Durham Light Infantry

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Durham Light Infantry
Durham Light Infantry cap badge (Kings crown).jpg
Cap badge of the Durham Light Infantry, King's crown version (1902-1953).
Active 1881–1968
Country  United Kingdom
Branch Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Type Infantry
Role Light Infantry
Size

Two Regular Battalions

  • World War I - 43 Battalions
  • World War II - 15 Battalions
Garrison/HQ Brancepeth Castle, County Durham
Nickname

The Dirty Little Imps

The Faithful Durhams
Colours Facing Colour: Dark Green
Regimental Colours: Red and Dark Green
March "The Light Barque"
slow: "The Old 68th".
Other quick pace music was " The Keel Row" and "Moneymusk" part of the "Cavalry Trot Past".
Anniversaries

Inkerman Day (5 November)

The 2nd Battalion : Hooge Day (9 August)
Battle honours see below
Commanders
Ceremonial chief Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra of Kent

The Durham Light Infantry (DLI) was an infantry regiment of the British Army from 1881 to 1968. It was formed by the amalgamation of the 68th (Durham) Regiment of Foot (Light Infantry) and the 106th Regiment of Foot (Bombay Light Infantry) along with the militia and rifle volunteers of County Durham. Following a series of mergers since 1968, the regiment's lineage is continued today by The Rifles.

History[edit]

As part of the wide Childers Reforms of the British Army regiments, in 1881 the 68th Regiment of Foot and the 106th Regiment of Foot become the 1st and 2nd Battalions of The Durham Light Infantry, both had their depots in Sunderland. The Militia battalions, the 1st Durham Fusiliers and 2nd North Durham became the 3rd and 4th Battalions The Durham Light Infantry, with their depots in Barnard Castle and Durham. The five Volunteer Force battalions of Durham Rifle Volunteers became the 1st to 5th Volunteer Battalions Durham Light Infantry. The 1st volunteer battalion was based in and around Stockton-on-Tees and Darlington, the 2nd at Bishop Auckland, the 3rd at Sunderland, the 4th in and around Durham and the 5th at Gateshead.

In 1884 the Depot moved from Sunderland to Fenham Barracks in Newcastle which it shared with the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers.

In 1908 the 3rd and 4th battalions were recast as the 3rd (Reserve) and 4th (Extra Reserve) Battalions in a draft finding role. The 1st to 5th Volunteer Battalions were renumbered as the 5th to 9th Battalions Durham Light Infantry of the Territorial Force.[1] The 5th formed part of the York and Durham Brigade and the 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th Battalions forming the Durham Light Infantry Brigade (eventually the 150th (York and Durham) Brigade and 151st (Durham Light Infantry) Brigade respectively of the 50th (Northumbrian) Division).

During the First World War the DLI raised (or absorbed) 43 battalions with 22 seeing active service overseas - on the Western Front (at Ypres, Loos, Arras, Messines, Cambrai, the Somme and Passchendaele), in Italy, Egypt, Salonika and India.

During the Second World War the DLI raised 15 battalions with 10 seeing active service overseas in France, Burma, North Africa, Italy, and France and Germany.

Battalion Histories[edit]

1st Battalion[edit]

The battalion was in India at Meerut when the DLI was formed,[2] it returned to Britain in 1887. It was dispatched to South Africa to take part in the Second Anglo-Boer War, arriving in November 1899 and fought at the Battle of Colenso, Spion Kop, Vaal Krantz,[3] and the Relief of Ladysmith.[4]

In November 1902 the battalion arrived in India, and in 1911 it took part in the Delhi Durbar.[5]

The battalion remained in India throughout the First World War. In August 1914 it was in the Abbottabad Brigade, Rawalpindi Division. Moved in the same month to Nowshera Brigade, Peshawar Division, and served on the North West Frontier in 1915, and 1916–1917. The battalion was in Rawalpindi in 1919 at the outbreak of the Third Anglo-Afghan War in which it plated a mostly supporting role. Demobilising its time expired men a cadre of the battalion returned to Britain in February 1920.[6]

The reformed battalion left for Germany in March for duty in Upper Silesia, returning in July 1922.[7] The battalion spent 3 years in Egypt again returning to Britain in April 1930. Joining the 6th Brigade of the 2nd Infantry Division it took part in experiments in infantry mechanisation. It was then sent to Shanghai in November 1937, passing the 2nd Battalion in the Red Sea.[8]

When the Second World War began the battalion was in Tienstsin, and in January 1940 was sent to North Africa.[9] It joined the 22nd Guards Brigade in January 1941, fighting at Halfaya Pass.[10] In June 1941 it moved to Syria, but in October 1941 it moved back to North Africa to reinforce the besieged Tobruk garrison.[11] It moved to Malta in January 1942, and returned to North Africa in June 1943. Attached to the 10th Indian Infantry Brigade in the 10th Indian Infantry Division, it was sent to the island of Kos where it suffered heavy losses. The battalion went to Italy with the 10th Indian Infantry Division and remained in Italy for the rest of the war.[12]

Post war, the battalion was active in the Greek Civil War in 1946.[13]

In 1948 while in the UK, the battalion and the 2nd battalion were merged on 25 September 1948 retaining the 1st Battalion name. The battalion served as part of the Allied occupation forces in Germany, stationed in Dortmund in 1949 and in 1951 in Berlin.[14]

In September 1952, the battalion was sent to Korea as part of 28th Commonwealth Brigade of the 1st Commonwealth Division part of the United Nations forces in Korea. During its year there the battalion was stationed at the Hook, and during night of 1-2 July, to celebrate the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II a patrol staked out the letters "EIIR" in fluorescent aircraft recognition panels on the Chinese side of the valley.[15]

Subsequent movements of the battalion were, September 1953 to Egypt, April 1955 England: Barnard Castle, November 1957 Aden, July 1958 Cyprus, July 1959 England, May 1961 based in Berlin, at the time when the Berlin Wall was built, June 1963 Hong Kong.

In June 1966 the DLI's last campaign was in the jungles and mountains of Borneo during the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation.

2nd Battalion[edit]

On formation the battalion was in Ireland.[2] In 1882 the battalion was sent to the Mediterranean, being split between Gibraltar and Malta.[2] In 1885 it moved to Egypt, and was employed with the force under General Stephenson fighting at Battle of Ginnis in the Mahdist War.[16] In 1887 the Battalion moved to India and dominated the Indian polo scene.[17] In 1897 and 1898 it assisted in combating outbreaks of the plague in Poona and Bombay.[18]

During the Boer War the battalion sent one company of Mounted Infantry from India.[4] After guarding Boer prisoners it left India in 1902 for Britain.

