Dunfermline Athletic F.C.
|Full name||Dunfermline Athletic Football Club|
|Ground||East End Park
|League||Scottish League One|
|2013–14||Scottish League One, 2nd|
Dunfermline Athletic Football Club is a Scottish football club based in Dunfermline, Fife, commonly known as just Dunfermline. Founded in 1885, the club currently play in the Scottish League One, after being relegated from the Scottish Football League First Division in the 2012–2013 season. Dunfermline play at East End Park, are nicknamed The Pars and are currently managed by Jim Jefferies.
The Pars' most successful period was in the 1960s, when the side won the Scottish Cup twice, in 1961 and 1968 under the management of Jock Stein, unquestionably the club's greatest manager and George Farm respectively. The club regularly played European football in this period, reaching the semi-finals of the 1968–69 European Cup Winners' Cup.
After a period of relative success in the 2000s marked by appearances in three major finals (the 2004 Scottish Cup Final, the 2006 Scottish League Cup Final and the 2007 Scottish Cup Final), all of which were lost against Celtic, Dunfermline were relegated to the First Division in 2007. The club then encountered financial problems and, in April 2013, applied for and was granted full administration at the Court of Session in Edinburgh, and in October 2013, the fan group Pars United assumed control of the club.
- 1 History
- 2 Colours, crest & nickname
- 3 Club Culture
- 4 Notable People
- 5 Current squad
- 6 Management
- 7 Achievements
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Bobby Ancell was offered the manager's post in 1950 but with the Pars making headlines for board room disputes, he declined the offer. With a new board in place two seasons later, Ancell was offered the position again and this time accepted. Improving year on year Ancell delivered promotion back to the top flight in 1955 before leaving to start a decade at Motherwell.
The golden age (1960s)
Under Stein Dunfermline won the Scottish Cup in the 1960–61 season. They beat Celtic 2–0 in the final after a replay. In 1962 they reached the Cup-Winners Cup quarter finals, losing 5–3 on aggregate to Újpest Dózsa SC. On the way they beat St Patrick's Athletic and FK Vardar. In the 1962–63 season Dunfermline beat Everton in the Fairs Cup and then played Valencia, losing 4–0 away before winning 6–2 at home. The Pars lost the subsequent play-off. Stein left in 1964 to join Hibernian.
New manager Willie Cunningham took the club to the Scottish Cup final in the 1964–65 season. They lost the final 3–2 to a Celtic team that was at the beginning of new manager Jock Stein's era. The Pars finished 3rd in the league, one point behind top two Kilmarnock and Hearts. The following year Cunningham took Dunfermline to the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup quarter-finals. Alex Ferguson was a player in the Dunfermline squad between 1964 and 1967.
George Farm was manager from 1967 until 1970. He matched Stein by winning the Scottish Cup in 1968 with a 3–1 win in the final against Hearts. Farm then surpassed Stein and took the club to their greatest achievement to date, the semi-final of the European Cup Winners Cup in season 1968–69, losing 2–1 on aggregate to eventual winners Slovan Bratislava (Slovan beat FC Barcelona in the final). On the way to the semi-final Dunfermline beat APOEL, Olympiacos and West Bromwich Albion.
Dunfermline, managed by Pat Stanton started the 1980s in poor form. The core of the team were Pars stalwarts, Dr Hugh Whyte in goal, John Salton, Kenny Thomson and Dr Bobby Robertson in defence and Sandy McNaughton up front. Of this quintet only Salton was not an ever-present in the league campaign. The team developed a habit of losing streaks, 2 of five games and 2 of three games and this caused relegation nerves. They hovered in third bottom position for most of the last third of the season, only being saved by the ineptitude of the Stirling Albion side who failed to score in their last thirteen games and by Berwick Rangers who had held up the division for most of the season.
The Athletic made some headway in the 1981–82 season to mid table. Their home form let them down, only achieving three victories against St. Johnstone, Queen's Park and East Stirlingshire whereas they won eight games on their travels. They were still over-reliant on 13 goal top-scorer Sandy McNaughton (in his last season at East End Park) but Grant Jenkins chipped in with 7. Team new boy, Norrie McCathie, signed in a swap deal from Cowdenbeath, scored 4 in his 19 appearances on his way to clocking up a club record of 497 league appearances before his death in 1996. Kenny Thomson and Bonar Mercer, both long servants, were freed at the end of the season. The team physio, Jimmy Stevenson retired after more than a quarter of a century of service.
