Labour Party (Netherlands)

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Labour Party
Partij van de Arbeid
Leader Diederik Samsom
Party Chairperson Hans Spekman
Leader in the Senate Marleen Barth
Leader in the House of Representatives Diederik Samsom
Leader in the European Parliament Thijs Berman
Founded 9 February 1946
Merger of SDAP, VDB, CDU
Headquarters Partijbureau PvdA
Herengracht 54 Amsterdam
Youth wing Young Socialists in the PvdA
Think Tank Wiardi Beckman Foundation
Ideology Social democracy[1]
Third Way[1]
Political position Centre-left[2][3]
International affiliation Progressive Alliance,
Socialist International (Observer)
European affiliation Party of European Socialists
European Parliament group Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
Colours      Red
Senate
14 / 75
House of Representatives
36 / 150
States-Provincial
107 / 566
European Parliament
3 / 26
Website
http://www.pvda.nl/
Politics of Netherlands
Political parties
Elections

The Labour Party (Dutch: Partij van de Arbeid, PvdA), is a major social-democratic[4] political party in the Netherlands. Since 5 November 2012, the PvdA has governed in coalition with the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) in the second Rutte cabinet.

Party history[edit]

1945–1965[edit]

Willem Drees, co-founder and party leader from 1946 until 1958, Prime Minister from 1948 until 1958.

The Labour Party (PvdA) was founded on 9 February 1946, through a merger of three parties: the Social Democratic Workers' Party (SDAP), the social-liberal Free-thinking Democratic League (VDB) and progressive-Protestant Christian Democratic Union (CDU).[5] They were joined by individuals from Catholic resistance group Christofoor and the Protestant parties Christian Historical Union (CHU) and Anti Revolutionary Party (ARP).

The founders of the PvdA wanted to create a broad party, breaking with the historic tradition of Pillarisation. This desire to come to a new political system was called the Doorbraak. The party combined socialists with liberal democrats and progressive Christians.[6] However, the party was unable to break Pillarisation. Instead the new party renewed the close ties that SDAP had with other socialist organisations (see linked organisations). In 1948 some liberal members, led by former VDB leader Pieter Oud, left the PvdA because they were unhappy with the socialist course of the PvdA. Together with the Freedom Party, they formed the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD), a conservative-liberal party.

Between 1946 and 1958, the PvdA formed coalition governments with the Catholic People's Party (KVP), and combinations of VVD, ARP and CHU. The KVP and the PvdA together had a large majority in parliament. Since 1948, these cabinets were led by PvdA Prime Minister Willem Drees. Under his leadership the Netherlands recovered from the war, began to build its welfare state and Indonesia became independent.

After the cabinet crisis of 1958, the PvdA was replaced by the VVD. The PvdA was in opposition until 1965. The electoral support of PvdA voters began to decline.

1965–1989[edit]

Joop den Uyl, leader from 1966 until 1986, Prime Minister from 1973 until 1977.

In 1965 a conflict in the KVP-ARP-CHU-VVD cabinet made continuation of the government impossible. The three confessional, Christian-influenced parties turned towards the PvdA. Together they formed the Cals cabinet. This cabinet was also short lived and conflict ridden. The conflicts culminated in the fall of the Cals cabinet over economic policy.

Meanwhile, a younger generation was attempting to gain control of the PvdA. A group of young PvdA members, calling themselves the New Left, changed the party. The New Left wanted to reform the PvdA: they believed the party should become oriented towards the new social movements, adopting their anti-parliamentary strategies and their issues, such as women's liberation, environmental conservation and Third World development. Prominent New Left members were Jan Nagel, André van der Louw and Bram Peper. One of their early victories followed the fall of the Cals cabinet. The party Congress adopted a motion that made it impossible for the PvdA to govern with the KVP and its Protestant allies. In response to the growing power of the New Left group, a group of older, centrist party members, led by Willem Drees' son, Willem Drees, Jr. founded the New Right. In 1970, it was clear that they lost the conflict within the party and left, founding the party Democratic Socialists '70 (DS70).

Under the New Left, the PvdA started a strategy of polarisation, striving for a cabinet based on a progressive majority in parliament. In order to form that cabinet the PvdA allied itself with the social-liberal party Democrats 66 (D66) and the progressive Christian Political Party of Radicals (PPR). The alliance was called the Progressive Accord (PAK). In the 1971 and 1972 elections, these three parties promised to form a cabinet with a radical common program after the elections. They were unable to gain a majority in either election. In 1971, they were kept out of cabinet, and the party of former PvdA members, DS70, became a partner of the First Biesheuvel cabinet.

