labour    National    Green    ACT  

Election Winner
1905 election Alfred Richard Barclay
1908 election George M. Thomson
1911 election
1914 election Andrew Walker
1919 election Edward Kellett
1922 by-election James W. Munro
1922 election
1925 election Harold Livingstone Tapley
1928 election James W. Munro
1931 election
1935 election
1938 election
1943 election
1945 by-election Robert Walls
1946 election
1949 election
1951 election
1953 by-election Ethel McMillan
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election
1963 election
1966 election
1969 election
1972 election
1975 election Richard Walls
1978 election Stan Rodger
1981 election
1984 election
1987 election
1990 election Pete Hodgson
1993 election
1996 election
1999 election
2002 election
2005 election
2008 election
2011 election David Clark

List MPs[edit]

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Dunedin North electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

Election Winner
1999 election Katherine Rich
2002 election
2005 election
2008 election Metiria Turei
Michael Woodhouse
2010 Hilary Calvert1
2011 election Metiria Turei
Michael Woodhouse

1 Hilary Calvert entered parliament as a list MP on 24 September 2010 after David Garrett resigned.

Election results[edit]

2011 election[edit]

General election 2011: Dunedin North[12]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour David Clark 12,976 44.25 −8.37 10,127 33.80 −10.44
National Michael Woodhouse 9,487 32.35 +1.71 9,707 32.39 +3.04
Green Metiria Turei 5,721 19.51 +8.42 7,010 23.39 +7.58
Legalise Cannabis Julian Crawford 398 1.36 −0.13 172 0.57 +0.14
Alliance Victor Billot 210 0.72 −0.66 50 0.17 −0.15
Democratic Jeremy Noble 196 0.67 +0.35 62 0.21 +0.10
United Future Peter George 176 0.60 −0.10 183 0.61 −0.33
ACT Guy McCallum 159 0.54 −1.22 218 0.73 −1.54
NZ First   1,706 5.69 +2.27
Conservative   405 1.35 +1.35
Mana   181 0.60 +0.60
Māori   126 0.42 −0.28
Libertarianz   18 0.06 +0.03
Informal votes 448 190
Total Valid votes 29,323 29,965
Labour hold Majority 3,489 11.90 −10.09

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 40,356[13]

2008 election[edit]

General election 2008: Dunedin North[14]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Pete Hodgson 17,127 52.62 −2.46 14,608 44.24 −10.58
National Michael Woodhouse 9,972 30.64 −0.79 9,692 29.35 +4.21
Green Metiria Turei 3,611 11.09 +3.64 5,221 15.81 +4.99
ACT Hilary Calvert 573 1.76 +1.15 749 2.27 +1.28
Legalise Cannabis Julian Crawford 483 1.48 −0.06 143 0.43 +0.14
Alliance Victor Billot 448 1.38 +0.54 106 0.32 +0.12
United Future Mary Edwards 228 0.70 −1.32 312 0.94 −1.82
Democratic Olive McRae 105 0.32 +0.32 36 0.11 +0.05
NZ First   1,132 3.43 +0.58
Progressive   310 0.94 −1.38
Bill and Ben   252 0.76 +0.76
Māori   230 0.70 +0.41
Kiwi   125 0.38 +0.38
Family Party   57 0.17 +0.17
Workers Party   18 0.05 +0.05
Pacific   14 0.04 +0.04
Libertarianz   9 0.03 −0.01
RAM   4 0.01 +0.01
RONZ   2 0.01 −0.01
Informal votes 234 89
Total Valid votes 32,547 33,020
Labour hold Majority 7155 21.98 −1.67


2005 election[edit]

General election 2005: Dunedin North

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Pete Hodgson 17,769 55.08 −4.42 17,915 54.82 +5.11
National Katherine Rich 10,139 31.02 +7.94 8,217 25.14 +8.95
Green Philippa Jamieson 2,405 7.46 +0.59 3,536 10.82 −1.54
United Future Mark Peters 652 2.02 −0.34 901 2.76 −2.78
Legalise Cannabis Jason Baker-Sherman 498 1.54 −0.51 95 0.29 −0.42
Progressive James Boyack 330 1.02 −0.02 431 1.32 −0.65
Alliance Victor Billot 270 0.84 −1.14 65 0.20 −2.89
ACT Willie Martin 196 0.61 −1.15 322 0.99 −3.20
NZ First   931 2.85 −1.61
Māori   96 0.29 +0.29
Destiny   78 0.24 +0.24
Christian Heritage   35 0.11 −0.72
Democratic   21 0.06 +0.06
Libertarianz   14 0.04 +0.04
99 MP   10 0.03 +0.03
Direct Democracy   4 0.01 +0.01
One NZ   4 0.01 −0.04
RONZ   4 0.01 +0.01
Family Rights   3 0.01 +0.01
Informal votes 241 71
Total Valid votes 32,259 32,682
Labour hold Majority 7,630 23.65 −12.36