In the 1982–83 season the team were poor throughout and in the drop zone almost constantly, especially after the New Year's Day hammering by Raith Rovers. A change of manager was inevitable and manager Stanton left to go to Hibernian. New manager, Tom Forsyth tried 29 players during the league campaign but never found a settled formation. McNaughton was gone and the lack of goals proved fatal, relegation to the lower Division was inevitable. The only bright spot in the whole season was the 2–1 home victory in February over Hearts. Off the pitch, the death of long-time director Andrew Watson was another low point.
A fresh season beckoned with a poor start with only three wins by the end of October caused yet another change of manager with the resignation of Tom Forsyth. The reserve team coach with no managerial experience was chosen from a long line of candidates. Jim Leishman had a strong Dunfermline pedigree, as a boy he had watched the 1960s Pars legends in European games and had progressed through the youth ranks to first team football before his playing career was ended by a bad leg break. The team initially continued to struggle under Leishman but he signed from Hong Kong Rangers John Watson for £300 in what proved to be a good move for the club. An otherwise uneventful 1983–84 season ended with a brief flourish and a final 9th position in Division 2. Hugh Whyte was the only ever-present and Stephen Morrison was the top league scorer with a meagre 9 goals.
The 1984–85 season opened in dramatic fashion. Six straight wins took the Pars to the top of the league with John Watson, Grant Jenkins and Norrie McCathie scoring well. The defence had been strengthened with the arrival of Dave Young at centre half. Good form lasted until October when the team hit a sticky patch which lasted until February. They managed one solitary victory over local rivals Cowdenbeath in November during this period and surrendered top spot to Alloa. The end of the league competition was closely fought but Montrose snatched the championship, with Alloa runners-up and Dunfermline third. Hugh Whyte, after long service since 1976, played his final league game of the season with a clean sheet against Stenhousemuir in March. Ian Westwater took over the goalkeeping mantle. The team scored 61 goals over the course of the season, John Watson leading the way with 15 but Grant Jenkins with 9, Norrie McCathie and Stevie Morrison with 8 each showed a great improvement on previous years.
To mark the Centenary a special game was arranged with Aberdeen as the visitors. Ian Heddle scored to seal a 1–0 victory.
The 1985–86 season league campaign opened with no major close season signings. An early defeat in the third week of the season when the Parslost 3–1 at Hampden to Queen's Park was followed with a long unbeaten run from September until mid-January. The attack were scored well, putting six past Albion Rovers and four past St Johnstone, East Stirlingshire and Berwick Rangers (twice). Six other games ended with the opposition picking the ball out of the net three times. The fixture list was badly disrupted during the three winter months with Dunfermline only managing to play six games. Three victories were not enough and the Pars surrendered the league leader position to Queen of the South. They Pars maintained second place during eight league matches in March and April. Dunfermline suffered consecutive away defeats in early April to Queen of the South and Meadowbank Thistle. this was followed with three 4–0 home wins against Albion Rovers, St Johnstone and East Stirlingshire, a 2–0 win at East End Park over Arbroath and then a 4–0 victory at Shielfield Park Berwick which took the Pars back to the top of the league. The last two fixtures were both away, the attack failed to score at Stenhousemuir in a 0–0 draw and the final game was at Stirling Albion. The Pars scored first but ended up losing 3–2. Fortunately for Dunfermline, nearest rivals Queen of the South also suffered in the final run-in, drawing two and losing two. This meant Dunfermline were promoted along with Queen of the South from the Scottish league's 3rd to 2nd tier. No player was ever-present, Ian Westwater and Dave Young missed only one game each and Norrie McCathie only missed two. On the scoring front, the Pars netted 91 times in the league. John Watson was top with 24, Ian Campbell was next with 15 and Grant Jenkins added 14.