In the 1972 elections, neither the PvdA and its allies or the KVP and its allies were able to gain a majority. The two sides were forced to work together. Joop den Uyl, the leader of the PvdA, led the cabinet. The cabinet was an extra-parliamentary cabinet and it was composed of members of the three progressive parties and members of the KVP and the ARP. The cabinet attempted to radically reform government, society and the economy, and a wide range of progressive social reforms were enacted during its time in office, such as significant increases in welfare payments and the indexation of benefits and the minimum wage to the cost of living.[7][8]

However, it also faced economic decline and was riddled with personal and ideological conflicts. Especially, the relationship between Prime Minister Den Uyl and the KVP Deputy Prime Minister, Van Agt was very problematic. The conflict culminated just before the 1977 elections, the cabinet fell. The 1977 general election were won by the PvdA, but the ideological and personal conflict between Van Agt and Den Uyl prevented the formation of a new centre-left cabinet. After very long cabinet formation talks, the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), itself a new Christian democratic political formation composed of KVP, CHU and ARP, formed government with the VVD, based on a very narrow majority. The PvdA was left in opposition.

In the 1981 general election, the incumbent CDA-VVD cabinet lost their majority. The CDA remained the largest party, but it was forced to co-operate with the PvdA and D66 (the PPR had left the alliance, after losing the 1977 elections). In the new cabinet led by Van Agt, Den Uyl returned to cabinet, now as Deputy Prime Minister. The personal and ideological conflict between Van Agt and Den Uyl culminated in the fall of the cabinet just months after it was formed. The VVD and the CDA regained their majority in the 1982 general election and retained it in the 1986 general election. The PvdA was left in opposition. During this period, the party began to reform. In 1986, Den Uyl left politics, appointing former trade union leader Wim Kok as his successor.

1989–2010[edit]

Wim Kok, party leader from 1986 until 2001, Prime Minister from 1994 until 2002.

After the 1989 general election, the PvdA returned to cabinet together with the CDA. Kok became Deputy Prime Minister to CDA leader Ruud Lubbers. The PvdA accepted the major economic reforms the previous Lubbers cabinets made, including privatisation of public enterprises and reform of the welfare state. They continued these policies in this cabinet. The cabinet faced heavy protest from the unions and saw major political conflict within the PvdA itself.

In the 1994 general election, the PvdA and CDA coalition lost its majority in parliament. The PvdA however emerged as the biggest party. Kok formed a government together with the conservative-liberal VVD and social-liberal D66. The so-called purple government was a political novelty, because the Christian Democrats had been in government since 1918. The first Kok cabinet continued the economic reforms, but combined this with a progressive outlook on ethical questions and promises of political reform. Kok became a very popular prime minister. Kok was not a partisan figure, but combined successful technocratic policies with the charisma of a national leader. In the 1998 general election, the cabinet was rewarded for its stewardship of the economy. The PvdA and the VVD increased their seats, at the cost of D66.

The PvdA was expected to perform very well in the 2002 general election. Kok left politics leaving the leadership of the party to his preferred successor Ad Melkert. But the political rise of Pim Fortuyn frustrated these hopes. The PvdA lost the 2002 elections, and the party's parliamentary representation fell from 45 seats to 23. The loss was blamed on the uncharismatic new leader Melkert, the perceived arrogance of the PvdA and the inability to answer to the right-wing populist issues Fortuyn raised, especially immigration and integration. Melkert resigned as party leader and was replaced by Jeltje van Nieuwenhoven. The PvdA was kept out of cabinet. The government formed by CDA, VVD and the Pim Fortuyn List (LPF) fell after a very short period.

Meanwhile, Wouter Bos, State Secretary in the second purple cabinet, was elected leader of the PvdA in a referendum among PvdA members, being elected closely to Jouke de Vries. He started to democratise the party organisation and began an ideological reorientation. In the 2003 general election, Wouter Bos managed to regain almost all seats lost in the previous election, and the PvdA was once again the second largest party in the Netherlands, only slightly smaller than the CDA. Personal and ideological conflicts between Bos and the CDA leader Jan Peter Balkenende prevented the formation of a CDA-PvdA cabinet. Instead, the PvdA was kept out of government by the formation of cabinet of the CDA, the VVD, and D66, the latter being former allies of PvdA. In the 2006 municipal elections, the renewed PvdA performed very well. The PvdA became by far the largest party nationally, while the three governing parties lost a considerable number of seats in municipal councils.

