Dushanbe

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Dushanbe
View of Presidential Palace
View of Presidential Palace
Official seal of Dushanbe
Seal
Dushanbe is located in Tajikistan
Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan
Coordinates: 38°32′12″N 68°46′48″E / 38.53667°N 68.78000°E / 38.53667; 68.78000Coordinates: 38°32′12″N 68°46′48″E / 38.53667°N 68.78000°E / 38.53667; 68.78000
Country  Tajikistan
Government
 • Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev
Area
 • Total 124.6 km2 (48.1 sq mi)
Elevation 706 m (2,316 ft)
Population (2008)[1]
 • Total 679,400
 • Density 5,500/km2 (14,000/sq mi)
Time zone Tajikistan Time (UTC+5)
 • Summer (DST) Tajikistan Time (UTC+5)
Website www.dushanbe.tj

Dushanbe (Tajik: Душанбе) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan. Dushanbe means "Monday" in the Tajik language,[2] and the name reflects the fact that the city grew on the site of a village that originally was a popular Monday marketplace. Until 1929, the city was known in Russian as Dyushambe (Russian: Дюшамбе), and from 1929 to 1961 Dushanbe was known as Stalinabad (Tajik: Сталинобод). As of 2008, Dushanbe has a population of 679,400 people.

History[edit]

Situated at the confluence of two rivers, Varzob and Kofarnihon, Dushanbe is the capital of Tajikistan. Although archaeological remnants dating to the 5th century BC have been discovered in the area, there is little to suggest that Dushanbe was more than a small village until the early 20th century. In 1920, the last Emir of Bukhara briefly took refuge in Dushanbe (then called Dyushambe) after being overthrown by the Bolshevik revolution. He fled to Afghanistan after the Red Army conquered the area the next year.

Monument of Amir Ismail Samani.

Dushanbe, which means "Monday" in Tajik, developed on the site of a Monday marketplace village, Dyushambe-Bozor,[3] and its former name Dyushambe was a Russified version of the word meaning "Monday" in Tajik[4] (du-shanbe from du two + shanbe Saturday, lit. "second day after Saturday").

The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic was created in 1929, and following that event the city of Dushanbe developed at a rapid pace.[5]

The city was renamed as Stalinabad between 1931 and 1961.[5]

The Soviets transformed the area into a centre for cotton and silk production, and tens of thousands of people relocated to the city. The population also increased with thousands of Tajiks migrating to Tajikistan following the transfer of Bukhara and Samarkand to the Uzbek SSR.[6]

Severe rioting occurred in February 1990, after it was rumored that Moscow planned to relocate tens of thousands of Armenian refugees to Tajikistan. The Dushanbe riots were primarily fueled by concerns about housing shortages for the Tajik population, but they coincided with a wave of nationalist unrest that swept Transcaucasia and other Central Asian states during the twilight of Gorbachev's era.[7]

The city of Dushanbe was used in the fictional book by Tom Clancy (The Cardinal of the Kremlin)

Demographics[edit]

Astronaut View of Dushanbe

The population of Dushanbe:

  • in 1987 was about 796,000 and was made up of Tajiks (75%), Uzbeks (10%), ethnic Russians (3%), and other (12%);
  • in 2011 was about 679,400 and was made up of ethnic Tajiks (c. 83.4%), Uzbeks (9.1%), Russians (5.1%), and other (2.4%).
Population of Dushanbe
Year Population
1926 6,000
1936 83,000
1956 227,000
1971 388,000
1987 796,000 [8]
1991 582,000
2002 579,000
2006 661,000

Districts[edit]

Districts of Dushanbe

Dushanbe is divided into the following districts:

  1. Avicenna (Tajik: Абӯалӣ ибни Сино, Abūalī ibni Sino)
  2. Ferdowsi (Tajik: Фирдавсӣ, Firdavsī)
  3. Ismail Samani (Tajik: Исмоили Сомонӣ, Ismoili Somonī)
  4. Shah Mansur (Tajik: Шоҳмансур, Shohmansur)

Climate[edit]

Dushanbe features a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa),[9] with some continental climate influences (Köppen: Dsa).[9] The summers are hot and dry and the winters are chilly, but not very cold. The climate is damper than other Central Asian capitals, with an average annual rainfall over 500 millimetres (20 in) as moist air is funnelled by the surrounding valley during the winter and spring. Winters are not as cold as further north owing to the shielding of the city by mountain from extremely cold air from Siberia. January 2008 was particularly cold, and the temperature dropped to −22 °C (−8 °F).[10]