1986–87 commenced with the visit of Forfar, the Pars squeezed a 1–0 win with a goal from John Watson and were up and running. Three more wins followed and the newly promoted men were top of the league. Their next visitors were East Fife who were yet to win in their start to the season. The form book was cturned on its head with East Fife racing into a 3–0 half-time lead. Dunfermline scored two in the second half but the visitors added another to triumph 4–2. David Moyes was substituted and this was to be the final appearance in his brief Dunfermline career. Ian Heddle was introduced to the line up in subsequent games and the Pars returned to form, won the next three games and drew the subsequent two. The second of which was against league leaders Airdrieonians. A crowd of more than 5000 watched a 0–0 draw. Hugh Whyte had to temporarily return between the posts for the next two games to cover for Ian Westwater, keeping a clean sheet in a 1–0 victory over Montrose but losing three in a draw in his final appearance at Forfar. The team were struggling to maintain consistency and their best form but kept in touch at the top of the league. Early leaders Airdrie were also losing form and were never to recover. Dunfermline had a poor November with wins over Kilmarnock and Montrose balanced by defeats at East Fife (again) and Airdrie and a home 2–2 draw with Queen of the South. Athletic managed to climb their way to the top of the league and were to stay there until the end of April. The season ended poorly with five defeats in the last eight games with Morton snatching the championship. Second place meant promotion again and the promise of matches against Scotland's top division teams in 1987–88. Norrie McCathie was the only ever-present. John Watson was the top scorer for the third year running with a more modest 13 goals. Ian McCall, in his first season, bagged eight and caught the eye of a number of clubs.
In the 1987–88 season, Dunfermline knocked Rangers who were managed by Graeme Souness out of the Scottish Cup in the 4th round with a 2–0 home victory. Mark Smith and John Watson scored goals early in each half. John Brown was sent off for Rangers.
Athletic opened the new league season with a 3–3 draw against Hibernian at East End Park. Central defender David Young scored two but didn't score again all season. Two away draws at Paisley and Falkirk followed before Celtic provided the first Old Firm visitors of the season. Craig Robertson opened the scoring, Andy Webster equalised from the spot for the Hoops before Eric Ferguson provided the winner giving Celtic one of only three defeats they suffered that season. Ian McCall was immediately sold for a club record £200,000 transfer fee to Rangers. In the next match the Pars travelled to Dens Park and slumped to a 5–0 defeat, their heaviest loss of the whole season. From then on points were hard to come by. Highlights were hard to find, three wins over bottom club Morton and two over St Mirren. A narrow 1–0 win over Hibernian and a fighting 2–2 draw at Ibrox in December gave a brief respite before eight consecutive league defeats. The bad run ended with a 6–1 victory over Dundee at East End Park to avenge the heavy loss earlier in the season. Overall the Pars used from many team changes and never had a settled side including to using five goalkeepers; Ian Westwater managed 28 appearances but Tom Carson, Nicky Walker, Dave McKellar and Hans Segers took their turn between the posts. Nobody managed to be ever present, Craig Robertson, who had arrived in midfield at the start of the season, was nearest only missing two games. This helped him to top scorer position with 13 goals. Relegation back to the First Division followed during league re-construction meant that three teams were going down. Morton and Falkirk also faced the drop. David Young and Bobby Forrest left the club and Bobby Robertson retired having made a record 360 league appearances. Amongst the new faces, Ross Jack showed promise up front with 4 goals.
|This section requires expansion. (March 2010)|
The 1995–96 season featured a Scottish First Division championship title and automatic promotion to the Scottish Premier Division. However it was also the season when the club's then-captain and all-time great player Norrie McCathie died suddenly at the age of 34 of carbon monoxide poisoning. The team went on to remain in the Scottish Premier League until 1999, when they were briefly relegated to the Scottish First Division for one season. East End Park was redeveloped and the home fans' end of the ground was renamed the Norrie McCathie stand.
Scottish Premier League (2000–2007)
Dunfermline's seven-year stay in the Scottish Premier League delivered mixed results. The 2002–03 season saw them finish 5th, their highest position yet with Stephen Crawford scoring 19 goals. The following season, Dunfermline did even better finishing in fourth place as well as reaching the 2004 Scottish Cup Final, which also saw them qualify for the UEFA Cup.
It was at this point of relative success for the provincial club that saw manager, Jimmy Calderwood and assistant Jimmy Nicholl leave the club to join rivals Aberdeen. This coincided with a downfall in the fortunes of the club. In 2004–2005 under the newly appointed David Hay the team ended up in the lower half of the SPL and Hay being sacked. Jim Leishman was promoted to the manager's job for a second spell and during the last 3 games of the season, guided the team to safety avoiding relegation.