It was expected that the PvdA would do well in the upcoming 2006 general election[citation needed], but the party lost the race for Prime Minister to the CDA after suffering a loss of 9 seats. The PvdA now held only 33 seats, losing many votes to the Socialist Party (SP). The PvdA had previously distanced themselves from the idea of a voting bloc on the left. It did however join the fourth Balkenende cabinet o 22 February 2007, in which Wouter Bos became minister of Finance. In the aftermath of the lost elections the entire party executive stepped down on 26 April 2007. On Saturday 20 February 2010, the Labour Party withdrew from the government after arguments over the Dutch role in Afghanistan.

2010-present[edit]

Job Cohen, party leader from 2010 until 2012.

After withdrawing from the government, Wouter Bos announced he would leave politics to spend more time with his wife and two daughters. Then mayor of Amsterdam, Job Cohen, took his place as leader of the PvdA. In the 2010 election, the PvdA won 30 seats, a loss of three, and were narrowly overtaken by the VVD. After the election, a "Purple Coalition" was considered - it would have required a fourth party in addition to the VVD, PvdA and D66 - but talks broke down and the PvdA entered opposition.

Diederik Samsom, current party leader

Cohen resigned as leader in February 2012.[9] Diederik Samsom was subsequently elected the party leader. In the 2012 general election, the Labour Party won 38 seats, a gain of 8, defying initial predictions that the Socialist Party would overtake them. Following the election the party entered a governing coalition with the VVD under Mark Rutte, with Labour's Lodewijk Asscher becoming Deputy Prime Minister.

Ideology and issues[edit]

The PvdA began as a traditional social-democratic party, committed to building a welfare state. During the 1970s, it radicalised its program and included new issues, such as women's liberation, environmental conservation and Third World development. During the 1990s, it moderated its program, including reform of the welfare state and privatisation of public enterprise. In 2005, the party adopted a new program of principles, expressing a centre-left ideology. Its core issues are employment, social security and welfare, and investing in public education, public safety and health care.

Electoral results[edit]

Parliament[edit]

Election year House of Representatives Government Notes
# of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/–
1982 2,503,517 30.4 (#1)
47 / 150
Increase 3 in opposition
1986 3,051,678 33.3 (#2)
52 / 150
Increase 5 in opposition
1989 2,835,251 31.9 (#2)
49 / 150
Decrease 3 in coalition
1994 2,153,135 24.0 (#1)
37 / 150
Decrease 12 in coalition
1998 2,494,555 29.0 (#1)
45 / 150
Increase 8 in coalition
2002 1,436,023 15.1 (#4)
23 / 150
Decrease 22 in opposition
2003 2,631,363 27.2 (#2)
42 / 150
Increase 19 in opposition
2006 2,085,077 21.2 (#2)
33 / 150
Decrease 9 in coalition
2010 1,848,805 19.6 (#2)
30 / 150
Decrease 3 in opposition
2012 2,340,750 24.8 (#2)
38 / 150
Increase 8 in coalition

European Parliament[edit]

Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Notes
1979 1,722,240 30.4 (#2)
9 / 25
1984 1,785,165 33.7 (#1)
9 / 25
Steady 0
1989 1,609,408 30.7 (#2)
8 / 25
Decrease 1
1994 945,843 22.9 (#2)
8 / 31
Steady 0
1999 712,929 20.1 (#2)
6 / 31
Decrease 2
2004 1,124,549 23.6 (#2)
7 / 27
Increase 1
2009 548,691 12.1 (#3)
3 / 25
Decrease 4
2014 444,388 9.4 (#6)
3 / 26
Steady 0

Representation[edit]