The battalion arrived in France on 10 September 1914, as part of 18th Infantry Brigade, 6th Division, reaching the Aisne on the 19th.[19] Joining the rest of the division in October the battalion fought at the Battle of Armentières during the Race to the Sea.[20] By now the battalion had lost 80% of its original complement.[21] Reinforced by June 1915 the battalion fought in the Second Battle of Ypres at Hooge in August.[22] In 1916 it fought on the Battle of the Somme in September and October.[23] In 1917 an unsuccessful attempt was made to capture Hill 70 at Loos in April,[24] in November the battalion was involved in the Battle of Cambrai (1917).[25] Reinforced by the Army reorganisation of February 1918 the battalion suffered heavy losses during the German Spring Offensive near Bapaume on the first day of the offensive, and again at Kemmel in April.[26] The battalion took part in the Hundred Days' Offensive fighting at the Hindenburg Line in September, and on until November.[27]

After 8 months in Germany as part of the Army of Occupation, the battalion returned to Catterick to reform. Sent to Batoum in South Russia in October 1919 to police territorial terms of the Armistice. In July 1920 it was sent to the Izmit peninsular in Turkey until November. From here they went to India. In February 1927 the battalion was deployed to Shanghai to protect the International Settlement. Returning to India in August, it fought against the Mahsuds, relieving the post of Datta Khel in May 1930. The battalion arrived back in Britain in November 1936 after spending 2 months in Khartum, replacing the 1st battalions place in the 6th Infantry Brigade - 2nd Infantry Division.

During the Second World War the 2nd Battalion was part of 2nd Infantry Division, initially part of the BEF fighting on the Dyl River and at Saint Venant. Taking up home duties from June 1940 to April 1942, it was sent to India arriving in June 1942. It fought in the Arakan early 1943 and helped relieve Kohima in April 1944, linking up with forces from Imphal on 22 June. The battalion advanced into central Burma until removed from the front line in April 1945.

In 1948 the battalion amalgamated with the 1st battalion. It was reformed in 1952 and sent to Germany, then disbanded in 1955.

3rd Battalion[edit]

The battalion was sent to South Africa, arriving in February 1900, where it guarded lines of communications in Cape Colony and the Orange Free State, escorted convoys and garrisoned Dewetsdorp for 6 months.[28]

In 1908 the battalion exchanged numbers with the 4th battalion, becoming the 3rd (Reserve) Battalion.

In the First World War the battalion provided a training and draft finding role for the other service battalions of the regiment. After the war the battalion was not reformed and was finally disbanded in 1955.

4th Battalion[edit]

The battalion was sent to South Africa, arriving in February 1902. It was split into detachments, serving in many places, and a mounted infantry company which escorted convoys. The battalion returned to Britain in September.[28]

In 1908 the battalion exchanged numbers with the 3rd battalion, becoming the 4th (Extra Reserve) Battalion.

The First World War and later service of the battalion is the same as the 3rd battalion.

5th Battalion[edit]

In the Boer War the battalion, along with the other territorial force battalions, supplied contingents to form three special service companies, which served from 1900 to 1902.[29]

In the first year of World War One the battalion raised enough volunteers to form first and second line battalions, and start a third line battalion.

The 1st/5th Battalion as part of the 150th Brigade, 50th (Northumbrian) Division (T.F.) arrived in France in April 1915, and was soon in battle at the Second Battle of Ypres. It also fought at the Somme in 1916 and Arras in 1917. The battalion was transferred to the 151st Brigade in February 1918 in the Army reorganisation, and suffered heavy losses during the German Spring Offensive that year during the battles of Lys and Aisne. It was reduced to training cadre on 15 July 1918 (10 officers, 50 N.C.O.s and other ranks) and disbanded 9 November 1918.

The 2/5th Battalion was formed in September 1914, and made part of the second line formations the 189th (2nd York and Durham) Brigade of the 63rd (2nd Northumbrian) Division in January 1915, serving in the home defences. The division was dissolved in July 1916 and the brigades by the end of the year.[30] The battalion was sent to Salonika, arriving in November 1916, in the independent 228th Brigade. After the Bulgarian armistice it occupied the port of Varna from November 1918 to March 1919, it was then transferred to guard Batum in South Russia. the battalion returned to Britain in October 1919 were it disbanded.[31]

The 3/5th Battalion was formed in April 1915, it was merged with the other third line battalions forming the 5th (Reserve) Battalion in August 1916.[32]

The 5th Battalion was reformed as part of the Territorial Army in 1920. In 1938 the battalion was required to serve in an anti-aircraft role, and was divided, first as 1/5th and 2/5th, and subsequently as 54th and 55th Searchlight Regiments, Royal Artillery. The unit was no longer a part of the Regiment.[33]

6th Battalion[edit]

In the Boer War the battalion, along with the other territorial force battalions, supplied contingents to form three special service companies, which served from 1900 to 1902.

In the first year of World War One the battalion raised enough volunteers to form first and second line battalions, and start a third line battalion.

The 1/6th Battalion shared the service history of 1/5th Battalion. Owing to heavy casualties at Second Ypres, 1915 (the 1/8th alone lost 19 officers and 574 other ranks), the 1st/6th and 1st/8th battalions amalgamated on 3 June 1915 and became 6/8th bn. They resumed separate identities on 11 August 1915.

The 2/6th Battalion was formed in September 1914, and was employed in home defence duties as part of 190th (2nd Durham Light Infantry) Brigade of the 63rd (2nd Northumbrian) Division. Reassigned, it landed in France on 6 May 1918 as Garrison Guard Battalion, part of the 177th Brigade of the 59th (2nd North Midland) Division. It dropped 'Garrison Guard' by 16 July and entered the line on the 25th, and fought in September and October in the Hundred Days Offensive.[34]

The 3/6th Battalion had the same service history as the 3/5th.

The 6th Battalion was reformed as part of the Territorial Army in 1920.

Officer, NCO and men of 'A' Company, 6th Durham Light Infantry, 50th Division, in the village of Douet, 11 June 1944.

At the start of the Second World War the battalion attracted enough volunteers to form first and second line battalions (10th Battalion).

The battalion formed part of the 151st Infantry Brigade, 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division and was part of the BEF. It arrived in France in late January 1940, and took part in the Arras counter-attack and defended the Dunkirk perimeter. Transferred to the Middle East in April 1941 the battalion garrisoned Cyprus and later Kirkuk and Mosul in Iraq. Returning to North Africa as part of the 8th Army it was placed into the line at Gazala, patrolling and disrupting German and Italian supplies.[35] and fought in the Gazala, Mersa Matruh, El Alamein and the Mareth Line. The battalion took part in the invasion of Sicily, fighting at Primosole Bridge. Withdrawn to Britain in October 1943 to be trained for the Normandy landings, the battalion landed in the second wave on Sword Beach and faced 2 months of attritional fighting in Normandy. After the break out from Normandy the battalion fought as part of the ground forces of Operation Market Garden at Gheel. Due to heavy losses 50th Division was broken up to reinforce other formations, the battalion was reduced to a training cadre and returned to Britain in December 1944.