A year later brought another poor season during 2005–06 including an 8–1 home defeat to Celtic in February 2006, Dunfermline's worst defeat since the formation of the SPL in 1998. This was in a season when the Pars also reached the final of the League Cup, losing 3–0 to Celtic at Hampden Park. The 2006–07 season proved to be a bad start and Leishman returned to his job as Director of football with Stephen Kenny being appointed as the new manager in October 2006. However he could not turn round the fortunes of the club nor repeat Calderwood's success in the league as neither could the previous two managers.
Dunfermline were relegated from the Scottish Premier League on 12 May 2007 after losing 2–1 against Inverness Caledonian Thistle. Jim McIntyre had put the Pars one nil up after 37 minutes, but two late goals from Caley Thistle sealed Dunfermline's relegation to the First Division. Dunfermline lost their 3rd major final in four years (losing the 2007 Scottish Cup Final to Celtic 27 May). Since Celtic had already qualified for Europe by winning the SPL, Dunfermline were able to compete in the 2007–08 UEFA Cup, thus managing the feat of being relegated and qualifying for Europe in the same season.
Return to the First Division (2007–2011)
After relegation to the First Division, Dunfermline lost two of their main players in goalkeeper Dorus de Vries who signed for Welsh side Swansea City and midfielder Gary Mason who opted to stay in the SPL with St. Mirren. After losing the opening game of the season 2–1 to Hamilton Academical, the Pars played against a Manchester United XI in Scott Thomson's testimonial match, losing 4–0. Their first UEFA Cup match since defeat against FH Hafnarfjörður in 2004 came against Swedish Superettan team BK Häcken at home where they drew one all. The return leg was played in Gothenburg two weeks later. Dunfermline lost the game 1–0, losing 2–1 on aggregate.
Dunfermline continued to play badly and it took four games for them to record their first win back down on Scotland's second tier. The team found themselves in 9th position after only 7 games, recording only one win. One positive aspect of the new season was the team managing to get to the final of the Challenge Cup beating Clyde, Airdrie and Ayr United on the way. On 25 November The Pars were defeated 3–2 by St. Johnstone at Dens Park. The date of the final was changed from 4 November to the 25th because it would have required the postponement of First Division games involving the pair.
After one year in charge, Stephen Kenny's Dunfermline side languished near the bottom of the First Division Table. On 4 December 2007, Kenny was sacked as Dunfermline Athletic manager. Striker Jim McIntyre took charge as Caretaker manager of the club. Mcintyre's first match in charge was a home clash against Clyde on 8 December 2007. The Pars managed to scrape a one all draw. After going six games undefeated, McIntyre was appointed as Dunfermline manager on a full-time basis on 3 January 2008, signing a two-and-a-half year deal. In late March 2008, local newspaper Dunfermline Press announced that Dunfermline Athletic were going into administration. The newspaper claimed they had a "credible" source but this source could not be substantiated. Dunfermline Athletic later made a statement saying that the claims made by the newspaper were false and that they were "disappointed" by the article. After languishing near the bottom of the table for the first half of the season, the Fife side managed to improve their results after Jim McIntyre was brought in, finishing 5th in the league after 36 games.
The following season, despite a positive start, Dunfermline failed to challenge for promotion again – ending the campaign 14 points adrift of champions St Johnstone. However, a late rally did see them finish third on 51 points from their 36 games.
Return to the SPL, Relegation and Financial Difficulties (2011–2013)
The next season, Dunfermline found themselves top after six games. From then on, they never fell outside the top two, spending the majority of their time in second. Dunfermline's home and away form throughout the season saw them only lose once at home (1–3 against Morton) and gain the most points away from home in the division. After a decisive home win over closest rivals Raith Rovers by 2–1 the week before in front of a capacity crowd of over 11,000, Dunfermline clinched the 2010–2011 First Division championship and promotion to the Scottish Premier League following a 2–0 away win over Morton on 30 April 2011. The final match of the season was at home to Falkirk, where they won 3–0. After the game they were presented with the First Division Trophy in front of their fans. This meant that they ended the season with a twelve game unbeaten run and six wins in a row, and 10 points ahead of second-placed Raith Rovers. In March 2012, with Dunfermline bottom of the SPL with 19 points, eight games without a victory and no wins at home all season, manager Jim McIntyre was sacked by the club and replaced with Jim Jefferies. Dunfermline's first home win of the season was a 3–0 victory against Aberdeen on 28 April 2012. However, on 7 May 2012, Dunfermline were relegated from the SPL after a 4–0 defeat against Hibernian.
