Dutch Reformed Church

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Dutch Reformed Church
Calvin.png
Classification Protestant
Orientation Reformed
Origin 4 October 1571
Emden, Germany
Joined the Protestant Church in the Netherlands in 2004
Separations Restored Reformed Church (2004)
Congregations 1,350 at the time of merger
Members 2 million at the time of merger

The Dutch Reformed Church (in Dutch: Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk or NHK) was a Reformed Christian denomination in the Netherlands. It developed during the Protestant Reformation, with its base in what became known as the Roman Catholic Church. It was founded in the 1570s and lasted until 2004, the year it merged with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands to form the Protestant Church in the Netherlands. At the time of the merger, the Church had 2 million members organised in 1,350 congregations.[citation needed] A minority of members of the Church chose not to participate in the merger. These former members re-organized as the Restored Reformed Church.

It was one of the many local churches reconstituted across Europe during the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. While the Dutch Reformed Church was based in the Netherlands, other churches holding similar theological views were founded in England, Scotland, Switzerland, Germany, France, and Hungary. The theology and practice of the Dutch Reformed Church, and its sister churches in the countries named, were based on the teachings of John Calvin and the many other Reformers of his time.

History[edit]

The Reformation was a time of religious violence and persecution by the established Catholic Church and governments, in some cases. Many leaders of the newly established Reformed congregations fled abroad. The first Synod of 23 Dutch Reformed leaders was held in October 1571 in the German city of Emden. The Synod of Emden is generally considered to be the founding of the Dutch Reformed Church, the oldest of the Reformed churches in the Netherlands.

The Reformed Church in the village of St. Laurens, the Netherlands

The first Synod to be located in the Dutch Republic was held in Dordrecht in 1578. This synodical meeting is not to be confused with the better known Second Synod of Dort of 1618. In the latter meeting, the Church fathers expelled Arminians and added the Canons of Dort were added to the Confessions. The Canons of Dordt, together with the previously adopted Belgic Confession and the Heidelberg Catechism, were called the Drie formulieren van Enigheid (Three Forms of Unity). Most conflicts and splits in the Church arose because of disagreement over the substance and interpretation of these doctrinal documents. The government of the Dutch Republic, which had instigated the Arminians' expulsion, subsequently prohibited the Reformed Church from assembling synodically. No Synod was held in the Netherlands until after the end of the Republic in 1795.

Before the demise of the Dutch Republic in 1795, the Dutch Reformed Church enjoyed the status of "public" or "privileged" church. Though it was never formally adopted as the state religion, the law demanded that every public official should be a communicant member. Consequently, the Church had close relations with the Dutch government. A privilege of members of the Dutch Reformed Church was that they could have their businesses open on Sundays, otherwise considered a religious day and not one for business.

Further Reformation and the 19th century[edit]

The 17th and early 18th centuries were the age of the Dutch Nadere Reformatie (best translated in English as the Further Reformation).

In the 19th century, theological liberalism led to splits in the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1834, the minister Hendrik de Cock of the town of Ulrum was told by church leaders that he could not preach against certain colleagues, whom he believed held erroneous views. He and his congregation seceded from the Dutch Reformed Church. In time, the Afscheiding (the Separation) led to the departure of 120 congregations from the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1886, another separation, the Doleantie, occurred, with this separation being led by Dutch Reformed businessman, theologian and politician Abraham Kuyper.

20th century to the present[edit]

The Dutch Reformed Church remained the largest church body in the Netherlands until the middle of the 20th century, when it was overtaken by the Roman Catholic Church. The rapid secularization of the Netherlands in the 1960s dramatically reduced participation in the mainstream Protestant church. From the '60s onward, a number of attempts were made to effect a reunion with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland). This led to the two churches uniting with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Evangelisch-Lutherse Kerk in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden) to establish the Protestant Church in the Netherlands in 2004.

The 2004 merger led to a schism in which a number of congregations and members of the Dutch Reformed Church separated to form the Restored Reformed Church (Hersteld Hervormde Kerk). Estimations of their membership vary from 35,000 up to 70,000 in about 120 local congregations served by 88 ministers. The Restored Reformed Church disapproves of the pluralistic nature of the merged church, which they allege contains partly contradicting Reformed and Lutheran confessions. This conservative group also opposes the ordination of women and the blessing of same-sex unions in Christian churches, which have been adopted as practices by the merged church.

International distribution[edit]

The Dutch Reformed Church (Grotekerk) in Graaff-Reinet, South Africa.

Africa[edit]

Dutch migrants carried the Dutch Reformed Church with them, planting several Reformed denominations in South Africa, including the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa (Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk), the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk, the Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika, the Afrikaans Protestant Church (Afrikaanse Protestantse Kerk), and the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa.

Asia[edit]

Through the Dutch East India Company and its workers, the Dutch Reformed Church was established in Ceylon in 1642. The Dutch Reformed Church of Ceylon officially changed its name in 2007 to the Christian Reformed Church of Sri Lanka to reflect its Christian identity in the nation, rather than on its Dutch colonial heritage. As of 2007, its membership stands around 5,000, comprising both communicant and baptized members in 29 congregations, preaching stations, and mission outposts.[citation needed]

Americas[edit]

The Dutch Reformed Church went with migrants to the Americas, beginning in 1628 in New Amsterdam. St. Thomas Reformed Church was formed in 1660 in St. Thomas, Danish West Indies, and was the first Dutch Reformed Church in the Caribbean. During the period of Dutch settlement in Brazil, colonists organized the Reformed Church in Pernambuco.

In Canada and the United States, the Christian Reformed Church in North America (CRCNA) is the largest among the several churches with Dutch Reformed heritage. The next largest is the Reformed Church in America (RCA). Smaller related denominations and federations are the Canadian and American Reformed Churches, the Free Reformed Churches of North America (FRC), the Heritage Reformed Congregations (HRC), the Netherlands Reformed Congregations (NRC), the Protestant Reformed Churches in America (PRC), and the United Reformed Churches in North America (URC). Former US Presidents Martin Van Buren and Theodore Roosevelt, both of Dutch descent, were affiliated with the Dutch Reformed Church

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