Dunmore's Proclamation

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Dunmore's Proclamation
DunmoresProclamation.jpg
A copy of the original printing
Created November 7, 1775
Ratified November 14, 1775
Author(s) John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore
Purpose To declare martial law, and to encourage slaves of rebels in Virginia to leave their masters and support the Loyalist cause

Dunmore's Proclamation, also known as Dunmore's "Emancipation Proclamation,"[1] is a historical document signed on November 7, 1775, by John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, royal governor of the British Colony of Virginia. The Proclamation declared martial law[2] and promised freedom for slaves of American Patriots who left their masters and joined the royal forces.

Formally proclaimed on November 14, its publication prompted a small flood of slaves (from both Patriot and Loyalist owners) to run away and enlist with Dunmore, although the numbers were small compared to the state's total slave population. It also raised a furor among Virginia's slave-owning elites (again of both political persuasions), to whom the possibility of a slave rebellion was a major fear. The proclamation ultimately failed in meeting Dunmore's objectives; he was forced out of the colony in 1776, taking about 300 former slaves with him.

The Proclamation can be considered part of a larger trend of Great Britain fighting against slavery and racial inequality, some other examples of which are Somerset's case and the Committee for the Relief of the Black Poor. In addition, the British raised up several other regiments of black soldiers during the American Revolution.

Background[edit]

John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, originally from Scotland, was the royal governor of the Colony of Virginia from 1771 to 1775. During his tenure, he worked proactively to extend Virginia's western borders past the Appalachian Mountains, despite the British Royal Proclamation of 1763. He notably defeated the Shawnee nation in Dunmore's War, gaining land south of the Ohio River. As a widespread dislike for the British crown (as a result of the American Revolution) became apparent, however, Dunmore changed his attitude towards the colonists; he became frustrated with the lack of respect towards the British Crown. Dunmore's popularity worsened after Dunmore, following orders, attempted to prevent the election of representatives to the Second Continental Congress.[3]

On April 21, 1775, he seized colonial ammunition stores, an action that resulted in the formation of an angry mob. The colonists argued that the ammunition belonged to them, not to the British Crown. That night, Dunmore angrily swore, "I have once fought for the Virginians and by God, I will let them see that I can fight against them." This was one of the first instances that Dunmore overtly threatened to institute martial law. While he had not formally passed any rulings, news of his plan spread through the colony rapidly.[4] A group of slaves offered their services to the royal governor not long after April 21. Though he ordered them away, the colonial slaveholders remained suspicious of his intentions.[5]

As colonial protests became violent, Dunmore fled the Governor's Palace in Williamsburg and took refuge aboard the frigate HMS Fowey at Yorktown on June 8, 1775. For several months, Dunmore replenished his forces and supplies by conducting raids and inviting slaves to join him. When Virginia's House of Burgesses decided that Dunmore's departure indicated his resignation, he drafted the formal proclamation, signing it on Nov 7. It was publicly proclaimed a week later.[3][5]

Dunmore's Proclamation[edit]

In the official document, he declared martial law and adjudged all patriots as traitors to the crown. Furthermore, the document declared "all indentured servants, Negroes, or others...free that are able and willing to bear arms..."[5] Dunmore expected such a revolt to have several effects. Primarily, it would bolster his own forces, which, cut off from reinforcements from British-held Boston, numbered only around 300.[6] Secondarily, he hoped that such an action would create a fear of a general slave uprising [7] amongst the colonists and would force them to abandon the revolution.[8] The Proclamation was, therefore, designed for practical reasons rather than moral ones, and for expediency rather than humanitarian zeal.[9]

Colonial reaction[edit]

Virginians were outraged, and responded immediately.[10] Newspapers such as The Virginia Gazette published the proclamation in full, and patrols were organized to look for any slaves attempting to take Dunmore up on his offer. The Gazette not only criticized Dunmore for offering freedom to only those slaves belonging to patriots who were willing to serve him, but also questioned whether he would be true to his word, suggesting that he would sell the escaped slaves in the West Indies. The paper therefore cautioned slaves to "Be not then...tempted by the proclamation to ruin your selves."[11] As very few slaves were literate, this was more a symbolic move than anything. It was also noted that Dunmore himself was a slaveholder.[12]

On December 4, the Continental Congress recommended to Virginian colonists that they resist Dunmore "to the uttermost..."[7] On December 13, the Virginia Convention responded in kind with a proclamation of its own,[13] declaring that any slaves who returned to their masters within ten days would be pardoned, but those who did not would be punished harshly.