Year HoR S EP SP Fractievoorzitter Lijsttrekker Cabinet Party Chair Members
1946 29 14 n/a 157 Marinus van der Goes van Naters Several Willem Drees, Jaap Burger, Marinus van der Goes van Naters, Dolf Joekes, Piet Lieftinck, Sicco Mansholt, Willem Schermerhorn, Koos Vorrink and Hein Vos Willem Schermerhorn (PM) Koos Vorrink 114558
1947 29 14 n/a 157 Marinus van der Goes van Naters no election Willem Schermerhorn (PM) Koos Vorrink 108813
1948 27 14 n/a 157 Marinus van der Goes van Naters Several Willem Drees, Marinus van der Goes van Naters, Dolf Joekes, Piet Lieftinck, Sicco Mansholt, Willem Schermerhorn, Koos Vorrink and Hein Vos Willem Drees (PM) Koos Vorrink 117244
1949 27 14 n/a 157 Marinus van der Goes van Naters No election Willem Drees (PM) Koos Vorrink 109608
1950 27 14 n/a 156 Marinus van der Goes van Naters No election Willem Drees (PM) Koos Vorrink 105609
1951 27 14 n/a 156 Leendert Donker No election Willem Drees (PM) Koos Vorrink 111885
1952 30 14 n/a 156 Jaap Burger Willem Drees Willem Drees (PM) Koos Vorrink 111351
1953 30 14 n/a 156 Jaap Burger no elections Willem Drees (PM) Hein Vos (interim) 112823
1954 30 14 n/a 180 Jaap Burger no elections Willem Drees (PM) Hein Vos (interim) 119561
1955 30 14 n/a 180 Jaap Burger no elections Willem Drees (PM) Evert Vermeer 124641
1956 34 22 n/a 180 Jaap Burger Willem Drees Willem Drees (PM) Evert Vermeer 142140
1957 34 22 n/a 180 Jaap Burger no elections Willem Drees (PM) Evert Vermeer 142849
1958 34 22 n/a 178 Jaap Burger no elections Willem Drees (PM) Evert Vermeer 137778
1959 48 22 n/a 178 Jaap Burger several Jaap Burger, H.J. Hofstra, Ivo Samkalden, Ko Suurhoff, Anne Vondeling and Joan Willems opposition Evert Vermeer 147047
1960 48 23 n/a 178 Jaap Burger no elections opposition Hein Vos (interim) 142853
1961 48 23 n/a 178 Jaap Burger no elections opposition Ko Suurhoff 138829
1962 48 23 n/a 207 Jaap Burger no elections opposition Ko Suurhoff 139375
1963 43 25 n/a 207 Anne Vondeling several Ko Suurhoff, Anne Vondeling and Joan Willems opposition Ko Suurhoff 138567
1964 43 25 n/a 207 Anne Vondeling No elections opposition Ko Suurhoff 142426
1965 43 25 n/a 207 Gerard Nederhorst No elections Anne Vondeling (VPM) Sjeng Tans 140389
1966 43 22 n/a 170 Gerard Nederhorst No elections Opposition Sjeng Tans 134476
1967 37 22 n/a 170 Joop den Uyl Joop den Uyl Opposition Sjeng Tans 130960
1968 37 22 n/a 170 Joop den Uyl No elections Opposition Sjeng Tans 116736
1969 37 20 n/a 170 Joop den Uyl No elections Opposition Anne Vondeling 107005
1970 37 20 n/a 172+711 Joop den Uyl No elections Opposition Anne Vondeling 98671
1971 39 18 n/a 172+711 Joop den Uyl Joop den Uyl Opposition André van der Louw 96337
1972 43 18 n/a 172+711 Joop den Uyl Joop den Uyl Opposition André van der Louw 94229
1973 43 18 n/a 172+711 Ed van Thijn No elections Joop den Uyl (PM) André van der Louw 97787
1974 43 21 n/a 217+181 Ed van Thijn No elections Joop den Uyl (PM) Ien van den Heuvel-de Blank 103140
1975 43 21 n/a 217+181 Ed van Thijn No elections Joop den Uyl (PM) Ien van den Heuvel-de Blank 100524