The battalion was reformed as part of the Territorial Army in 1947. The battalion is now represented by D (Rifles) Company, 5th Battalion The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers at Bishop Auckland.

7th Battalion[edit]

In the Boer War the battalion, along with the other territorial force battalions, supplied contingents to form three special service companies, which served from 1900 to 1902.

In the first year of World War One the battalion raised enough volunteers to form first and second line battalions, and start a third line battalion.

The 1/7th Battalion fought in the second battle of Ypers and was converted to the (50th )division pioneer battalion on 16 May 1915.[36] The battalions service history is otherwise the same as for the 1/5th Battalion.

The 2/7th Battalion was a home defence unit originally of 190th (2nd Durham Light Infantry) Brigade of the 63rd (2nd Northumbrian) Division, it was transferred to the 214th Brigade of the 71st then 67th (2nd Home Counties) Division. Leaving the brigade it embarked for North Russia on 7 October 1918 part of Archangel Force where it did not see active service. (Last war diary 29 August 1919).

The 3/7th Battalion had the same service history as the 3/5th.

The 7th Battalion was reformed as part of the Territorial Army in 1920. In 1936 the battalion was required to convert to an anti-aircraft role as a searchlight regiment, the 47th (D.L.I.) A.A. Battalion R.E. (T.A.). The unit was no longer a part of the Regiment.

8th Battalion[edit]

In the Boer War the battalion, along with the other territorial force battalions, supplied contingents to form three special service companies, which served from 1900 to 1902.

In the first year of World War One the battalion raised enough volunteers to form first and second line battalions, and start a third line battalion.

The 1/8th Battalion had the same service history as the 1/6th battalion.

The 2/8th Battalion was raised October 1914 and served in 190th (2nd Durham Light Infantry) Brigade of the 63rd (2nd Northumbrian) Division. It was disbanded in December 1917.

The 3/8th Battalion had the same service history as the 3/5th.

The 8th Battalion was reformed as part of the Territorial Army in 1920.

At the start of the Second World War the battalion attracted enough volunteers to form first and second line battalions (11th Battalion). The battalions service history is the same as the 6th Battalion.

The battalion was reformed as part of the Territorial Army in 1947. The battalion is now represented by D (Rifles) Company, 5th Battalion The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers at Bishop Auckland.

9th Battalion[edit]

In the Boer War the battalion, along with the other territorial force battalions, supplied contingents to form three special service companies, which served from 1900 to 1902.

In the first year of World War One the battalion raised enough volunteers to form first and second line battalions, and start a third line battalion.

The 1/9th Battalion had the same service history as the 1/6th Battalion, until the Army reorganisation of February 1918, when it became the pioneer battalion for the 62nd (2nd West Riding) Division.

The 2/9th Battalion service history is the same as the 2/5th Battaloin's, except that the battalion stayed in the port of Salonika.

The 3/9th Battalion had the same service history as the 3/5th.

At the start of the Second World War the battalion attracted enough volunteers to form first and second line battalions (12th Battalion). The battalions service history was the same as the 6th Battalion's until January 1945. On the dispersal of 50th Division the battalion transferred to 131st (Lorried) Infantry Brigade, part of the 7th Desert Rats Armoured Division, fighting at the Roer Triangle and the town of Ibbenbüren. The battalion ended the war near Hamburg.

The battalion was reformed as part of the Territorial Army in 1947, and was disbanded by renaming as the 17th Battalion, Parachute Regiment, with the colours being laid up in St. Mary's parish church, Gateshead on 5 November 1949. This battalion is now represented as part of the 4th Battalion, Parachute Regiment.

10th Battalion[edit]

A Service battalion of Kitchener's Army K1, it was assigned to 43rd Infantry Brigade of the 14th (Light) Division. Nicknamed the "Shiny Tenth" on account of the large numbers of ex regimental officers with connections to prominent local families.[37] It arrived on the Western front on 21 May 1915, It spent its first year on the Ypres salient, and fought on the Somme in August and September 1916. In 1917 it fought at Arras in April and in the Third Battle of Ypres on the Menin Road in August and held part of the line at Passchendale in October. Now under strength the 10th Battalion was disbanded in France as part of the Army reorganisation of February 1918.

In the Second World War, the 10th Battalion was a second line battalion of the 6th, part of 70th Infantry Brigade 23rd Division, intended to be a two brigade motorised division. Part of the BEF, it was sent to France as a labour division, with its troops having had little training, no heavy weapons, and a reduced rear echelon. It attempted to stop the German advance at the Canal Du Nord and suffered heavy losses on 19 May. After Dunkirk the brigade,with the 10th Battalion was assigned to the 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division, served as part of the occupying force in Iceland. Arriving in France on 15 June, it fought in Normandy around Cean at Rauray. In late August the 70th Brigade was broken up to reinforce other units of the 2nd Army, and the battalion disbanded.

11th Battalion[edit]

A Service battalion of Kitchener's Army, K2, it was assigned to 60th Brigade 20th (Light) Division. In January 1915 it was made the pioneer battalion of the division, and arrived in France on 20 July 1915. Despite having engineering duties the battalion won battle honours and was involved in fighting in the retreat during the German Spring Offensive of March 1918.

In the Second World War the 11th Battalion was a second line battalion of the 8th, it had the same service history as the 10th Battalion.

12th Battalion[edit]

A Service battalion of Kitchener's Army, K3, it was assigned 68th Brigade, 23rd Division, and arrived in France on 26 August 1915. It saw action on the Somme at Pozieres in July 1916 and Le Transloy in October. In 1917 during the Third Ypres it fought at Messines. It was sent to Italy in November 1917, after the Germans had advanced ~40 miles against the Italians at the Battle of Caporetto. The battalion fought at the battles of Piave and Vittorio Veneto.

In the Second World War the 12th Battalion was a second line battalion of the 9th, in January 1940 it was renamed the Tyneside Scottish Battalion of the Black Watch. The title "Tyneside Scottish" was a revival of that used during the First World War by the several service battalions of the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers that were raised by Scotsmen in the Tyneside area. It had the same service history as the 10th Battalion, but was no longer part of the Regiment.

13th Battalion[edit]

A Service battalion of Kitchener's Army, K3, it was assigned 68th Brigade, 23rd Division, its service history is the same as the 12th Battalion until 16 September 1918, when it returned to France. As part of the 74th Brigade of the 25th Division it fought in the latter stages of the Hundred Days Offensive.

