Duque de Caxias

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Coordinates: 22°47′09″S 43°18′43″W / 22.78583°S 43.31194°W / -22.78583; -43.31194

Duque de Caxias
Municipality
The Municipality of Duque de Caxias
Municipal Library in the city center, designed by Oscar Niemeyer
Municipal Library in the city center, designed by Oscar Niemeyer
Flag of Duque de Caxias
Flag
Official seal of Duque de Caxias
Seal
Location of Duque de Caxias in the State of Rio de Janeiro
Location of Duque de Caxias in the State of Rio de Janeiro
Duque de Caxias is located in Brazil
Duque de Caxias
Duque de Caxias
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 22°47′09″S 43°18′43″W / 22.78583°S 43.31194°W / -22.78583; -43.31194
Country  Brazil
Region Southeast
State Bandeira do estado do Rio de Janeiro.svg Rio de Janeiro
Founded December 31, 1943
Government
 • Mayor José Camilo Zito dos Santos Filho (2009–2012)
Area
 • Total 464.573 km2 (179.373 sq mi)
Elevation 7 m (23 ft)
Population (2008)
 • Total 864,392
 • Density 1,860.61/km2 (4,818.23/sq mi)
Time zone UTC-3
Postal Code 25000-000
Area code(s) +55 21
Website Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro

Duque de Caxias (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈduki dʒi kaˈʃiɐʃ], Duke of Caxias) is a city in southeast Brazil in Rio de Janeiro, bordered by Rio de Janeiro (city) to the south. Its population was 842,890 (2005) and its area is 465 km², making it the second most populous suburb of Rio de Janeiro city[1] Its current Mayor is Alexandre Cardoso. The city is the third most populous in Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area.

It is named after Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias, who was born there in 1803. The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Duque de Caxias. Its important industries are chemicals and oil refining.

Duque de Caxias Futebol Clube is the local football (soccer) team of the city. The club plays their home matches at Estádio Romário de Souza Faria, which has a maximum capacity of 10,000 people. Estádio De Los Larios, located in the district of Xerém, has a maximum capacity of 11,000 people and it is the home ground of Esporte Clube Tigres do Brasil.

History[edit]

The population of the region date from the sixteenth century, when they were donated Sesmarias Capitania of Rio de Janeiro. In 1568, Brás Cubas, provider of Finance and Real captaincies of São Vicente and Santo Amaro received in donation from Sesmarias, 3,000 fathoms[clarification needed] of land from the sea and tested to 9,000 fathoms of land from the river bottom to Meriti, or more properly "Miriti," cutting the piaçabal the village Jacotinga. Outro dos agraciados foi Cristóvão Monteiro que recebeu terras às margens do rio Iguaçu. A business opportunity that the occupation of the site was the cultivation of sugar cane. The corn, beans and rice have become also important auxiliaries during this period.

In the XVII and XVIII, the administrative division of Iguaçu (Iguassu in archaic spelling, now municipality of Nova Iguaçu) followed church criteria, i.e. the Church took the legal and religious responsibility, managing the secondary chapels: the parishes. Thus, Pilar, Merit, and Star jacutinga, areas that currently occupy the territory of Duque de Caxias, belonged to Iguaçu. The region has become an important point of transition of wealth from the inside: the gold of Minas Gerais, discovered at the farm crisis of sugar, coffee and the Vale do Paraíba Fluminense, which represented approximately 70% of the Brazilian economy in season.

As the land in ways few, precarious and dangerous, nothing more natural that the transport was done by the rivers, where they exist. The rivers abound in the region, and integrated with the Guanabara Bay, the site was a point of union between it and the ways which rose the mountain toward the interior. The Port of Star was the most important of this period in March. On his return, a camp that grew in the nineteenth century was transformed into city.

Despite the decline of mining, the region has remained as a point of rest and supply tropeiros, as a place of transit and transhipment of goods. Until the nineteenth century, progress was remarkable place. Meanwhile, the ruthless destruction of forests has, as a result, the obstruction of rivers and consequent overflow, which favored the formation of swamps. And polluted water stops transmitting mosquitoes emerged from terrible fevers.