1976 43 21 n/a 217+181 Ed van Thijn No elections Joop den Uyl (PM) Ien van den Heuvel-de Blank 95548
1977 53 25 n/a 217+181 Ed van Thijn Joop den Uyl Opposition Ien van den Heuvel-de Blank 109659
1978 53 25 n/a 254+161 Joop den Uyl No elections Opposition Ien van den Heuvel-de Blank 121274
1979 53 25 9 254+161 Joop den Uyl No elections Opposition Max van den Berg 118522
1980 53 26 9 254+161 Joop den Uyl No elections Opposition Max van den Berg 112929
1981 44 28 9 254+161 Wim Meijer Joop den Uyl Joop den Uyl (VPM) Max van den Berg 109557
1982 47 28 9 177+111 Joop den Uyl Joop den Uyl Opposition Max van den Berg 105486
1983 47 27 9 177+111 Joop den Uyl No elections Opposition Max van den Berg 101724
1984 47 27 9 177+111 Joop den Uyl No elections Opposition Max van den Berg 99347
1985 47 27 9 177+111 Joop den Uyl No elections Opposition Max van den Berg 100979
1986 52 27 9 177 Wim Kok Joop den Uyl Opposition Stan Poppe (interim) 103760
1987 52 26 9 262 Wim Kok No elections Opposition Marjanne Sint 101019
1988 52 26 9 262 Wim Kok No elections Opposition Marjanne Sint 96722
1989 49 26 8 262 Thijs Wöltgens Wim Kok Wim Kok (VPM) Marjanne Sint 96600
1990 49 26 8 262 Thijs Wöltgens No elections Wim Kok (VPM) Marjanne Sint 91784
1991 49 16 8 166 Thijs Wöltgens No elections Wim Kok (VPM) Frits Castricum (interim) 79059
1992 49 16 8 166 Thijs Wöltgens No elections Wim Kok (VPM) Felix Rottenberg 73807
1993 49 16 8 166 Thijs Wöltgens No elections Wim Kok (VPM) Felix Rottenberg 69464
1994 37 16 8 166 Jacques Wallage Wim Kok Wim Kok (PM) Felix Rottenberg 68053
1995 37 14 8 142 Jacques Wallage No elections Wim Kok (PM) Felix Rottenberg 64523
1996 37 14 8 142 Jacques Wallage No elections Wim Kok (PM) Ruud Vreeman (interim) 60907
1997 37 14 8 142 Jacques Wallage No elections Wim Kok (PM) Karin Adelmund 61720
1998 45 14 8 142 Ad Melkert Wim Kok Wim Kok (PM) Ruud Vreeman (interim) 61600
1999 45 15 6 154 Ad Melkert No elections Wim Kok (PM) Marijke van Hees 60621
2000 45 15 6 154 Ad Melkert No elections Wim Kok (PM) Mariëtte Hamer (interim) 57374
2001 45 15 6 154 Ad Melkert No elections Wim Kok (PM) Ruud Koole 58426
2002 23 15 6 154 Jeltje van Nieuwenhoven (interim) Ad Melkert Opposition Ruud Koole 57374
2003 42 19 6 197 Wouter Bos Wouter Bos Opposition Ruud Koole 60062
2004 42 19 7 197 Wouter Bos No elections Opposition Ruud Koole 61935
2005 42 19 7 197 Wouter Bos No elections Opposition Michiel van Hulten 61111
2006 33 19 7 197 Wouter Bos Wouter Bos Opposition Michiel van Hulten 61913
2007 33 14 7 114 Jacques Tichelaar No elections Wouter Bos (VPM) Lilianne Ploumen ?
2008 33 14 7 114 Mariëtte Hamer No elections Wouter Bos (VPM) Lilianne Ploumen ?
2009 33 14 3 114 Mariëtte Hamer No elections Wouter Bos (VPM) Lilianne Ploumen ?
2010 30 14 3 114 Job Cohen Job Cohen Opposition Lilianne Ploumen ?
2011 30 14 3 107 Job Cohen No elections Opposition Lilianne Ploumen ?
2012 38 14 3 107 Diederik Samsom Diederik Samsom Lodewijk Ascher (VPM) Hans Spekman ?