Estimates of the number of slaves that reached Dunmore vary, but generally range between 800 and 2,000.[14][15] The escaped slaves Dunmore accepted were enlisted into what was known as Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment.[16] The only notable battle in which Dunmore's regiment participated was the Battle of Great Bridge in early December 1775, which was a decisive British loss.[7]

Dunmore's strategy was ultimately unsuccessful as his forces were decimated by a smallpox outbreak less than a year later. When Dunmore ultimately left the colony in 1776 he took 300 of the former slaves with him.[17]

In 1779, British General Sir Henry Clinton issued the Philipsburg Proclamation, which freed slaves owned by Patriots throughout the rebel states, even if they did not enlist in the British Army. It resulted in a significantly larger number of runaways.[18][19] It is estimated that up to 100,000 attempted to leave their masters and join the British over the course of the entire war.[20] At the end of the war, the British relocated about 3,000 former slaves to Nova Scotia.[21] Even though the numbers were small compared to the total slave population, more American slaves found their freedom through these proclamations than any other way until the Civil War.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Levy, Andrew (Jan 9, 2007). The First Emancipator: Slavery, Religion, and the Quiet Revolution of Robert Carter. Random House Trade Paperbacks. p. 74. ISBN 978-0375761041. 
  2. ^ Scribner, Robert L. (1983). Revolutionary Virginia, the Road to Independence. University of Virginia Press. pp. xxiv. ISBN 0-8139-0748-9. 
  3. ^ a b "Earl of Dunmore". ABC-CLIO. 
  4. ^ John E. Selby, Don Higginbotham (2007). The Revolution in Virginia, 1775-1783. Colonial Williamsburg. 
  5. ^ a b c Halpern, Rick (2002). Slavery and Emancipation. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 90–91. ISBN 0-631-21735-5. 
  6. ^ Proclamation of Earl of Dunmore. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 2007-09-10. 
  7. ^ a b c Benjamin Quarles (195). "Lord Dunmore as Liberator". The William and Mary Quarterly. 3 (Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture) 15 (4). JSTOR 2936904. 
  8. ^ McPhail, Mark Lawrence (2002). The Rhetoric of Racism Revisited: Reparations Or Separation?. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 42. ISBN 0-7425-1719-5. 
  9. ^ Frey, Sylvia R. (1991). Water From the Rock: Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 63. 
  10. ^ Fiske, John (1891). The American Revolution. Houghton, Mifflin and Company. pp. 178–180. 
  11. ^ Virginia Gazette, Dixon and Hunter, November 25, 1775, page 3. The Virginia Gazette. 1775-11-25. Retrieved 2008-11-04. 
  12. ^ Williams, George Washington (1882). History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880: Negroes as Slaves, as Soldiers, and as Citizens. G.P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 324–344. 
  13. ^ Williams, George Washington (1887). A History of the Negro Troops in the War of the Rebellion, 1861–1865. Negro Universities Press. p. 18. 
  14. ^ Lanning, Michael Lee (2005). African Americans in the Revolutionary War. Citadel Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-8065-2716-1. 
  15. ^ Raphael, Ray (2002). A People's History of the American Revolution: How Common People Shaped the Fight for Independence. Harper Collins. p. 324. ISBN 0-06-000440-1. 
  16. ^ "Black Loyalists". Retrieved 2007-09-10. 
  17. ^ a b Ruffins, Fath. Fath Ruffins on blacks' reaction to Dunmore's Proclamation. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 2007-09-10. 
  18. ^ Davis, David Brion (2006). Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World. Oxford University Press. p. 150. ISBN 0-19-514073-7. 
  19. ^ Brown, Christopher Leslie (2006). Arming Slaves: From Classical Times to the Modern Age. Yale University Press. p. 190. ISBN 0-300-10900-8. 
  20. ^ Bristow, Peggy (1994). We're Rooted Here and They Can't Pull Us Up: Essays in African Canadian Women's History. University of Toronto Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-8020-6881-2. 
  21. ^ Brooks, Joanna (2002). Face Zion Forward: First Writers of the Black Atlantic, 1785-1798. UPNE. p. 6. ISBN 1-55553-540-2. 

External links[edit]