Many fled the place that, practically, it was uninhabitable. Before the land healthy and fertile, the vegetation cover is typical of mangroves. In 1850, the situation was a real disaster, because the epidemic emerged, thanks to the ingenuity of the safest places to flee. The properties have been abandoned. The situation was of great shortage and would remain so for some decades yet.

With the introduction of rail transport, the situation worsened considerably. The railroad D. Pedro II called the capital of the Empire to the present city of Burns. The production of the Paraíba Valley is now sold in this way, the rivers and inland gradually ceased to be used and the river ports have lost importance. The region iguassuana enter into frank decay.

With the abolition of slavery in 1888, there were several changes in social and economic life of the Baixada Fluminense. The sewerage works were abandoned, there was a delay in the conditions for health and various diseases have emerged. Among them, malaria and Chagas disease.

In the government of Nilo Peçanha, Meriti had a modest improvement in the area of sanitation, which, even with the arrival of water in 1916, in the current Square Pacifier. But only in the government of Getúlio Vargas, who created the Commission on Reorganization of the Baixada Fluminense, the region advanced. By 1945, more than six thousand miles of rivers were clean, their beds removing 45 million cubic meters of earth. In this work, the rivers are no longer breeding of mosquito, decreasing in much the number of diseases in the region.

When the railroad reached the valley of Meriti, the region began to suffer the effects of urban sprawl of the city of Rio de Janeiro. With the inauguration of The Northern Railway Rio de Janeiro on 23 April 1886, the region was definitely linked to the former Federal District, with the opening of new stations in 1911, the Estrada de Ferro Leopoldina by multiplying the travel and as the number of passengers in Gramacho, St. Benedict, Actura (Champs Elysees), spring and Saracuruna.

However, despite recovery of the railroad that brought the Baixada still suffering with lack of sanitation, the tightness factor of its progress.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the land of Baixada used to alleviate the demographic pressures of the city of Rio de Janeiro, the statistics show that in 1910, the population was eight hundred people in Meriti, moving in 1920 to 2920. The rapid population growth caused the fractionation and blending of the old farms at that time, unproductive.

Only in 1924 set up the first power network in the municipality. With the opening of the Rio-Petrópolis (now Washington Luís highway) in 1928, Meriti again thrive. Many companies bought land and have settled in the region due to proximity to the Rio de Janeiro.

The process of emancipation of the city was related to the formation of a group that organized the "People Caxiense Union (UPC): journalists, doctors and local politicians. In 1940, the committee was set up pro-empowerment: Sylvio Goulart, Rufino Gomes, Amadeu Lanzeloti, Joaquim Linhares, José Basilio, Carlos and Antonio Fraga Moreira. The government's reaction was immediate and the demonstrators were arrested.

In the 1940s, the federal government promoted the clearance of more than six thousand miles of rivers and built over 200 bridges in the Baixada Fluminense.

The big growth for which he has spent Meriti federal Manuel Reis to propose the creation of the district of Caxias. On March 14, 1931, by act of the intervenor Plínio de Castro Casado, was created by State Decree No. 2559, the district of Caxias, based in Old Station, Meriti, then belonging to the municipality of Nova Iguaçu. December 31, 1943, through Decree-Law 1055, raised to the category of municipality receiving the name of Duque de Caxias. Already the district of Duque de Caxias was created by Decree-Law No. 1056 on the same day, month and year.

With emancipation, the council received great encouragement in its economy. Several people, mainly from the Northeast of Brazil, came to Rio in search of work and established residence in Duque de Caxias.

The Executive was officially installed on January 1, 1944, when the federal intervenor Ernani do Amaral Peixoto appointed to meet at the time of the municipal accounting Homero Lara. Other nine persons were subsequently appointed to the same office.

The first was elected mayor of Glicério Gastão Gouveia Reis, who administered the city from September 1947 to December 1950. After him came also, by direct vote, respectively Braulino Reis de Matos, Francisco Correa, Adolpho David, Joaquin Tenorio Cavalcante and Moacir Rodrigues do Carmo.

The elections were interrupted with decretação of Duque de Caxias and National Security Area by the military regime in 1971 and took office the mayor Estácio Francisco da Silva. From there, sometimes against the wishes of the political and popular leaders of the region, mayors were elected by the military dictatorship called the General Marciano Carlos de Medeiros, the colonels Renato Moreira da Fonseca, Americo Gomes de Barros Filho and former Deputy Hydekel de Freitas Lima.