1: In combined PvdA/PPR groups (estimate).

Members of the cabinet[edit]

Ten members of the second Rutte cabinet (2012-):

Members of the House of Representatives[edit]

After the 2012 election, the party has 38 representatives in the House of Representatives. In November 2014, two members left the party:

Members of the Senate[edit]

Following the 2011 Senate election, the party has 14 representatives in the Senate:

Members of the European Parliament[edit]

PvdA MEPs sit as part of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats, the parliamentary group of the Party of European Socialists.

After the 2014 European Parliament elections, the party has 3 representatives in the European Parliament:

Municipal and provincial government[edit]

Provincial government[edit]

Three of the twelve King's Commissioners are members of the PvdA (Drenthe, Flevoland and Groningen). The party cooperates in eight States Deputed (Groningen, Friesland, Drenthe, Gelderland, Flevoland, North Holland, Limburg and Zeeland).

Municipal government[edit]

100 of the 379 mayors of the Netherlands are members of the PvdA (September 2010). The best known of them is Ahmed Aboutaleb, mayor of Rotterdam. The party cooperates in many municipal executives, among others the big four (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht). The PvdA obtained 799 seats in the 2014 municipal elections.

Electorate[edit]

Historically, the PvdA was supported by the working class. Currently the party is supported relatively well by civil servants, migrants, and the working class. The party has historically been very strong in the major cities, such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam, and in the northern provinces of Groningen, Friesland and Drenthe.

Organisation[edit]

Leadership[edit]

Wouter Bos was party leader between 2002 and 2008
Anne Vondeling was party leader between 1962 and 1966

Organisational structure[edit]

The highest organ of the PvdA is the Congress, formed by delegates from the municipal branches. It convenes once every year. It appoints the party board, decides the order of candidates on electoral lists for the Senate, House of Representatives and European Parliament and has the final say over the party program. Since 2002, a referendum of all members has partially replaced the Congress. Both the lijsttrekker of the House of Representatives candidate list, who is the political leader of the party, and the party chairman, who leads the party organisation, are selected by such a referendum. In 2002, Wouter Bos won the PvdA leadership election.

Members[edit]

The PvdA currently has 62,000 members.[citation needed] They are organised in over 500 municipal branches.

Linked organisations[edit]

The Young Socialists in the PvdA is the youth organisation of the PvdA. It is a member of Young European Socialists and the International Union of Socialist Youth. They publish the periodical Lava.

Rood is the party periodical. It appears eight times a year.

The scientific institute (or think tank) of the PvdA is the Wiardi Beckman Foundation. It publishes the periodical Socialisme & Democratie.

The PvdA participates in the Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy, a democracy assistance organisation of seven Dutch political parties.

International organisations[edit]

The PvdA is a full member of the Party of European Socialists and an observer member of the Socialist International, having downgraded their membership in December 2012.[10] The PvdA joined the Progressive Alliance, a new international network for social-democratic political parties, at its founding event on 22 May 2013.[11]

Pillarised organisations[edit]

During the period of strong pillarisation the PvdA had strong links with the social-democratic broadcasting organisation VARA Broadcasting Association, the Dutch Association of Trade Unions, and the paper Het Vrije Volk.

Relationships to other parties[edit]

PvdA activists in a demonstration (October 2004)

Historically, the PvdA has co-operated in cabinets with the Christian-democratic Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Political Party of Radicals (PPR), Catholic People's Party (KVP), Anti Revolutionary Party (ARP), Christian Historical Union (CHU) and ChristianUnion (CU) parties and the liberal parties Democrats 66 (D66) and People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD). Between 1971 and 1977, PvdA was allied with D66 and the PPR. After 1977 until 1989, it was closely allied to D66. Since 2003, the relationship between the PvdA and D66 has considerably worsened, at first because PvdA was in opposition to the Second Balkenende cabinet which D66 had co-operated in.

During the governance of the second and third Balkenende cabinet, the Socialist Party and the GreenLeft were calling for closer cooperation with the PvdA, calling to form a shadow government against the Balkenende cabinet, PvdA leader Bos held this off.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Parties and Elections in Europe: The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe, by Wolfram Nordsieck
  2. ^ Josep M. Colomer (24 July 2008). Comparative European Politics. Taylor & Francis. p. 221f. ISBN 978-0-203-94609-1. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  3. ^ Score 4.0/10 in 2003 Chapel Hill expert survey, see Hooghe et al. (2003) Chapel Hill Survey
  4. ^ The PvdA is widely described as a social-democratic political party:
  5. ^ Gebhard Moldenhauer (1 January 2001). Die Niederlande und Deutschland: einander kennen und verstehen. Waxmann Verlag. p. 113. ISBN 978-3-89325-747-8. 
  6. ^ Ton Notermans (January 2001). Social Democracy and Monetary Union. Berghahn Books. p. 226. ISBN 978-1-57181-806-5. 
  7. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/booksid=ZIoKqEYDUUC&pg=PA59&dq=joop+den+uyl+social+reforms&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false
  8. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/booksid=w2exQnhFNyYC&pg=PA235&dq=joop+den+uyl+reforms+social+security&hl=en#v=onepage&q=joop%20den%20uyl%20reforms%20social%20security&f=false
  9. ^ Dutch Labour Party leader resigns
  10. ^ http://www.pvda.nl/berichten/2012/12/PvdA+steunt+oprichting+Progressive+Alliance
  11. ^ http://www.pvda.nl/berichten/2013/05/Progressive+Alliance+opgericht+in+Leipzig/

Further reading[edit]

  • Orlow, Dietrich. Common Destiny: A Comparative History of the Dutch, French, and German Social Democratic Parties, 1945-1969 (2000) online

External links[edit]