A Home Defence Battalion, it was formed from the Durham Group (No. 41) National Defence Company in December 1939. It was divided into the 1/13th and 2/13th (Home Defence) Battalions in September 1940. The 2/13th Battalion was renamed as the 18th Battalion in March 1941. The 1/13th Battalion merged with the 18th Battalion to form the 30th battalion in November 1941.[38]

14th Battalion[edit]

Raised as a service battalion of Kitchener's Army, K3 in September 1914 it was attached to the 64th Brigade of the 21st Division. It arrived in France on 11 September 1915 and by 25th was in action at the Battle of Loos during which it lost one third of its strength.[39] In November it was transferred to the 18th Brigade of the 6th Infantry Division serving alongside the 2nd Battalion.[40] It was disbanded in France in February 1918 as part of the Army reorganisation.[41]

In the Second world War the 14th Battalion was reformed in July 1940. Brigaded with the 16th and 17th Battalions in the 206th Independent Infantry Brigade while in Scotland, it spent 2 years on coastal defence duties on the South coast of England, while being used as a source of reinforcements. Briefly part of the 46th Infantry Division in 1942, in June 1943 the battalion was sent to Durham as a rehabilitation unit for convalescing troops and ex-PoWs until the end of the war.[42]

15th Battalion[edit]

Raised as a service battalion of Kitchener's Army, K3 in September 1914 it was attached to the 64th Brigade of the 21st Division. Fight at Loos in September soon after its arrival. In 1916 it fought on the first day of the Somme and later at Battle of Flers-Courcelette in September, under the temporary command of the 41st Division.[43] In 1917 the battalion fought at Arras in the Third Battle of the Scarpe[44] in April and at the Third Battle of Ypres at Broodseinde.[45] The battalion suffered heavy losses during the early days of the German Spring Offensive in March 1918, again in April and on the Aisne in May. Reinforced it advanced on the first day of the Hundred Days Offensive on the Ancre,[46] and continued to advance until the end of the war.

The 15th Battalion was formed by converting 50th[47] (or 15th [48]) Holding Battalion in October 1940 and took up the role of coastal defence. From March to November 1941 it was part of 217th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home) of the Durham and North Riding County Division.[47] In 1942 it was converted to an armoured unit as 155th Regiment in the Royal Armoured Corps, retaining the DLI cap badge on the black beret of the RAC.[49] The 155th Regiment was trained and equipped with Canal Defence Light tanks. It was assigned to 35th Army Tank Brigade under the 79th Armoured Division[50] until designated as a training unit in April 1944, and was disbanded in May 1945.[51]

16th Battalion[edit]

The 16th Battalion was formed in Durham in October 1914, from the Special Reserve, 3rd and 4th Battalion volunteerss, 2nd Battalion convalescents and recruits, as a Service battalion, part of Kitchener's Fourth New Army, K4, attached to the 89th Brigade, of the original 30th Division.[52] In April 1915 K4 was broken up to provide reinforcements and training units, and the battalion became a second Reserve battalion (after the 4th Bn). In September 1916 it became 1st Training Reserve battalion of the 1st Reserve Brigade. The battalion disbanded in November 1917.[53]

In the Second World War the 16th Battalion was reformed in July 1940, and joined the 139th Infantry Brigade, 46th Division at the end of August.[54] It fought in North Africa with the British First Army, landing in North Africa at Algiers in January 1943, fighting in Northern Tunisia.[55] Landing in Italy at Salerno on 9 September in the second wave.[56] the battalion fought toward Naples, then in October made a silent crossing of the River Volturno, holding the bridgehead it established for 8 days until relieved.[57] The battalion took part in the forcing of the Winter Line. In February 1944 the 46th Division was withdrawn for rest and retraining to Egypt and Palestine, where the battalion aided the civil authorities during a riot in Tel-Aviv.[58] Returning to Italy in July and fought hard on the Gothic Line at Gemmano and Cosina Canal.[59] In December the battalion was sent to Greece as part of the efforts to keep the peace and then to forestall a communist take over and fought at Piraeus.[60] The battalion returned to Italy in April 1945, but did not see action.

17th Battalion[edit]

The 17th Battalion was formed in Barnard Castle, October 1914, in the same manner as the 16th, brigaded with it, and sharing its fate becoming the 2nd Training Reserve battalion of 1st Reserve Brigade.[53] Changes in the structure of the Training Reserve saw it become the 53rd (Young Soldier) Battalion of the Training Reserve, and a little later becoming re-associated with the Regiment with that designation.[61]

Raised in the Summer of 1940, it shared its history with the 14th Battalion, until September 1942, when it became part of 164th Infantry Brigade of the 55th (West Lancashire) Infantry Division.[62] Until disbanding, with its last 600 officers and men in December 1943, it had sent 110 officers and 1200 other ranks as trained reinforcements to the front line.[63]

18th Battalion[edit]

The 18th Battalion was raised on 24 September 1914 and was funded by the County, its full title being 18th (Service) Battalion (1st County), it was a pals battalion.[64] It was the first New Army battalion to come under enemy fire when two companies on coastal defence duty at Hartlepool suffered 5 dead and 11 wounded when the town came under fire from the battle-cruisers Derfflinger, Von der Tann and Blucher.[65] In May 1915 the battalion was made part of 93rd Brigade, 31st Division of the reformed K4. It was sent to Egypt in December, but transferred to France in March 1916 having seen no action.[66] The battalion fought on the 1st day of the Somme, suffering 58% casualties.[67] In 1917 the battalion fought at Arras in the Third Battle of the Scarpe.[68] In 1918 the battalion was caught up in the German Spring Offensive in March[69] and again at Hazebrouck.[70] During the Hundred Days Offensive it fought at Ploegsteert Wood in September.

In The Second World War the 18th Battalion was first formed from the 2/13th (Home Service) Battalion in March 1941. It was deployed to Lincolnshire until November when it disbanded by merging with the 1/13th Battalion.[38]
Reformed in March 1943 at Genefia in Egypt from convalescents as the infantry component of 34th and 36th Beach Bricks, seeing action in the invasion of Sicily and (with separate companies) the landings at Salerno, Anzio in 1943. On 6 June 1944 the unit was the reserve beach group for Sword Beach, and served as lines of communications troops afterwards. One company fought the Germans during an attack from Calais in February 1945.[48][71] It was disbanded at Calais in August 1945.

