Dushanbe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Dushanbe, Tajikistan)
Jump to: navigation, search
Dushanbe
View of Presidential Palace
View of Presidential Palace
Official seal of Dushanbe
Seal
Dushanbe is located in Tajikistan
Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan
Coordinates: 38°32′12″N 68°46′48″E / 38.53667°N 68.78000°E / 38.53667; 68.78000Coordinates: 38°32′12″N 68°46′48″E / 38.53667°N 68.78000°E / 38.53667; 68.78000
Country  Tajikistan
Government
 • Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev
Area
 • City 124.6 km2 (48.1 sq mi)
Elevation 706 m (2,316 ft)
Population (2014)[1]
 • City 778,500
 • Density 6,200/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 1 051 200
Time zone Tajikistan Time (UTC+5)
 • Summer (DST) Tajikistan Time (UTC+5)
Website www.dushanbe.tj

Dushanbe (Tajik: Душанбе) (Persian: دوشنبه) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan, situated in the western part of the country near the border with Uzbekistan. Dushanbe means "Monday" in the Tajik language,.[2] It was so named because it grew from a village that originally had a popular market on Mondays. Until 1929, the city was known in Russian as Dyushambe (Russian: Дюшамбе), and from 1929 to 1961 as Stalinabad (Tajik: Сталинобод). As of 2014, Dushanbe has a population of 778,500.

History[edit]

Situated at the confluence of two rivers, Varzob and Kofarnihon, Dushanbe is the capital of Tajikistan. Although archaeological remnants dating to the 5th century BC have been discovered in the area, there is little to suggest that Dushanbe was more than a small village until the early 20th century. In 1920, the last Emir of Bukhara briefly took refuge in Dushanbe (then called Dyushambe) after being overthrown by the Bolshevik revolution. He fled to Afghanistan after the Red Army conquered the area the next year.

Monument of Amir Ismail Samani.

Dushanbe, which means "Monday" in Tajik, developed on the site of a Monday marketplace village, Dyushambe-Bozor,[3] and its former name Dyushambe was a Russified version of the word meaning "Monday" in Tajik[4] (du-shanbe from du two + shanbe Saturday, lit. "second day after Saturday").

The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic was created in 1929, and following that event the city of Dushanbe developed at a rapid pace.[5]

The city was renamed as Stalinabad between 1931 and 1961.[5]

The Soviets transformed the area into a centre for cotton and silk production, and tens of thousands of people relocated to the city. The population also increased with thousands of Tajiks migrating to Tajikistan following the transfer of Bukhara and Samarkand to the Uzbek SSR.[6]

Severe rioting occurred in February 1990, after it was rumored that Moscow planned to relocate tens of thousands of Armenian refugees to Tajikistan. The Dushanbe riots were primarily fueled by concerns about housing shortages for the Tajik population, but they coincided with a wave of nationalist unrest that swept Transcaucasia and other Central Asian states during the twilight of Gorbachev's era.[7]

Climate[edit]

Dushanbe features a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa),[8] with some continental climate influences (Köppen: Dsa).[8] The summers are hot and dry and the winters are chilly, but not very cold. The climate is damper than other Central Asian capitals, with an average annual rainfall over 500 millimetres (20 in) as moist air is funnelled by the surrounding valley during the winter and spring. Winters are not as cold as further north owing to the shielding of the city by mountain from extremely cold air from Siberia. January 2008 was particularly cold, and the temperature dropped to −22 °C (−8 °F).[9]

Climate data for Dushanbe
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.1
(70)
22.8
(73)
27.8
(82)
32.2
(90)
37.8
(100)
40.0
(104)
42.2
(108)
40.0
(104)
37.2
(99)
32.8
(91)
25.0
(77)
20.0
(68)
42.2
(108)
Average high °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
10.6
(51.1)
15.6
(60.1)
20.6
(69.1)
26.1
(79)
32.8
(91)
35.6
(96.1)
34.4
(93.9)
30.0
(86)
23.3
(73.9)
15.6
(60.1)
10.6
(51.1)
22.1
(71.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
3.8
(38.8)
9.2
(48.6)
15.4
(59.7)
20
(68)
25.3
(77.5)
27.1
(80.8)
24.9
(76.8)
20.1
(68.2)
14.3
(57.7)
8.9
(48)
4.8
(40.6)
14.66
(58.38)
Average low °C (°F) −0.6
(30.9)
1.7
(35.1)
5.6
(42.1)
9.4
(48.9)
13.3
(55.9)
17.8
(64)
19.4
(66.9)
17.2
(63)
12.8
(55)
7.8
(46)
3.3
(37.9)
0.6
(33.1)
9.0
(48.2)
Record low °C (°F) −22
(−8)
−16
(3)
−10
(14)
0.0
(32)
6.1
(43)
11.1
(52)
13.9
(57)
10.0
(50)
3.9
(39)
−2.2
(28)
−6.1
(21)
−18
(0)
−22
(−8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 66.3
(2.61)
75.4
(2.969)
107.5
(4.232)
105.0
(4.134)
66.0
(2.598)
5.5
(0.217)
3.2
(0.126)
0.5
(0.02)
3.1
(0.122)
30.6
(1.205)
44.7
(1.76)
59.8
(2.354)
567.6
(22.347)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.5 9.1 13.4 9.8 7.8 1.5 0.7 0.1 0.8 3.7 5.3 8.1 68.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 120.9 121.5 155.0 198.0 282.1 336.0 353.4 337.9 288.0 223.2 165.0 117.8 2,698.8
Source #1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[10]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory [11]

