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|O: Trajan wearing radiate crown||R: Tropaion|
|orichalcum dupondius struck in Rome 104 AD
ref.: RIC 586
|O: draped bust of Faustina||R: sitting Pudicitia|
|orichalcum dupondius struck in Rome 147-150 AD
ref.: RIC 1404(b)
|O: Didius Julianus wearing radiate crown||R: Fortuna holding cornucopiae and rudder on globe|
|very rare dupondius struck in Rome 193 AD
ref.: RIC 12.
The dupondius was introduced during the Roman Republic as a large bronze cast coin, although even at introduction it weighed less than 2 pounds. The coin featured the bust of Roma on the obverse and a six-spoked wheel on the reverse.
With the coinage reform of Augustus in or about 23 BC, the sestertius and dupondius were produced in a golden colored copper-alloy called orichalcum by the Romans and numismatists, and by us brass, while lower denominations were produced out of reddish copper. However, some dupondi were made from copper under Augustus, while under Nero some of the as denomination were made from orichalcum instead of copper. The latter can only be distinguished by their smaller size and the metal.
The dupondius was normally further distinguished from the similarly sized as with the addition of a radiate crown to the bust of the emperor in 66 AD during the reign of Nero. Using a radiate crown to indicate double value was also used on the antoninianus (double denarius) and double sestertius. Since dupondii minted prior to and during the reign of Nero, and occasionally under later rulers, lack the radiate crown, it is often hard to distinguish between the as and the dupondius due to heavy patination which obscures the coin's original color.
See also: Roman currency.
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