19th Battalion[edit]

The second battalion raised by the County was the 19th (Service) Battalion (2nd County), a Bantam battalion.[72] It was made part of the 106th Brigade, 35th Division and arrived in France on 1 February 1916.[73] The battalion had a supporting role in the Battle of the Somme at Longuecal and Maltz Horn Farm while attached to the 6th Division, it still lost around 25% of its men.[74] The battalion ceased to be a bantam unit in January 1917, and in October,held the line at Passchendale.[75] During the German Spring Offensive in 1918 it reinforced the line near Albert, falling back to the Ancre,[76] it later advanced through Flanders and crossing the river Lys in October.[77]

20th Battalion[edit]

The battalion raised by the Sunderland recruiting committee in June 1915 was known as the 20th (Service) Battalion (Wearsiders) as part of the 123rd Brigade, 41st Division.[72] It arrived in France on 5 May 1916 and fought on the Somme in September.[43] In 1917 it fought at the Third Ypres in September and October, when it was transferred to Italy.[78] It returned to France in February 1918 to plug the line against the Spring Offensive and took part in the One Hundred Days offensive, advancing in Flanders.[79]

21st Battalion[edit]

The 21st (Reserve) Battalion was formed at Cocken Hall, in July 1915, from reserve Companies of the 18th and 19th battalions.[80] In September 1916 it was renamed the 87th Training Reserve Battalion, in the 20th Reserve Brigade.[81]

22nd Battalion[edit]

Formed by the Durham Recruiting Committee from a suggestion by the War Office as a pioneer battalion, the 22nd (Service) Battalion (3rd County) was raised on 1 October 1915.[82] It arrived in France on 17 June 1916 and was briefly attached to 19th (Western) Division. On 2 July 1916 it was transferred to 8th Division as the divisional pioneers. Aside from its usual engineering duties it fought in the late stages of the Somme in October at Le Transloy. [83] Fighting again as infantry in the early days of the Spring offensive in March 1918 and again on the Aisne in June, losing ~50% of its strength. It was absorbed by 1/7th Battalion on 3 July 1918, who became the division's pioneers.[84]

23rd Battalion[edit]

The 23rd Battaloin was raised twice in World War 1. The 23rd (Reserve) Battalion was Formed at Catterick in November 1915, from reserve companies of the 19th battalion.[85] In September 1916 it was absorbed into Training Reserve battalions of the 20th Reserve Brigade.[81] A 23rd (Provisional) Battalion of the Territorial Force was raised at some point from the 3rd North Coast Defence Battalion, itself raised in May 1915 from low medical category men from the Regiment's second line Territorial battalions.[86] In September 1917 the 23rd Provisional Battalion was split to form the 26th and 27th Battalions.[87]

25th Battalion[edit]

The 25th (Works) Battalion was formed at Pocklington in May 1915. In August 1917 it became 7th Labour Bn, the Labour Corps, remaining in England throughout the war.

26th Battalion[edit]

The 26th (Home Service) Battalion was formed from the 23rd (Provisional) Battalion in September 1917 at Durham for home service.[88]

27th Battalion[edit]

The 27th (Home Service) Battalion was formed from the 23rd (Provisional) Battalion in September 1917 at Gateshead for home service.[89]

28th Battalion[edit]

The 27th (Home Service) Battalion was formed in Frinton, 27 April 1918.[90]

29th Battalion[edit]

The 29th (Service) Battalion was formed in Margate on 19 June 1918, from a cadre of the 2/7th Battalion Duke of Wellington's Regiment, and included drafts from the 26th and 27th Battalions, it was used to strengthen the 41st Brigade of 14th Division, and went to France on 2 July 1918.[91] The battalion took part in the advance in Flanders and fought at Comines in October.[92]

30th Battalion[edit]

Formed as a Home Defence Battalion by the merger of the 1/13th and 18th Battalions in November 1940. In 1942 it was briefly organised as a field force unit (a standard army battalion), until it was disbanded in November 1942.[93]

51st Battalion[edit]

The battalion joined the Regiment in October 1917 as the 51st (Graduated) Battalion from the Training Reserve, having been the 258th Battalion, before that the 4th Training Reserve Battalion, and before that the 11th (Reserve) Battalion of the North Staffordshire Regiment, and was part of the Home defences of 215th Brigade of the 72nd (Home Service) Division. In March 1919 the battalion formed part of the Army of Occupation in Germany.[61]

52nd Battalion[edit]

The battalion joined the Regiment in October 1917 as the 52nd (Graduated) Battalion from the Training Reserve, having been the 273rd Battalion, before that the 86th Training Reserve Battalion, and before that the 31st (Reserve) Battalion of the Northumberland Fusiliers, and was part of the Home defences of 220th Brigade of the 73rd (Home Service) Division. In March 1919 the battalion formed part of the Army of Occupation in Germany.[61]

53rd Battalion[edit]

The battalion joined the Regiment in October 1917 as the 53rd (Young Soldiers) Battalion, having previously been the 17th (Service) Battalion of the D.L.I. the Battalion was sent to Germany as part of the Army of Occupation in Germany, being used to reinforce the 52nd and 53rd battalions.[61]

70th Battalion[edit]

The 70th (Young Soldiers) Battalion was formed in December 1940 at School Aycliffe near Darlington, for men too young for conscription (20 years at the time). Instead of disbanding when the conscription age was lowered to 18 years in 1942 it was chosen to be a demonstration battalion for the G.H.Q. Battle School at Barnard Castle. The battalion was disbanded in August 1943.[94]

Amalgamation[edit]

Finally in 1968, whilst the battalion was serving in Cyprus, it was announced that The Durham Light Infantry would join with three other county light infantry regiments to form one large Regiment, The Light Infantry, and be renamed the 4th Battalion the Light Infantry. The Light Infantry was joined by the Green Jackets Brigade to form the Light Division. These subsequently merged in 2007 to form The Rifles.

Victoria Cross[edit]

Pte John Byrne[edit]

  • John Byrne - 68th Regiment. On 5 November 1854 during the Battle of Inkerman, brought in a wounded soldier, under fire. "On 11 May 1855 he bravely engaged in a hand-to-hand contest with one of the enemy on the parapet of the work he was defending, prevented the entrance of the enemy, killed his antagonist, and captured his arms."

Captain T de C Hamilton[edit]

Thomas de Courcy Hamilton VC (19 July 1825 – 3 March 1908).

He was 27 years old, and a captain in the 68th Regiment of Foot (later The Durham Light Infantry), British Army during the Crimean War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 11 May 1855 at Sebastopol, the Crimea, in a most determined sortie, Captain Hamilton boldly charged great numbers of the enemy with a small force, driving them from a battery of which they had taken possession. He was conspicuous for his gallantry on this occasion and his action saved the works from falling into enemy hands.

Sgt John Murray[edit]

John Murray' VC (February 1837 – 7 November 1911) was born Birr, County Offaly.

He was approximately 27 years old, and a sergeant in the 68th (Durham) Regiment of Foot (Light Infantry), British Army during the Waikato-Hauhau Maori War, New Zealand when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 21 June 1864 at Tauranga, New Zealand, when the enemy's position was being stormed, Sergeant Murray ran up to a rifle-pit containing eight to ten of the enemy and, without any assistance, killed or wounded all of them. He then went on up the works, fighting with his bayonet.

Pte Thomas Kenny[edit]

Thomas Kenny VC (4 April 1882 – 29 November 1958) .