The city won, after much movement of political leaders, business, unions and community, its autonomy in 1985 and was elected that year onwards Juberlan de Oliveira, Hydekel Lima de Freitas (in 1990 left the post to take a seat on Senate), José Carlos Lacerda (vice mayor of Hydekel, took office after his resignation), Moacyr Rodrigues do Carmo, José Camilo Zito dos Santos Filho and Washington Reis de Oliveira, and the last returned to the mayoralty in 2009.

Geography[edit]

The municipality is limited to the north with Petrópolis and Miguel Pereira, to the east, the Bay of Guanabara and Magé, to the south, with the city of Rio de Janeiro, and in the west, with São João do Meriti, Belford Roxo and Nova Iguaçu. Caxias has a hot climate, however, the 3rd and 4th districts (Imbariê and Xerém) are warm because of the green area and the proximity to the Serra dos Órgãos.

The Meriti river separates the city of Duque de Caxias, in Rio de Janeiro and Rio Iguaçu limits of Duque de Caxias & Nova Iguaçu. Rio Sarapuí has made the division between the 1st and 2nd district and Saracuruna River separates the 2nd of the 3rd district.

Demographics of Duque de Caxias
Crescimento populacional de Duque de Caxias
Ano População
1960 785 041
1980 776 230
1995 770 669
2010 855 046
2012 858 334

The population of Duque de Caxias is 858,334, up from the 785,041 in 1960. The city is not used to have an expressive index of growing population since it was founded. According to 2010 census, whites were 29.5%, brown (mulato and mixed races) were 58.8% and black people were representing 11.5%. Another races were representing 0.02% of population.

List of mayors[edit]

  • 1944–1944 – Homero Lara (intervenor)
  • 1944–1945 – Luis Eitor Gurgel do Amaral (intervenor)
  • 1945–1945 – Antonio Cavalcante Rino (intervenor)
  • 1945–1945 – Luis Eitor Gurgel do Amaral (intervenor)
  • 1945–1946 – Jorge Diniz de Santiago (intervenor)
  • 1946–1946 – Gastão Glicério de Gouveia Reis (intervenor)
  • 1946–1947 – José dos Campos Manhães (intervenor)
  • 1947–1947 – Jose Rangel (intervenor)
  • 1947–1947 – Custóvio Rocha Maia (intervenor)
  • 1947–1947 – Ten. Cel. Scipião of S. Carvalho (intervenor)
  • 1947–1950 – Gastão Glicério de Gouveia Reis
  • 1952–1955 – Braulino Reis de Matos
  • 1955 to 1959 – Francisco Correia
  • 1959–1963 – Adolfo David
  • 1963–1967 – Joaquin Tenorio Cavalcante
  • 1967–1971 – Moacir Rodrigues do Carmo
  • 1971 to 1971 – Francisco da Silva Estácio
  • 1971 to 1975 – General Carlos de Medeiros Marciano (intervenor)
  • 1975 to 1978 – Colonel Renato Moreira da Fonseca (intervenor)
  • 1978 to 1982 – Colonel Americo Gomes de Barros Filho (intervenor)
  • 1982–1984 – Hydekel Lima de Freitas (intervenor)
  • 1985–1988 – Juberlan de Oliveira
  • 1989–1990 – Hydekel de Freitas Lima
  • 1990–1992 – José Carlos Lacerda
  • 1993–1996 – Moacir Rodrigues do Carmo (PFL)
  • 1997–2000 – Jose Camilo Zito dos Santos Filho (PSDB)
  • 2001–2004 – José Camilo Zito dos Santos Filho (PSDB)
  • 2005–2008 – Washington Reis de Oliveira (PMDB)
  • 2009–2012 – José Camilo Zito dos Santos Filho (PSDB)
  • 2012 – – Alexandre Cardoso (PSB)

Economy[edit]

Economically, shows great growth in recent years, with the main industry and trade activities. There are about 809 industries and 10 thousand shops installed in the city. According to the IBGE, the municipality of Duque de Caxias registered in 2005, the 15th largest GDP in the national ranking [5] and the second largest in the state of Rio de Janeiro, in a total of 18.3 billion reais. [4] A City ranks second in the ranking of revenues of the state ICMS, losing only to capital.No the municipality is located one of the largest refineries of Petrobras, the reduction, has a gas-chemical pole, with one thermoelectric plant.