Climate data for Dushanbe
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.1
(70)
22.8
(73)
27.8
(82)
32.2
(90)
37.8
(100)
40.0
(104)
42.2
(108)
40.0
(104)
37.2
(99)
32.8
(91)
25.0
(77)
20.0
(68)
42.2
(108)
Average high °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
10.6
(51.1)
15.6
(60.1)
20.6
(69.1)
26.1
(79)
32.8
(91)
35.6
(96.1)
34.4
(93.9)
30.0
(86)
23.3
(73.9)
15.6
(60.1)
10.6
(51.1)
22.1
(71.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
3.8
(38.8)
9.2
(48.6)
15.4
(59.7)
20
(68)
25.3
(77.5)
27.1
(80.8)
24.9
(76.8)
20.1
(68.2)
14.3
(57.7)
8.9
(48)
4.8
(40.6)
14.66
(58.38)
Average low °C (°F) −0.6
(30.9)
1.7
(35.1)
5.6
(42.1)
9.4
(48.9)
13.3
(55.9)
17.8
(64)
19.4
(66.9)
17.2
(63)
12.8
(55)
7.8
(46)
3.3
(37.9)
0.6
(33.1)
9.0
(48.2)
Record low °C (°F) −22
(−8)
−16
(3)
−10
(14)
0.0
(32)
6.1
(43)
11.1
(52)
13.9
(57)
10.0
(50)
3.9
(39)
−2.2
(28)
−6.1
(21)
−18
(0)
−22
(−8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 66.3
(2.61)
75.4
(2.969)
107.5
(4.232)
105.0
(4.134)
66.0
(2.598)
5.5
(0.217)
3.2
(0.126)
0.5
(0.02)
3.1
(0.122)
30.6
(1.205)
44.7
(1.76)
59.8
(2.354)
567.6
(22.347)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.5 9.1 13.4 9.8 7.8 1.5 0.7 0.1 0.8 3.7 5.3 8.1 68.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 120.9 121.5 155.0 198.0 282.1 336.0 353.4 337.9 288.0 223.2 165.0 117.8 2,698.8
Source #1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[11]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory [12]

Economy[edit]

Puppet theatre

Tajik Air has its head office on the grounds of Dushanbe Airport in Dushanbe.[13] Somon Air has its head office in Dushanbe.[14]

Main sights[edit]

The former Dushanbe Synagogue.
Dushanbe government building.

Education[edit]

A number of educational facilities are based in Dushanbe:

Transport[edit]

The city is served by Dushanbe Airport and the Dushanbe trolleybus system.

Eu 733 0-10-0 in a Park near the main railway station.

International relations[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

In Command & Conquer: Generals,Chinese forces is a step closer to victory when they are ambushed by GLA forces,taking heavy casualties and forcing them to build a base dangerously near the GLA main base.They must eliminate all GLA presence in the area before the total liberation of the city become reality.

Dushanbe is mentioned in the classic American movie Spies Like Us starring Dan Aykroyd and Chevy Chase

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Dushanbe is twinned with:[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Population of the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1 January, State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2008 (Russian)
  2. ^ D. Saimaddinov, S. D. Kholmatova, and S. Karimov, Tajik-Russian Dictionary, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature, Scientific Center for Persian-Tajik Culture, Dushanbe, 2006.
  3. ^ Dushanbe in Dictionary of Geographic Names (Russian)
  4. ^ Francis Joseph Steingass, A Comprehensive Persian-English Dictionary, on-line edition
  5. ^ a b c "Regions: Dushanbe & Surroundings". Official Website of the Tourism Authority of Tajikistan. Committee of Youth Affairs, Sports and Tourism. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  6. ^ "Dushanbe: History". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  7. ^ Ethnic rioting in Dushanbe, New York Times, 13 February 1990. Retrieved 18 October 2008
  8. ^ Genesis 1987, USSR
  9. ^ a b Updated Asian map of the Köppen climate classification system
  10. ^ Tajikistan: Citizens Ponder Bleak Future Amid Harsh Winter | Eurasianet.Org
  11. ^ "TAJIKISTAN - DUSHANBE". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  12. ^ "Climatological Normals of Dushanbe". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  13. ^ "Directory: World Airlines." Flight International. 30 March-5 April 2004. 78. "Titov Street 31/2, Dushanbe Airport, Dushanbe, 734006, Tajikistan."
  14. ^ "Contacts." Somon Air. Retrieved on 4 December 2010. "Contacts: 40, Titova Str. Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 734012." Address in Tajik: "734012, Таджикистан, Душанбе, ул. Титова, 40"[dead link]
  15. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  16. ^ "Twin towns and Sister cities of Minsk [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
This article incorporates information from this version of the equivalent article on the Russian Wikipedia.

17: "The Cardinal of the Kremlin" by Tom Clancy 1988

External links[edit]