The Pars started brightly in the first few matches of the 2012–13 season, winning 6 of their first 7 matches however the club failed to pay the players' October wages on time and in November 2012, reports arose that there were unpaid tax bills due to HM Revenue and Customs. Chairman John Yorkston was adamant that any outstanding debt could be cleared, however further issues arose over the coming months as it was reported in December, January and February that players were paid late, and reduced wages, prompting the squad to lodge an official complaint with the SFL. In mid-February, the club announced it would launch their share issue, but it was cancelled at the last minute.
With the club facing a winding up order over unpaid tax of £134,000 on 26 March 2013, Dunfermline Athletic Football Club announced that the club would be put into voluntary administration, with accountancy firm PKF appointed administrators, and it was formally approved by the court the following day. Bryan Jackson, who was appointed to oversee the administration proceedings, announced on 28 March that eight players, including captain Jordan McMillan were to be made redundant, however manager Jefferies stayed, on the condition that his salary would be reduced. Assistant manager Gerry McCabe was also made redundant the following day. Players made redundant only had until 31 March to find new clubs, as this was the last day of player registrations for the 2012–13 season. The club's shareholder Gavin Masterton, who was responsible for placing the club in administration, apologised for his action. A week before the club went into administration, Pars Community, the club's largest supporters group, made a bid to buy the club, but the bid was unsuccessful and talks broke down. The club's debt is thought to be around 8.5 million pounds, with most of it due to Masterton and other directors at the club. Due to being placed in administration, the Scottish Football Association placed sanctions on the club, restricting the club to signing only players under the age of 21, banning them from playing in the Scottish Cup and deducting 15 points. This points deduction resulted in the club being brought into the relegation struggle, and, on the final day of the season, after losing 1–2 to Airdrie United, the club ended the season in ninth place, the playoff position. They were subsequently relegated after losing the play-off final.
League One (2013-present)
Colours, crest & nickname
For much of Dunfermline's history their home colours have been black and white striped shirts, with black shorts and black socks, though recently they have worn white shorts and white socks. From the club's formation in 1885 until 1901, the club's home colours were a plain maroon shirt with either navy or white shorts and either maroon, white or grey socks. The club then went through a period between 1901 and 1909 when their kits were blue. The club first wore their now well known black and white striped shirts in 1909 and have worn these colours every year apart from the 1971–72 season, were they wore all white, the 2004–05 season, were they wore a white shirt with a single black stripe running down the left side of the shirt and during the 2007–08 season, in which they wore an all-white shirt with black shorts and white socks. For the 2008–09 season, the Pars reverted to their well known black and white stripes resembling the kit they wore for the 1997–98 and 1998–99 seasons.
Conversely, Dunfermline's change or away colours have been very inconsistent, there is no set in stone standard and the club changes the away colours often, but most commonly it has been a shade of red (since the 2000s). The 2008–09 away kit was an all golden yellow kit, with white stripes running down the arms, whilst the 2010–11 away strip had purple and white stripes, with purple shorts and socks.
Sponsorship and manufacturers
|Period||Kit manufacturer||Shirt sponsor|
|1988–1989||Thomson's World of Furniture|
|1996–1997||Le Coq Sportif|
|1999–2000||RAC Auto Windscreens|
|2005–2007||The Purvis Group|
The "DAFC" represents the initials of the club, with the tower depicting the Malcolm Canmore Tower. The tower was adopted by the town of Dunfermline to be used for the Burgh Arms and old way seals. Malcolm Canmore was King of Scotland from 1057 to 1093, and made his residence in Dunfermline within what is now Pittencrieff Park. The park is represented by the stormy, ghostly blue and black night scene behind the tower, including the park's infamous hanging tree.
The green area at the bottom of the crest is meant to represent the club's stadium, East End Park.
According to Black and White Magic, a 1984 book about the club by Jim Paterson and Douglas Scott, there are numerous theories as to the origin of the club's nickname, the Pars. The authors wrote:
"Most tend to confirm the more common belief that the name arose from the team's parallel striped shirts, their drinking habits or their style of play. The latter were both described as "paralytic". The earliest theory claims that in the early days when the Football Club was closely connected with the Cricket Club, the footballers were renowned for their performances at the bar and so were called the "Paralytics".