The main industries are: chemical, petrochemical, metarlúgico, gas, plastics, furniture, textiles and clothing.

Companies in several segments have been installed in Duque de Caxias, such as Jornal O Globo and Carrefour, taking advantage of the privileged position of the city, near major highways Brazil: Red Line, Yellow Line, President Dutra Highway, Rodovia Washington Luiz Avenue and Brazil, in addition to the proximity of the Tom Jobim International Airport and the distance of only 17 km from downtown Rio, bringing its products to major consumer centers easily: São Paulo, Minas Gerais and southern Brazil. The largest industrial park in Rio de Janeiro is the city, and companies registered as Texaco, Shell, Esso, Ipiranga, White Martins, IBF, Transport Carvalhaes, Sadia, Ciferal, among others. The segment is more concentrated in the sectors of chemical and petrochemical, stimulated by the presence of REDUC, the second largest in the country. In the register of industrial FIRJAN, Duque de Caxias occupies the second position in number of employees in Rio de Janeiro and third in number of establishments, behind only the capital and Petrópolis.

In the center of town there is intense popular trade, the majority concentrated in the streets of José Alvarenga and Nilo Peçanha.

Transport[edit]

There are 15 public transport companies which serve the municipality, and 11 municipal bus companies (Union, Fabio's, St. Anthony, Regina, THE Vera Cruz, Trel, Machado, Jurema, Limousine Rio, Vera Cruz and Mangaratiba Express) [6 ], a branch and three intercity rail [7].

Main road access[edit]

  • President Kennedy Avenue
  • Rio-Teresópolis
  • Red Line
  • BR-040

Education[edit]

According to Foundation Center for Science and Higher Education, Distance from the state of Rio de Janeiro, the Fundação CECIERJ / Consortium CEDERJ, Duque de Caxias city has 100 schools, 2 schools, federal, 102 state schools and 128 private schools. As the literacy rate of people living in the city with 10 years of age or older around 92.40% of the population. Some higher education institutions operating in the city:

The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, with a campus in Xerém, offers graduate programs in nanotechnology, metrology, bioinformatics, forensic science and biotechnology from the second half of 2008.

The Faculty of Education of Baixada Fluminense is a state institution located in St. Louis suburb of Town and is a campus of the State University of Rio de Janeiro in the region, therefore, is subject to the university. Offers the graduate programs in education, mathematics and geography and also post-graduate: Specialist in curriculum organization and teaching in basic education and Masters in Education, Culture and Communication in urban peripheries.

Back the origins of the 1969 Educational Foundation of Duque de Caxias (FEUDUC). The graduate courses in biology, history, geography, mathematics, literature and information are supplied by the private institution, in addition to post-graduate.

The UNIGRANRIO is the largest and best known institution of higher education in Duque de Caxias, was created in the 70's with the name of Fluminense Association for Education (AFE) to be recognized as a university in 1994, when they adopted the current name. Their headquarters or main campus is located in the Garden district on August 25, and units in the Center and in Santa Cruz da Serra, also has campuses or units in other districts of the state and city of Rio de Janeiro, Silva Jardim, Niagara Falls, Campos of Goytacazes, Macaé and St. John of Meriti.

The council also has a campus of the University of Sa Estácio, located in the Garden August 25, where the courses are offered in polytechnics, and post-graduate degree in administration, law, computer science and letters.

There is also the School of Social Service Santa Luzia, a private garden also located in the district on August 25.

Duque de Caxias is one of the best schools in Brazil, Cefet-chemical, known as Cefeteq – Caxias. It also has one of the more traditional schools of Brazil, Pedro II College

Culture[edit]

The city with the Centro Cultural Oscar Niemeyer, the square of the Center Pacifier in the neighborhood, with the Public Library Leonel de Moura Brizola and Teatro Municipal Raul Cortez. The library contains about 10 thousand works and theater is composed of 440 seats.