He was 33 years old, and a private in the 13th Battalion, The Durham Light Infantry, British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 4 November 1915 near La Houssoie, France, in thick mist, Lt Philip Anthony Brown, the officer in charge of a patrol, was shot through both thighs. Private Kenny, although repeatedly fired on by the enemy, crawled about for more than an hour with his wounded officer on his back, trying to find his way through the fog to the British trenches. He refused to leave Lt Brown although told several times to do so, and at last, utterly exhausted, left him in a comparatively safe ditch and went for help. He found a rescue party and guided them to the wounded Lt Brown who was then brought to safety, although he later died of his wounds.

Lieutenant Colonel (Temp) Roland B Bradford[edit]

Roland Boys Bradford VC MC, (22 February 1892 – 30 November 1917).

He was 24 years old, and a Temporary Lieutenant Colonel in the 9th Bn., The Durham Light Infantry, British Army, Commander during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.[95]

On 1 October 1916 at Eaucourt L'Abbaye, France, when a leading battalion had suffered very severe casualties and the commander was wounded, its flank was dangerously exposed to the enemy. At the request of the wounded commander, Lieutenant Colonel Bradford took command of that battalion in addition to his own. By his fearless energy under fire of all descriptions, and skilful leadership of both battalions, he succeeded in rallying the attack and capturing and defending the objective.

On 20 November 1917, at the age of 25, he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General; he was the youngest general officer in the British Army of modern times (and the youngest promoted professionally, earlier young generals were simply due to position). Ten days later, he was killed in action, at Cambrai, France, on 30 November 1917.

He was the brother of Lieutenant-Commander George Nicholson Bradford, VC: they were the only brothers to win the VC in World War I.

Pte Michael Heaviside[edit]

Michael Wilson Heaviside - Private. Stretcher bearer with 15th Bn., The Durham Light Infantry, British Army during the First World War. On 6 May 1917, crawled sixty yards from shell hole to shell hole while under fire to reach a wounded soldier was sheltering. Having dressed the wounds, Heaviside led two other stretcher bearers out across no-man’s-land to the wounded soldier and carried him back to safety.

2nd Lieut Frederick Youens[edit]

Frederick Youens VC (14 August 1892 – 7 July 1917).

He was twenty one years old, and a temporary second lieutenant in the 13th Battalion, The Durham Light Infantry, British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 7 July 1917 near Hill 60, Belgium, it was reported that the enemy were preparing to raid the British trenches and Second Lieutenant Youens, who had already been wounded, immediately set out to rally a Lewis gun team which had become disorganised. While doing this an enemy bomb fell on the Lewis gun position without exploding. The second lieutenant picked it up and hurled it over the parapet, but soon after another bomb fell near the same place and again he picked it up, but it exploded in his hand, severely wounding him and some of his men. The officer later succumbed to his wounds.

Capt A M Lascelles[edit]

Arthur Moore Lascelles VC MC (12 October 1880 – 7 November 1918). Acting captain in the 3rd Battalion, attached to 14th Battalion. On 3 December 1917 at Masnieres, France, although wounded, he continued to encourage his men and organize the defence until the attack was driven off. Shortly afterwards the enemy attacked again and captured the trench, taking several prisoners. Captain Lascelles at once jumped onto the parapet and followed by his 12 remaining men rushed across under very heavy machine-gun fire and drove over 60 of the enemy back. Later the enemy attacked again and captured the trench and Captain Lascelles, who later managed to escape in spite of having received two further wounds. He was killed in action, Fontaine, France, on 7 November 1918.

Pte Thomas Young[edit]

Thomas Young - Private, stretcher bearer with 9th Battalion, during the First World War. From 25–31 March 1918 at Bucquoy, France, Young, on nine occasions he went out in broad daylight, under fire and brought back the wounded to safety. Those too badly wounded to be moved before dressing, he dressed under fire and then carried them back unaided.

2nd Lieut Richard W Annand[edit]

Richard Annand, Second Lieutenant in the 2nd Bn. On 15 May 1940, near the River Dyle, Belgium, Second Lieutenant Annand inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy with hand grenades. He was wounded, but after having his wound dressed, he made another attack on the enemy the same evening. Later, when the position became hopeless and the platoon was ordered to withdraw, Lieutenant Annand discovered that his batman was wounded and missing. He returned at once to the former position and brought him back in a wheelbarrow before fainting from loss of blood. This was the first Victoria Cross awarded by the British Army in World War II. He later achieved the rank of Captain. Richard Annand died on 24 December 2004. His service uniform and his Victoria Cross are on display in the Durham Light Infantry Museum.[96]

Pte Adam H Wakenshaw[edit]

Adam Herbert Wakenshaw VC (9 June 1914 – 27 June 1942). 9th Battalion. On 27 June 1942 south of Mersa Matruh, Egypt, Wakenshaw was a member of a crew of a 2 pounder (40 mm) anti-tank gun, when the enemy attacked, silencing the gun and killing or seriously wounding all the crew. Wakenshaw's left arm was blown off below the elbow but he crawled back to his gun, loaded it and fired five more rounds with considerable effect. He was then blown away from the gun by an enemy shell which killed the gun-aimer and Wakenshaw again severely wounded, but he still managed to crawl back and was preparing to fire again when a direct hit on the ammunition killed him and destroyed the gun.[97]

George Cross[edit]

Sergeant Michael Gibson of the 9th Bomb Disposal Company, Royal Engineers was posthumously awarded the George Cross for the conspicuous gallantry he displayed on 18 October 1940 in Coventry [98] in defusing a large unexploded bomb. He was in charge of the operation to dig out and defuse the device when another bomb exploded nearby. The bomb he was working on then began 'hissing' and seemed likely to explode, so he sent the rest of his team to shelter and continued to defuse the device alone.

Gibson was born in 1906 and served with the Durham Light Infantry before joining the Royal Engineers. He was killed a year later, at the age of 34, when a 250 kg bomb exploded after it had been removed by truck from the housing estate in which it had fallen. 6 other men were killed in the blast, Second Lieutenant Alexander Fraser Campbell and Sappers William Gibson, Richard Gilchrest, Jack Plumb, Ronald William Skelton and Ernest Arthur Stote.[99]

Battle honours[edit]

  • 1st DLI (68th Light Infantry)

Salamanca, Vittoria, Pyrenees, Orthes, Peninsula; Alma, Inkerman, Sebastopol; New Zealand; Relief of Ladysmith, South Africa, 1899–1902; N. W. Frontier, 1915, 1916–1917; Halfaya, 1941, Syria, 1941; Tobruk 1941, Relief of Tobruk; Malta 1942; Cos, Cesena, Pergola Ridge, Sillaro Crossing; Korea, 1952–1953; Borneo, 1964.