However in the early 1900s it is known that Athletic's nickname was the "Dumps" – shortened from Dunfermline – and this is said to have been coined by English sailors visiting East End Park when their ship docked at Rosyth. After World War I they were known as the Pars and some believe the parallel black and white stripes to be the reason.
Another school of thought involves English workers who came to work at the armaments depot at Crombie and at Rosyth Dockyard; they kept their association with their local team by forming the Plymouth Argyle (Rosyth) Supporters Club and it is said that the Dunfermline nickname comes from the banners in evidence around the ground."
Another view, which holds water with the older supporters is that the name derives from the word 'Parr' which is a juvenile salmon with dark vertical markings.
Like other football clubs, Dunfermline has a number of songs and anthems. A popular song, and the anthem to which the team runs out is "Into The Valley" by local band "The Skids". Since the 1950s the crowd have left the ground after the game to the tune of "The Bluebell Polka" by Jimmy Shand and his band.
In popular culture
Filth was the 1998 novel by Scottish writer Irvine Welsh. It was adapted into a 2013 film of the same name, directed by Jon S. Baird with James McAvoy in the lead role. In the film the Hearts supporting Officer goes to view his team's results in a shop window, at the top of the results page Dunfermline were said to have beaten Celtic at home by four goals to nil.
- Alex Ferguson; former player and former manager of Manchester United.
- Jock Stein; former manager of the club and former manager of Celtic and the Scotland national team.
- Norrie McCathie; club captain who had played for Dunfermline Athletic for 15 years. He passed away whilst with the club and has a stand at East End Park stadium named after him.
- David Moyes; former player, former manager of Everton and former manager of Manchester United.
- Owen Coyle; former player and former manager of Bolton Wanderers F.C. and Wigan Athletic F.C.
- As of 6 Aug 2014
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Out on loan
- For recent transfers, see List of Scottish football transfers summer 2012.
|First Team Coach||Neil McCann|
|Head of Youth Development||Stephen Wright|
|U20 Coach||John Potter|
|First team Physio||Kenny Murray|
|Goalkeeping Coach||Brian Potter|
|Club Doctor||Bobby Robertson|
Board of directors
|Honorary Director||Jim Leishman|
- Scottish First Division Champions – 1989, 1996, 2011
- Scottish Second Division Champions – 1926, 1986
- Scottish Cup – Winners – 1961, 1968;
- UEFA Cup Winners Cup – Semi Finalists – 1968–69
- Highest home attendance: 27,816 vs Celtic, 1968
- Highest home European attendance: 26,000 vs West Brom, European Cup Winners' Cup quarter-finals, 1969
- Biggest league win: 11–2 vs. Stenhousemuir, 1930
- Biggest league defeat: 10–0 vs. Dundee, 22 March 1947
- Biggest all-time defeat: 17–2 vs. Clackmannan, Midland League, 1891
- Most capped player: Andrius Skerla, 81 for (Lithuania) 2000–2005
- Most appearances: Norrie McCathie, 576 (497 league), 1981–1996
- Most career goals: Charles Dickson, 212 (154 league), 1955–1964
- Record transfer fee paid: £540,000 to Girondins de Bordeaux for Istvan Kozma, 9 August 1989
- Record transfer fee received: £650,000 from Celtic for Jackie McNamara, 4 October 1995
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- George Farm career profile
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- "DAFC Kit Sponsorship 08/09". Retrieved 21 May 2008.
- "United Pars Meeting". Retrieved 13 March 2008.
- "DAFC Puma Kit 08/09". Retrieved 21 May 2008.
- "2012/13 New Season Kit on Sale from 13 May 2012". Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- Radio Times magazine, 18–24 September 2010, page 112
- "DAFC Squad". dafc.co.uk (Dunfermline Athletic F.C.). Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- "The Dunfermline Athletic Coaching Staff". Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "Chairmen and Directors". Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Official Club website
- Dunfermline Athletic F.C. on Facebook
- Dunfermline Athletic F.C. on Twitter
- The Fans Website
- Dunfermline Athletic mad – Unofficial Pars
- Dunfermline Athletic BBC My Club page