The Duplessis Orphans (French: les Orphelins de Duplessis) were the victims of a scheme in which approximately 20,000 orphaned children were falsely certified as mentally ill by the government of the province of Quebec, Canada, and confined to psychiatric institutions.
Orphanages and schools were the financial responsibility of the provincial government, but funding for mental institutions was provided by the federal government of Canada. Beginning in the 1940s and continuing into the 1960s, Quebec Premier Maurice Duplessis, in cooperation with the Roman Catholic Church which ran the orphanages, developed a scheme to obtain federal funding for thousands of children, most of whom had been "orphaned" through forced separation from their unwed mothers. In some cases the Catholic orphanages were re-labelled as health-care facilities and in other cases the children were shipped from orphanages to existing insane asylums. Years later, long after these institutions were closed, the children who had survived them and become adults began to speak out about the harsh treatment and sexual abuse they endured at the hands of some members of institutions and medical personnel. 
Legal recourse in the 1990s
By the 1990s, there remained about 3,000 survivors and a large group formed to start a campaign. They called themselves the Duplessis Orphans after Maurice Duplessis, the Premier of Quebec during that time whose government was responsible for their plight. In addition to government and Church responsibility, the College of Physicians of Quebec came under fire after some of the orphans found copies of their medical records that had been falsified. Labelled as mentally deficient, many of these children were subjected to a variety of drug testing and used in other medical experiments. Released upon reaching the legal age of maturity, they were uneducated and ill-equipped to cope with life as adults.
At first, the government of Quebec stonewalled them, but after they started gaining widespread publicity in March 1999, the Parti Québécois government made a token offer of approximately $1,000 as full compensation to each of the victims. The offer was rejected and the government was harshly criticized by the public and even the provincial Ombudsman, Daniel Jacoby, came out saying that the government's handling of the situation had trivialized the abuse the victims alleged  Nevertheless, the government still refused to hold an inquiry. In 2001, the claimants received an increased offer from the Quebec government for a flat payment of $10,000 per person, plus an additional $1,000 for each year of wrongful confinement to a mental institution. The offer amounted to approximately $15,000 per orphan; however, it was limited to each of the surviving 1,100 orphans the government had labeled as mentally deficient, but did not include any compensation for victims of sexual or other abuse.
The offer was accepted by those eligible while the remainder received nothing. The vote on the offer was taken by a show of hands in a closed-door session overseen by Committee chief, the author Bruno Roy, one of very few orphans who enjoyed a successful career following the traumatic experience of youth detention. The results of the vote were later bitterly contested by a group which believed the victims should have received more. Many believe that justice was not done and criminal wrongdoing was allowed to go unpunished.
The Quebec Government declined to prosecute the criminal cases. Opponents of the judgment led by Rod Vienneau of Joliette, Quebec, pointed out that bureaucrats processing the applications for compensation were in many cases being paid over $1,000 per day of work, whereas the orphans themselves received the same amount for an entire year of their childhood confined illegally to insane asylums.
Fate of the remains
In 2004, members of the "Duplessis Orphans" asked the Quebec government to unearth an abandoned cemetery in the east end of Montreal which they believed held the remains of orphans who may have been the subject of medical experiments. According to testimony by individuals who were at the Cité de St-Jean-de-Dieu insane asylum, the orphans were routinely experimented upon and many died. The group wants the government to exhume the bodies so that autopsies may be performed.
- "Les enfants de Duplessis" (Duplessis Children) March 1, 1991, by Pauline Gill (fr)
- "Les fous crient au secours (fr)" (The mad cry for help) 1961, by Jean-Charles Pagé
- "Naître rien: Des orphelins de Duplessis, de la crèche à l'asile." 2002 by Rose Dufour, with the collaboration of Brigitte Garneau ISBN 978-2-89544-027-7
- "Les enfants de la grande noirceur" 2008 by Rod Vienneau
- "Plaidoyer d'un ex-orphelin réprouvé de Duplessis" 2000 by Jacques Baugé-Prévost (fr)
- "Les heures sauvage" 2001 by Bruno Roy (fr)
- Child abuse
- Child sexual abuse
- Duplessis Orphans in the French Wikipedia
- Religious abuse
- List of Indian residential schools in Canada
- Léo-Paul Lauzon In 1999, Lauzon and Martin Poirier issued a report on the money collected by the Quebec government and the Roman Catholic Church who falsely certifying thousands of Quebec orphans as mentally ill.
- CTV.ca News Staff (19 June 2004). "Duplessis orphans want Mtl. burial site dug up". CTV News. Archived from the original on 22 November 2011.
- The Duplessis Orphans at CBC Archives
- Victimized Quebec Orphans accept offer of compensation July 2, 2001
- Protesters in straightjackets demand inquiry of Duplessis Orphans era February 19, 1999
- Allegations of child abuse April 2, 1993
- Orphans sue Catholic orders over mistreatment May 21, 1993 B/W Photo of Denis Coque, Silvio Day, Hervé Bertrand, Yvette Gascon
- Medical Experimentation at Duplessis Orphans' CBC Digital Archives
- Modest Offer, Apology Rejected at Duplessis Orphans' CBC Digital Archives
- "Duplessis orphans accept Quebec's final offer", CBC News, 1 July 2001.
- "Orphans oust controversial". Montreal Mirror. Archived from the original on 3 June 2012.
- "Seven Institutionalized Children and Their Adaptation in Late Adulthood: The Children of Duplessis"J.Christopher Perry, John J.Sigal, Sophie Boucher, and Nikolas Paré
- Orphans accept settlement July 3, 2001
- "Everyone gets rich except Orphans". Montreal Mirror. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012.
- "Duplessis orphans seek proof of medical experiments". CBC. 18 June 2004. Archived from the original on 9 April 2010.
- The Duplessis Orphans at CBC Digital Archives