Economy[edit]

Puppet theatre

Tajik Air has its head office on the grounds of Dushanbe Airport in Dushanbe.[12] Somon Air has its head office in Dushanbe.[13]

Main sights[edit]

Education[edit]

A number of educational facilities are based in Dushanbe:

Transport[edit]

The city is served by Dushanbe International Airport which as of June 2014, had regularly scheduled flights to such major cities as Almaty, Baku, Bishkek, Delhi, Dubai, Frankfurt, Istanbul, Kabul, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Sharjah, Tehran, and Ürümqi amongst others. Tajikistan's principle railways are in the southern region and connect Dushanbe with the industrial areas of the Gissar and Vakhsh valleys and with Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Russia.[14] The Dushanbe trolleybus system operates public buses in the city. Automobiles are the main form of transportation in the country and as of 2014 many highway and tunnel construction projects are underway or have recently been completed. Major projects include rehabilitation of the Dushanbe – Chanak (Uzbek border), Dushanbe – Kulma (Chinese border), Kurgan-Tube – Nizhny Pyanj (Afghan border) highways and construction of tunnels under the mountain passes of Anzob, Shakhristan, Shar-Shar[15] and Chormazak.[16]

Demographics[edit]

The population of Dushanbe:

  • in 1987 was about 796,000 and was made up of ethnic Tajiks (75%), Uzbeks (10%), ethnic Russians (3%), and others (12%);
  • in 2011 was about 679,400 and was made up of ethnic Tajiks (c. 83.4%), Uzbeks (9.1%), Russians (5.1%), and others (2.4%).
Population of Dushanbe
Year Population
1926 6,000
1936 83,000
1956 227,000
1971 388,000
1987 796,000 [17]
1991 582,000
2002 579,000
2006 661,000
2008 679,400 [18]
2014 779,000

Districts[edit]

Districts of Dushanbe

Dushanbe is divided into the following districts:

  1. Avicenna (Tajik: Абӯалӣ ибни Сино, Abūalī ibni Sino)
  2. Ferdowsi (Tajik: Фирдавсӣ, Firdavsī)
  3. Ismail Samani (Tajik: Исмоили Сомонӣ, Ismoili Somonī)
  4. Shah Mansur (Tajik: Шоҳмансур, Shohmansur)

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Dushanbe is twinned with:[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Population of the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1 January, State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2012 (Russian)
  2. ^ D. Saimaddinov, S. D. Kholmatova, and S. Karimov, Tajik-Russian Dictionary, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature, Scientific Center for Persian-Tajik Culture, Dushanbe, 2006.
  3. ^ Dushanbe in Dictionary of Geographic Names (Russian)
  4. ^ Francis Joseph Steingass, A Comprehensive Persian-English Dictionary, on-line edition
  5. ^ a b c "Regions: Dushanbe & Surroundings". Official Website of the Tourism Authority of Tajikistan. Committee of Youth Affairs, Sports and Tourism. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  6. ^ "Dushanbe: History". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  7. ^ Ethnic rioting in Dushanbe, New York Times, 13 February 1990. Retrieved 18 October 2008
  8. ^ a b Updated Asian map of the Köppen climate classification system
  9. ^ Tajikistan: Citizens Ponder Bleak Future Amid Harsh Winter | Eurasianet.Org
  10. ^ "TAJIKISTAN - DUSHANBE". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  11. ^ "Climatological Normals of Dushanbe". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  12. ^ "Directory: World Airlines." Flight International. 30 March-5 April 2004. 78. "Titov Street 31/2, Dushanbe Airport, Dushanbe, 734006, Tajikistan."
  13. ^ "Contacts." Somon Air. Retrieved on 4 December 2010. "Contacts: 40, Titova Str. Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 734012." Address in Tajik: "734012, Таджикистан, Душанбе, ул. Титова, 40"[dead link]
  14. ^ Migrant Express Part 1: Good-bye Dushanbe , http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BBSardpSH0E
  15. ^ Shar-Shar auto tunnel links Tajikistan to China, The 2.3 km (1 mi) Shar-Shar car tunnel linking Tajikistan and China opened to traffic on Aug. 30.,Siyavush Mekhtan, 2009-09-03, http://centralasiaonline.com/en_GB/articles/caii/features/2009/09/03/feature-06
  16. ^ Chormaghzak Tunnel renamed Khatlon Tunnel and Shar-Shar Tunnel renamed Ozodi Tunnel, 12/02/2014 15:49, Payrav Chorshanbiyev, http://news.tj/en/news/chormaghzak-tunnel-renamed-khatlon-tunnel-and-shar-shar-tunnel-renamed-ozodi-tunnel
  17. ^ Genesis 1987, USSR
  18. ^ Population of the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1 January, State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2008 (Russian)
  19. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  20. ^ "Twin towns and Sister cities of Minsk [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
This article incorporates information from this version of the equivalent article on the Russian Wikipedia.

17: "The Cardinal of the Kremlin" by Tom Clancy 1988

External links[edit]