  • 2nd DLI (2nd Bombay Europeans and 106th Light Infantry)

Reshire, Bushire, Koosh-Ab, Persia; Aisne 1914, Armentieres 1914; Hooge 1915; Flers-Courcelette, Morval, Le Transloy, Hill 70, Somme 1916; Cambrai 1917; Somme 1918; Kemmel; Epehy, Selle, Sambre; Dyle, St Omer-La Bassee, Dunkirk 1940; Donbaik, Kohima, Mandalay, Burma 1943–1945.

  • 5th DLI (T.A)

Gravenstafel, St Julien, Frezenberg, Bellewaarde, Ypres 1915; Flers-Courcelette, Somme 1916; Scarpe 1917; Arras 1917; Passchendaele, Ypres 1917; St Quentin, Rosieres, Estaires, Lys; Aisne 1918.

  • 6th DLI (TA)

As for 5th DLI up to Ypres, 1915; Flers-Courcelette, Le Transloy, Ancre Heights, Somme, 1916; Scarpe, 1917; Arras 1917; Passchendaele, Ypres, 1917; St Quentin, Rosieres, Somme, 1918; Estaires, Lys; Aisne 1918; Arras Counter Attack, Dunkirk, 1940; Gazala, Gabr el Fakri, Mersa Matruh, El Alamein, Mareth; Landing in Sicily, Solarino, Primosole Bridge, Sicily, 1943; Villers Bocage, Tilly-sur-Seulles, St Pierre la Vielle; Gheel.

  • 7th DLI (TA)

As for 5th DLI up to Ypres, 1915; Flers-Courcelette, Le Transloy, Ancre Heights, Somme, 1916; Scarpe, 1917; Passchendaele, Ypres, 1917; St. Quentin, Rosieres, Somme, 1918; Estaires, Lys, Aisne, 1918; Arras, 1918; Ypres, 1918.

  • 8th DLI (TA)

As for 5th up to Ypres, 1915; Flers-Courcelette, Le Transloy; Ancre Heights, Somme, 1916; Scarpe, 1917; Arras, 1917; Passchendaele, Ypres, 1917; St Quentin, Rosieres, Somme, 1918; Estaires, Lys; Aisne, 1918; Arras Counter Attack, St Omer-La Bassee, Dunkirk, 1940; Gazala, Gabr el Fakri, Mersa Matruh, El Alamein, Mareth; Landing in Sicily, Primosole Bridge; Villers Bocage, St Pierre la Vielle;p Gheel.

  • 9th DLI (TA)

As for 5th up to Ypres, 1915; Flers-Courcelette, Le Transloy, Ancre Heights, Somme, 1916; Scarpe, 1917; Arras, 1917; Passchendaele, Ypres, 1917; Arras, 1918; Tardenois, Marne, 1918; BPAUME, 1918; Havrincourt, Canal du Nord; Arras Counter Attack, St Omer-La Bassee; Dunkirk, 1940; Zt el Mrassas, Point 174; El Alamein, Mareth; Landing in Sicily, Primosole Bridge; Villers Bocage, Tilly-sur-Seulles, St. Pierre la Vielle; Gheel, Roer, Ibbenburen.

  • 10th DLI (Service) 1914 – February 1918; TA, 1939–1944

Delville Wood, Flers-Courcelette, Somme, 1916; Arras, 1917; Scarpe, 1917; Menin Road, Passchendaele, Ypres, 1917; Dunkirk, 1940; Defence of Rauray.

  • 11th DLI (Service) 1914 – November 1918; TA 1939–1944

Guillemont, Somme, 1916; Ypres, 1917; Cambrai, 1917; St Quentin, Somme, 1918; Dunkirk, 1940; Defence of Rauray.

Albert 1916; Bazentin, Le Transloy, Somme, 1916; Messines 1917; Menin Road Ridge, Polygon Wood, Ypres, 1917; Piave, Vittorio Veneto, Italy, 1917–1918; Dunkirk, 1940; Defence of Rauray.

  • 13th DLI (Service) 1914 – November 1918

Albert, 1916; Pozieres, Le Transloy, Somme, 1916; Messines, 1917; Menin Road Ridge, Polygon Wood; Ypres, 1917; Piave; Beaurevoir; Cambrai, 1918; Sambre.

  • 14th DLI (Service) 1914 – February 1918

Loos, Flers-Courcelette, Morval, Le Transloy; Somme,1916; Hill 70, Cambrai, 1917.

  • 15th DLI (Service) 1914 – November 1918

Loos, Albert, 1916; Flers-Courcelette, Morval, Somme, 1916; Arras, 1917; Scarpe, 1917; Broodseinde, Ypres, 1917; St Quentin, Somme, 1918;. Aisne, 1918; Albert, 1918; Hindenburg Line, Beaurevoir, Sambre.

  • 16th DLI (Hostilities Only 1940–1945)

Sedjenane I, El Kourzia, Salerno, Volturno Crossing, Teano, Monte Camino, Monte Tuga, Gothic Line, Gemmano, Cesena, Cosina Canal, Athens, Greece 1944–1945.

  • 18th DLI (Service) 1915 – November 1918

Egypt, 1915–1916; Albert, 1916; Somme, 1916; Arleux, Scarpe, 1917; Somme,1918; Hazebrouck, Bailleul, Ypres, 1918.

  • 19th DLI (Service) 1915 – November 1918

Bazentin, Somme, 1916; Ypres, 1917; Albert, 1918; Somme, 1918; Ypres, 1918; Courtrai.

  • 20th DLI (Service) 1915 – November 1918

Flers-Courcelette, Ancre Heights, Somme, 1916; Pilckem, Menin Road Ridge, Ypres, 1917; Bapaume, 1918; Somme, 1918; Ypres, 1918.

  • 22nd DLI (Service)1916 – July 1918

Somme, 1916; Pilckem, Langemarck, 1917, Ypres, 1917; St Quentin, Rosieres, Somme, 1918; Aisne, 1918.

  • 29th DLI (Service) June 1918 – November 1918

Ypres, 1918.

  • Second-line Territorial Battalions

2/5th, Macedonia; 2/6th, Ypres, 1918; 2/7th, Archangel; 2/8th Macedonia.

Notable members[edit]

DLI Museum and Durham Art Gallery

DLI Museum[edit]

The DLI Museum (54°47′04″N 1°34′52″W / 54.7844°N 1.5811°W / 54.7844; -1.5811) is the official museum of the Durham Light Infantry. Located in Durham, England, the museum features displays about the regiment's history, with an emphasis on World War I and World War II activities. Exhibits include uniforms, weapons, medals, flags, hats, letters, photographs, badges, ceremonial regalia and other artefacts.

The museum is located on the first two floors of Aykley Heads House, and the Durham Art Gallery is located on the third floor.