2002 election[edit]

General election 2002: Dunedin North[15]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Pete Hodgson 17,573 59.50 −0.88 14,866 49.71 +1.83
National Katherine Rich 6,936 23.49 −3.76 4,841 16.19 −4.26
Green Philippa Direen 2,028 6.87 +2.65 3,697 12.36 +4.93
United Future Todd Whitcombe 697 2.36 +2.36 1,658 5.54 +5.54
Legalise Cannabis Paul John McMullan 606 2.05 +0.13 212 0.71 +0.71
Alliance Carolyn Payne-Harker 586 1.98 −4.32 924 3.09 −9.32
ACT Willie Martin 520 1.76 −1.17 1,254 4.19 −0.53
Progressive Frede Jorgensen 306 1.04 +1.04 588 1.97 +1.97
Christian Heritage Glenn Peoples 280 0.95 −0.94 248 0.83 +0.83
NZ First   1,333 4.46 +3.74
ORNZ   253 0.85 +0.85
One NZ   15 0.05 +0.05
Mana Māori   9 0.03 +0.03
NMP   6 0.02 +0.02
Informal votes 291 99
Total Valid votes 29,532 29,904
Turnout 29,904 79.1
Labour hold Majority 10,637 36.01 −4.64

1999 election[edit]

General election 1999: Dunedin North[15]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Pete Hodgson 18,856 60.38 15,052 47.88
National Katherine Rich 6,161 19.73 6,427 20.45
Alliance Quentin Findlay 1,968 6.30 3,902 12.41
Green Michael Tritt 1,318 4.22 2,336 7.43
ACT Hilary Calvert 915 2.93 1,485 4.72
Legalise Cannabis Paul John McMullan 599 1.92
Christian Heritage David Harris 589 1.89
South Island Alan McDonald 404 1.29
NZ First Donna Waipouri-Baxter 224 0.72 401 1.28
McGillicuddy Serious Bernard Smith 152 0.49
NMP Patrick Byrne 41 0.13
United NZ   151 0.48
Total Valid votes 31,227 31,435
Labour hold Majority 12,695 40.65

1996 election[edit]

General election 1996: Dunedin North[16][17][18]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Pete Hodgson 17,375 52.32 13,449 40.15
National Margie Stevens 7,168 21.58 8,304 24.79
Alliance Jim Flynn 4,488 13.51 4,648 13.88
NZ First Neil Benson 1,824 5.49 2,224 6.64
ACT Michael Steeneveld 1,157 3.48 1,452 4.33
United NZ Graeme Brown 553 1.67 718 2.14
McGillicuddy Serious Doug Mackie 453 1.36 120 0.36
Natural Law Mary-Anne McGregor 193 0.58 56 0.17
Christian Coalition   1,198 3.58
Legalise Cannabis   1,100 3.28
Animals First   75 0.22
Progressive Greens   63 0.19
Green Society   28 0.08
Mana Māori   20 0.06
Ethnic Minority Party 12 0.04
Asia Pacific United 8 0.02
Superannuitants & Youth   7 0.02
Libertarianz   6 0.02
Conservatives   5 0.01
Advance New Zealand 4 0.01
Te Tawharau 0 0.00
Informal votes 386 100
Total Valid votes 33,211 33,497
Labour hold Majority 10,207 30.73

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ New Zealand Parliament - Pete Hodgson MP
  2. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 66ff.
  3. ^ "Proposed Electoral Districts November 2013". Elections NZ. Retrieved 23 November 2013. 
  4. ^ "Dunedin North - Electorate Profile". Parliamentary Library. 24 July 2009. Retrieved 29 March 2011. 
  5. ^ "Enrolment Statistics". Elections New Zealand. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  6. ^ Scholefield 1950, pp. 156–157.
  7. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 94.
  8. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 143.
  9. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 118.
  10. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 128.
  11. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 142.
  12. ^ 2011 election results
  13. ^ "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  14. ^ 2008 election results
  15. ^ a b "Electorate Profile Dunedin North". New Zealand Parliament. [Retrieved 11/06/2012.]
  16. ^ "Electorate Candidate and Party Votes Recorded at Each Polling Place - Dunedin North, 1996" (PDF). Retrieved 12 July 2013. 
  17. ^ "Part III - Party Lists of Successful Registered Parties" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  18. ^ "Part III - Party Lists of unsuccessful Registered Parties" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 

References[edit]

  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. 
  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 

External links[edit]