The Municipality of Duque de Caxias houses the Historical Institute and Theater Procópio Ferreira. On December 11, 1980, through Resolution 494, the Office received the name of Alderman Thomé Siqueira Barreto and has in its collection, about 6 thousand photographic reproductions, a thousand documents, 680 books and periodicals, 1,700 newspapers and 85 tables. Among the pieces of the collection are a candlestick and a picture of St. Anthony, remnants of the former Church of St. John Baptist Traiaponga (today Santa Terezinha in Laifaiete Park), photos of the arrival of piped water in Duque de Caxias, the construction of the National Plant of engines (FNM), the visit of Juscelino Kubitschek and the reduction of the Village Code of Postura Star, 1846.

Heritage[edit]

Our Lady of Pilar Church – Located in the Old Road of Pillar, the church was built in 1720. Has strong features baroque, similar to buildings made in Minas Gerais and the material of its construction came from the Monastery of St. Benedict, as registration with gazetteer and Description of the Empire of Brazil, in 1863. Used by D. Pedro I, the former Port of Pilar was an important center for landing when the emperor was the center of Rio de Janeiro by the Guanabara Bay and sailed for the tributary of the Rio Iguaçu, until the Rio Pilar, where the port is located. The "New Way", as was known, was opened in 1704 by Garcia Pais, near the town of Our Lady of the Old Path. The church was registered on May 25, 1938.

Fazenda São Bento – The oldest farm in the municipality came to purchase the Monastery of St. Benedict of parts of the land of Christopher Monteiro, in 1591, initiating the process of colonization of the Vale do Rio Iguaçu. Today, only ruins remain of the chapel which dates from 1645 and the big house built between 1754 and 1757, and fallen to historic heritage on June 10, 1957.

Amenities[edit]

The theater at City Hall was inaugurated on 28 February 1975. Thirteen days later, was baptized with the name of Procópio Ferreira, in homage to the great actor and theatrical producer, through resolution No 1957 of 1975, signed by the Chairman of the Board of Luna Luis Braz. Ferreira Procópio himself and his daughter Bibi Ferreira, attended the event and were the highlights of the festival, alongside Nelson Carneiro. In 1978, the piece bag Canudos staged in the theater prize Moliére in the special category, made in the national network announced in the Official National Rede Globo.

The oldest public theater of Duque de Caxias is Armando Melo Theater, founded in 1967 with the show "The Enemies not Have Flowers" by Peter Bloch, and Barboza Leite as director and set designer.

Sports[edit]

The city hosts two football clubs: Duque de Caxias Futebol Clube is currently in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B in 2009 and Esporte Clube Tigres do Brasil, both of which competed in the top level of the state championship in 2009.

Duque de Caxias has two (2) football stadiums, the Romário de Souza Faria is the Duque de Caxias Futebol Clube and has capacity for 10,000 spectators and the Estádio De Los Larios is Tigres do Brasil Esporte Clube's stadium with a capacity for 11,000 spectators.

Duque de Caxias also has an Olympic village.

Neighborhoods and districts[edit]

District 1[edit]

  • Centro (downtown)
  • Jardim 25 de agosto
  • Centenario
  • Engenho do Porto
  • Parque Duque
  • Parque Lafaiete
  • Vila São luiz
  • Jardim Leal
  • Gramacho
  • Sarapui
  • Doutor Laureano
  • Bar dos Cavalheiros
  • Jardim Gramacho
  • Olavo Bilac
  • Periquitos
  • Corte Oito

District 2[edit]

  • Campos Elyseos
  • Pilar
  • Cidade dos Meninos
  • Jardim Primavera
  • Figueira
  • Capivari
  • Saracuruna

District 3[edit]

  • Imbarie
  • Nova Campina
  • Santa Cruz da Serra
  • Cangulo
  • Chacarás Rio Petropolis
  • Chacara arcampo
  • Eldourado
  • Taquara
  • Parque Paulista
  • Parque Equitativa
  • Alto da Serra
  • Santa Lucia
  • Jardim Anhanga
  • Parada Morabi

District 4[edit]

  • Xerém
  • Mantiqueira
  • Parque Capivari
  • Jardim Olimpo
  • Lamarão
  • Amapá
  • Vila Canaã

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IBGE[1]

External links[edit]