Dungan revolt (1895–96)

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Dungan revolt
Date 1895-1896
Location Qinghai, Gansu
Result Qing victory
Belligerents
China Qing Dynasty Flag 1862.png Qing Empire, loyalist Khafiya Sufis Muslim rebels, Yihewani and rebel Khafiya Sufis
Commanders and leaders
Yang Changjun
Dong Fuxiang
Brigadier General Tang Yanhe
Ma Anliang
Ma Guoliang
Ma Fulu
Ma Fuxiang
Ma Yonglin
Ma Dahan 
Ma Wanfu
Strength
Thousands of Loyalist Muslim Hui troops Thousands of Rebel Muslim Hui, Dongxiang, Salar, and Baoan troops
Casualties and losses
All rebels killed

The Dungan Revolt (1895) was a rebellion of various Muslim ethnic groups in Qinghai and Gansu against the Qing Dynasty, that originated because of a violent dispute between two Sufi orders of the same sect. The Wahhabi inspired Yihewani organization then joined in and encouraged the revolt, which was crushed by loyalist Muslims.

Revolt[edit]

Rival Sufi Naqshbandi orders fought against each other. They accused each other of various misdeeds, and filed a lawsuit against each other through the office of the Xining prefect. The Judge decided not to issue a ruling on which group was superior to the other in matters of all Islamic affairs, and urged them to behave.[1] This led both Sufi sects to try to overthrow the government.

Ma Yonglin aroused crowds of Hui, Dongxiang, Baoan, and Salars to overthrow Qing in Xunhua, Qinghai. Brigadier General Tang Yanhe sent troops to destroy the rebels.[2] Ma Dahan formed a pact with the fellow Dongxiang Ma Wanfu when rebelling against the Qing dynasty. They led their followers in Hezhou, Didao, and Xunhua to revolt. They formed a defence line between Guanghe, Sanjiaji, and Tiaoheyan.

Ma Wanfu's Wahhabi inspired Yihewani sect was considered the "new teaching" sect.[3] The Yihewani encouraged the rebellion.

Governor General Yang Changjun sent troops to crush the rebellion.[4]

Dong Fuxiang was the Commander in Chief of Kashgaria (kashgar), and he received a telegram ordering that he and General Ma Pi-sheng relieve the districts in revolt by conducting forced marches.[5] His loyalist Chinese Muslim troops led by Muslim officers like Ma Anliang, Ma Guoliang, Ma Fuxiang, and Ma Fulu crushed the revolt, reportedly cutting off the heads and ears of rebels. During this rebellion he again indulged in plundering his fellow Muslims. He received the rank of generalissimo.[6][7]

Ma Anliang's Muslim cavalry defeated Muslim rebels at Oxheart Mountain, and relieved the siege of Hezhou on December 4. He led Hui cavalry troops to massacre Salar fighters who had agreed to negotiate at a banquet, and was promoted to General of Xinjiang, and Colonel of Hezhou for his service, once the revolt was crushed.[8] The loyalist Muslim Generals led their troops to initiate wide spread slaughter of the rebel Muslims. They decapitated the heads of the rebels and removed their ears It was said that Ma Anliang's red cap was dyed with Muslim blood, and the offices of Ma Fuxiang and Ma Fulu were built from Muslim heads.[9][10]

Ma Wanfu surrendered as the Chinese Muslim loyalist Generals Dong Fuxiang and Ma Anliang arrived to crush the rebel Muslims, and Ma Dahan was killed while fighting.[11]

On August 2, 1896, it was reported that the Qing Generals carried out large scale massacres of the rebels, in one Area 8,000 were killed and the females sold into slavery.[12]

This Dungan revolt took place during the same time China was fighting the First Sino-Japanese War.

References[edit]

  •  This article incorporates text from Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8, by James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray, a publication from 1916 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Chinese recorder, Volume 26, a publication from 1895 now in the public domain in the United States.
  1. ^ Lipman, Jonathan N. (Jul 1984). "Ethnicity and Politics in Republican China: The Ma Family Warlords of Gansu". Sage Publications, Inc. p. 299. JSTOR 189017. 
  2. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 136. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  3. ^ Papers from the Conference on Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, Banff, August 20–24, 1987, Volume 3. 1987. p. 29. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  4. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 142. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  5. ^ The Chinese recorder, Volume 26. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press. 1895. p. 452. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  6. ^ James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray (1916). Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. p. 893. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  7. ^ M. Th. Houtsma, A. J. Wensinck (1993). E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936. Stanford BRILL. p. 850. ISBN 90-04-09796-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  8. ^ Papers from the Conference on Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, Banff, August 20–24, 1987, Volume 3 Papers from the Conference on Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, Banff, August 20–24, 1987, Joint Committee on Chinese Studies (U.S.). Ann Arbor. 1987. p. 29. 
  9. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  10. ^ Ma Tong, Zhongguo Yisilan... shilue, p 245
  11. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 102. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  12. ^ "SLAUGHTER OF MOHAMMEDANS.; The Chinese Commander Showing No Mercy to Insurrectionists.". THE NEW YORK TIMES. 14 August 1896. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 

See also[edit]