DLI memorial[edit]

In July 2012, the Durham Light Infantry Association Memorial was dedicated at the National Memorial Arboretum.[101] The service was attended by Princess Alexandra.[102]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ward p252-267
  2. ^ a b c Vane p121
  3. ^ Atkins, John Black (1900). "XIII. We attack Vaal Krantz and fail again". The relief of Ladysmith. London: Methuen. p. 255. Retrieved 10 November 2009. 
  4. ^ a b Vane ch10
  5. ^ Vane p159
  6. ^ Ward p438-446
  7. ^ Ward p449-451
  8. ^ Ward p451-5
  9. ^ Rissik p46-7
  10. ^ Rissik p51-8
  11. ^ Rissik p60-70
  12. ^ Rissik ch7
  13. ^ Ward p559
  14. ^ Ward p560
  15. ^ Ward p563
  16. ^ Vane 122-7
  17. ^ Ward p281
  18. ^ Vane pp132, 134
  19. ^ Ward p338
  20. ^ Ward p341
  21. ^ Ward p344
  22. ^ Ward p355-8
  23. ^ Ward pp373, 376
  24. ^ Ward P378
  25. ^ Ward 391-6
  26. ^ Ward pp403, 409
  27. ^ Ward p420
  28. ^ a b Vane p299
  29. ^ Vane p307
  30. ^ Ward p322
  31. ^ Ward pp436-437
  32. ^ Ward pp322-323
  33. ^ Rissik p307
  34. ^ Ward p426
  35. ^ Lewis ch7-9
  36. ^ Ward P353
  37. ^ Ward p324-5
  38. ^ a b Ward p464-5
  39. ^ Ward P358-362
  40. ^ Ward p362
  41. ^ Ward p396
  42. ^ Rissik p313-5
  43. ^ a b Ward p371
  44. ^ Ward p379
  45. ^ Ward P389
  46. ^ Ward p417
  47. ^ a b Rissik p317
  48. ^ a b Ward p463
  49. ^ Forty p 51.
  50. ^ "Now It Can Be Told! - Tanks That Turn Night Into Local Day" The War Illustrated, Volume 9, No. 220, Page 470, November 23, 1945.
  51. ^ Rissik p320
  52. ^ Ward p327
  53. ^ a b Ward p331
  54. ^ Rissik p133
  55. ^ Rissik P134-142
  56. ^ Ward p512
  57. ^ Ward p513-4
  58. ^ Rissik p151
  59. ^ Ward p518-522
  60. ^ Rissik p156-9
  61. ^ a b c d Ward p332
  62. ^ Rissik p314
  63. ^ Rissik p316
  64. ^ Ward p328
  65. ^ Ward p328-9
  66. ^ Ward 363
  67. ^ Ward p366
  68. ^ Ward p383
  69. ^ Ward p401
  70. ^ Ward 408
  71. ^ Rissik p3-4 footnote
  72. ^ a b Ward p329
  73. ^ Ward p363
  74. ^ Ward p367
  75. ^ Ward p390
  76. ^ Ward p403
  77. ^ Ward p425
  78. ^ Ward p432
  79. ^ Ward 423-3
  80. ^ Ward p331
  81. ^ a b Baker, Chris. "Training Reserve Battalions". The Long Long Trail. Retrieved 3 June 2014. 
  82. ^ Ward p330
  83. ^ Ward p375
  84. ^ Ward pp412-3
  85. ^ Ward p331
  86. ^ Ward p322
  87. ^ Ward p323
  88. ^ Ward p232
  89. ^ Ward p232
  90. ^ Ward p333
  91. ^ Ward p333
  92. ^ Ward p423-4
  93. ^ Ward p465
  94. ^ Rissik 1952, p324
  95. ^ "Roland Boys Bradford - DLI". DLI Museum. Retrieved 7 November 2012. "Born at Witton Park, Durham on 23 February 1892, he was educated at Darlington Grammar School and Epsom College. He was commissioned in the 5th Battalion DLI in 1910 and joined the 2nd Battalion DLI in 1912 as a Second Lieutenant. His career during the Great War was remarkable, rising from Lieutenant in 1914 to Brigadier General in 1917, when at 25 years old he was the youngest General in the British Army. During the War he served with 2 DLI, 7 DLI and commanded the 9th Battalion DLI for over a year. He was awarded the Victoria Cross for his bravery at Eaucourt l'Abbaye on 1 October 1916, whilst commanding 9 DLI." 
  96. ^ London Gazette, 23 August 1940 , River Dyle, Belgium, 15–16 May 1940, Second Lieutenant Richard Wallace Annand, 2nd Bn, The Durham Light Infantry.
  97. ^ The London Gazette: no. 35698. p. 3953. 8 September 1942.
  98. ^ [1][dead link]
  99. ^ "Family Tree Researcher: The Royal Engineers 9th Bomb Disposal Company". Familyresearcher.co.uk. 1940-10-18. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  100. ^ Who Was Who 1897-2006 (2007)
  101. ^ "Durham Light Infantry memorial unveiled in Staffordshire". BBC. 
  102. ^ Court Circular

References[edit]

  • Forty, G 1998(2009) British Army Handbook 1939-1945 Stroud : Sutton Publishing. ISBN 9780752452401
  • Lewis Maj. P J 8th Battalion The Durham Light Infantry 1939-1945 Naval and Military Press ISBN 9781845741457
  • Rissik, D 1952 The D.L.I. at War. A History of the Durham Light infantry 1939 - 1945 Naval and Military Press ISBN 9781845741440
  • Vane The Hon. W L 1913 The Durham Light Infantry. The United Red and White Rose Naval and Military Press ISBN 9781845741464
  • Ward, S G P 1962 Faithful. The Story of the Durham Light Infantry Naval and Military Press ISBN 9781845741471
  • Westlake R The Territorial Battalions, A Pictorial History 1859–1985

Further reading[edit]

  • Miles Capt. W F 1920 The Durham Forces in the Field. The Service Battalions of the Durham Light Infantry Naval and Military Press ISBN 9781845740733
  • Moses H For Your Tomorrow. A History of the 2nd Battalion Durham Light Infantry 1919-1955 The Memoir Club Durham
  • Moses H The Faithful Sixth A History of the Sixth Battalion, The Durham Light Infantry The Memoir Club, Durham
  • Moses H The Fighting Bradfords Northern Heroes of World War One
  • Moses H The Gateshead Gurkhas A History of the 9th Battalion, The Durham Light Infantry 1859-1967
  • Moses H The Durhams In Korea 1952-53
  • Moses H For You Tommy The War Is Over - DLI POWs In WWII
  • Sadler J Dunkirk to Belsen. The Soldiers Own Dramatic Stories JR Books ISBN 9781906779870
  • Sandilands Lt.Col H R The 23rd Division 1914-1919 Naval and Military Press ISBN 9781843426042
  • Sheen J With Bayonets Fixed. The 12th and 13th Battalions of the DLI in the Great War Pen & Sword ISBN 9781781590324

External links[edit]